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Encyclopedia > Japan Maritime Self Defense Force
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
海上自衛隊
Personnel
Sailors 45,800 (2003 est.)
Strength
Major Surface Combatants 146 (2003 est.)
Fixed Wing Aircraft 179
Helicopters 135

The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (海上自衛隊 Kaijō Jieitai?), or JMSDF, is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan and formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II.[1] The force is based strictly on defensive armament, largely lacking the offensive weapons typically handled by naval forces of equivalent size. Currently, its main tasks are to maintain control of the nation's sea lanes and to patrol territorial waters. Recently it has also stepped up its participation in UN-led peacekeeping operations (PKOs). Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... Japans honor guard often marches to greet the arrival of foreign dignitaries. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... UN Peacekeepers in Eritrea. ...


The Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF) has an authorized strength of 46,000 and maintains some 45,800 personnel and operates 146 major warships, including twenty-one submarines, fifty-five destroyers and frigates, thirty-three mine warfare ships and boats, nine patrol craft, and nine amphibious ships. It also flies some 179 fixed-wing aircraft and 135 helicopters. Most of these aircraft are used in antisubmarine and mine warfare operations.[2] USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to destroy ships or submarines. ...


The ship prefix for JMSDF ships is JDS (JMSDF Defense Ship). A ship prefix is a combination of letters, usually abbreviations, used in front of the name of a civilian or naval ship. ...

Contents

History

Formation

Japanese Sailors aboard the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) training vessel JDS Kashima (TV 3508) stand in ranks after docking in Pearl Harbor.
Japanese Sailors aboard the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) training vessel JDS Kashima (TV 3508) stand in ranks after docking in Pearl Harbor.

Following the defeat of Japan during World War II, the Imperial Japanese Navy was dissolved. In the 1947 Constitution, Article 9 specified that "The Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes." Over the years, the Japanese people have debated over whether this article allows for military forces to be kept for the purposes of self-defense, with the vast majority agreeing. Furthermore, due to the Cold War, Japan's greatest ally, the United States, was also agreeable to the Japanese government providing for a part of its own defense instead of fully relying on American forces. The JMSDF was then formed as the naval branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Force (JSDF) following the passage of the 1954 Self-Defense Forces Law. Download high resolution version (1200x787, 291 KB)Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (May 4, 2004) - Japanese Sailors aboard the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) training vessel JDS Kashima (TV 3508) stand in ranks after docking in Pearl Harbor. ... Download high resolution version (1200x787, 291 KB)Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (May 4, 2004) - Japanese Sailors aboard the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) training vessel JDS Kashima (TV 3508) stand in ranks after docking in Pearl Harbor. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... The Constitution of Japan has the Article 9 No War clause. ... The Cold War was the period of protracted conflict and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the late 1940s until the late 1980s. ... The Japanese Self-Defense Forces (Japanese: 自衛隊, Jieitai) or JSDF, are the military forces in Japan that were established after the end of World War II. The force has been engaged in no real combat but has been engaged in some international peacekeeping operations. ...


Cold War

The first ships in the JMSDF were former US Navy destroyers, transferred to Japanese control in 1954. In 1956, the JMSDF received its first domestically produced destroyer since World War II, the Harukaze. Throughout the Cold War, due to the size and power of the Soviet Navy's submarine forces, the JMSDF was tasked primarily an anti-submarine role. It mainly used its large force of destroyers, frigates and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) helicopters for this. The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Sailing frigates were 4th, 5th, or 6th-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... Robinson Helicopter Company (USA) R44, a four seat development of the R22 A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors, each having two or more rotor blades. ...


Post Cold War

Following the end of the Cold War, the role of the JMSDF has been vastly changed. Starting with a mission to Cambodia in 1993, it has been active in a number of United Nations-led peace keeping operations throughout Asia. In 1993, it commissioned its first Aegis destroyer, the DD173 Kongō. Following an increase in tensions with North Korea following the 1993 test of the Nodong-1 missile, the JMSDF has also stepped up its role in theater air defense of Japan. It has also been active in many joint naval exercises with the United States. During the US-led Operation Enduring Freedom, the JMSDF dispatched a number of its destroyers on a rotating schedule to the Indian Ocean in an escort role for allied vessels.... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... USS Lake Champlain, a Ticonderoga-class Aegis guided missile cruiser, launched in 1987. ... The Kongō class of guided missile destroyers, a modification of the U.S. Navy Arleigh Burke class (Flight I), serves as the core ship of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF)s Escort Flotillas. ... The Nodong-1, sometimes Rodong-1, is a single stage, mobile liquid propellant medium range ballistic missile developed by North Korea. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... Combatants United States Canada United Kingdom Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only) Northern Alliance Taliban al-Qaeda Abu Sayyaf Jemaah Islamiyah Commanders General Tommy Franks Brig. ...


Capabilities and Recent Developments

JDS Yugiri anchored in the Solent, as part of the Trafalgar 200 celebrations.
JDS Yugiri anchored in the Solent, as part of the Trafalgar 200 celebrations.

While the JMSDF is known in particular for its mineclearing capability, MSDF training also emphasizes both antisubmarine and antiaircraft warfare. Defense planners believe the most effective approach to combating submarines entails mobilizing all available weapons, including surface combatants, submarines, aircraft, and helicopters, and the numbers and armament of these weapons were increased in the Mid-Term Defense Estimate. A critical weakness remains, however, in the ability to defend such weapons against air attack. Because most of the MSDF's air arm is detailed to antisubmarine warfare, the ASDF has to be relied on to provide air cover, an objective that competes unsuccessfully with the ASDF's primary mission of air defense of the home islands. Extended patrols over sea lanes are also beyond the ASDF's capabilities. The fleet's capacity to provide ship-based anti-air-attack protection is limited by the absence of aircraft carriers and the inadequate number of shipborne long-range surface-to-air missiles and close-range weapons. The fleet is also short of underway replenishment ships and seriously deficient in all areas of logistic support. These weaknesses seriously compromise the ability of the MSDF to fulfill its mission and to operate independently of the United States Air Force and the United States Seventh Fleet. In August 2003, a new "helicopter destroyer" class was requested; the size of the class has most non-MSDF analysts referring to it as a "helicopter carrier", which is problematic as carriers are prohibited by the pacifist constitutions, which consider carriers to be an offensive weapon. Image File history File linksMetadata WY2T1426_japan2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata WY2T1426_japan2. ... The Asagiri class destroyer was built in the mid-1980s and late 1980s and is in service with Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force. ... The Japan Air Self-Defense Force ), or JASDF, is the aviation branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and other aerospace operations. ... Aircraft of the 379th Air Expeditionary Wing and coalition counterparts stationed together at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, in southwest Asia, fly over the desert. ... The United States 7th Fleet is a naval military unit based in Yokosuka, Japan, with units positioned near South Korea and Japan. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for August, 2003. ...


Japan and Trafalgar 200

Japan participated in the UK Trafalgar 200 celebrations, sending two vessels - the JDS Kashima and JDS Yugiri. The mayor of Penzance taking part in the re-enactment of the announcement of the death of Nelson from the Union Hotel. ...


Organization

The MSDF is commanded by the chief of the maritime staff and includes the maritime staff office, the self-defense fleet, five regional district commands, the air-training squadron and various support units, such as hospitals and schools. The maritime staff office, located in Tokyo, serves the chief of staff in command and supervision of the force. The self-defense fleet, headquartered at Yokosuka, is charged with defense of all waters around the Japanese Archipelago. It commands four escort flotillas (two based in Yokosuka and one each in Sasebo and Maizuru), the fleet air force headquartered at Atsugi, two submarine flotillas based at Kure and Yokosuka, two mine-sweeping flotillas based at Kure and Yokosuka and the fleet training command at Yokosuka.[3] Tokyo , literally Eastern capital)   is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, the home of the Japanese Imperial Family, and the de facto[1] capital of Japan. ... Categories: Cities in Kanagawa Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ...

AOE423 Tokiwa and DD111 Onami at the Port of Shimizu
AOE423 Tokiwa and DD111 Onami at the Port of Shimizu
  • Minister of State for Defence
    • JMSDF Chief of Staff / Maritime Staff Office
    • Self Defense Fleet
      • Fleet Escort Force
        • Escort Flotilla 1
        • Escort Flotilla 2
        • Escort Flotilla 3
        • Escort Flotilla 4
        • Fleet Training Command
        • 1st Replenishment Squadron
        • 1st Transportation Squadron
      • Fleet Air Force
        • Fleet Air Wing 1(P-3C UH-60J)
        • Fleet Air Wing 2(P-3C UH-60J)
        • Fleet Air Wing 4(P-3C UH-60J)
        • Fleet Air Wing 5(P-3C UH-60J)
        • Fleet Air Wing 21(SH-60J/K S-61A)
        • Fleet Air Wing 22(SH-60J)
        • Fleet Air Wing 31(US-1A EP-3 OP-3C UP-3D LC-90 U-36A)
        • Fleet Squadron 51(US-1A-kai P-3C UP-3C/D OP-3 SH-60J/K OH-6DA MCH-101)
        • Fleet Squadron 61(YS-11M/MA LC-90)
        • Fleet Squadron 111(MH-53E)
      • Fleet Submarine Force
        • Submarine Flotilla 1
        • Submarine Flotilla 2
        • Submarine Training Command
      • Mine Warfare Force
      • Fleet Research & Development Command
      • Fleet Intelligence Command
      • Oceanographic Command
    • Air Training Command
      • Simousa Air Training Group(P-3C YS-11TA UH-60J)
      • Tokusima Air Training Group(TC-90 UC-90 UH-60J)
      • Ozuki Air Training Group(T-5 UH-60J)
    • Maritime Materiel Command
      • Ship Supply Depot
      • Air Supply Depot
    • Training Squadron
    • Communication Command
    • JMSDF Military Police
    • JMSDF Staff College
    • Maritime Officer Candidate School
    • 1st Service School
    • 2nd Service School
    • 3rd Service School
    • 4th Service School

Image File history File links JMSDF_AOE423_DD111. ... Image File history File links JMSDF_AOE423_DD111. ... The Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk is a medium-lift utility or assault helicopter used by over 20 nations. ... The Sikorsky SH-60 Seahawk (or Sea Hawk) is a twin-engine anti-submarine warfare (ASW) helicopter, based on the airframe of the UH-60 Black Hawk. ... For the original Viking use of the name, see Sea-King. ... United States Highway 1 is a United States highway which parallels the east coast of the United States. ... The Lockheed EP-3E Orion Aries II is a turboprop-based signals reconnaissance aircraft, operated by the United States Navy. ... King Air is the name for a line of twin-turboprop aircraft produced by the Beech Aircraft Corporation (now the Beechcraft Division of Raytheon Aircraft). ... The AgustaWestland EH101 is a medium-lift helicopter originally developed as a joint venture between Westland Helicopters in the UK and Agusta in Italy for military applications but also marketed for civil use. ... The NAMC YS-11 is a turboprop airliner built by a Japanese consortium, the Nippon Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation. ... The Sikorsky S-65 is a heavy transport helicopter originally developed for use by the United States Marine Corps, who designated it the CH-53 Sea Stallion. ... Tokushima (徳島市; -shi) is the capital city of Tokushima Prefecture on Shikoku island of Japan. ... King Air is the name for a line of twin-turboprop aircraft produced by the Beech Aircraft Corporation (now the Beechcraft Division of Raytheon Aircraft). ... The TREMEC T-5 is a 5-speed manual transmission for longitudinal engine automobiles. ... Categories: Cities in Kanagawa Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Kure (呉市; -shi) is a city located in Hiroshima, Japan. ... Illuminated by the Albuquerque Bridge, Japanese volunteers place candle lit lanterns into the Sasebo River during the Obon festival. ... Maizuru (舞鶴市; -shi) is a city located in Kyoto, Japan, on an inlet of the Sea of Japan. ... Mutsu (むつ市; -shi) is a city located in Aomori in Tohoku region of Japan. ...

Escort Forces

Each Escort force is formed as an 8-8 fleet of 8 destroyers and 8 on-board helicopters, a modification of the old Japanese Navy fleet layouts of 8 battleships and 8 cruisers. Each fleet is composed of one helicopter destroyer (DDH) acting as a command ship, two guided-missile destroyers (DDG) and 5 standard or ASW destroyers (DD).

  • First Escort Force - Yokosuka
  • Second Escort Force - Sasebo
  • Third Escort Force - Maizuru
  • Fourth Escort Force - Kure

District Forces

Five district units act in concert with the fleet to guard the waters of their jurisdictions and provide shore-based support. Each district is home to a major JMSDF base and its supporting troops and staff. Furthermore, each district is home to one to two regional escort squadrons, composed of two to three destroyers or destroyer escorts (DE). The destroyers tend to be of older classes, mainly former escort force ships. The destroyer escorts, on the other hand, tend to be purpose built vessels. Each district also has a number of minesweeping ships.


Fleet Air Force

The Fleet Air Force is tasked with patrol, ASW and rescue tasks. It is composed primarily of 7 aviation groups. Prominent bases are maintained at Kanoya, Hachinohe, Atsugi, Naha, Tateyama, Oomura and Iwakuni. The Fleet Air Force is built up mainly with patrol aircraft such as the Lockheed P-3 Orion, rescue aircraft such as the US-1A and helicopters such as the SH-60J. In the JMSDF, helicopters deployed to each escort force are actually members of Fleet Air Force squadrons based on land. Kanoya (鹿屋市; -shi) is a city located in Kagoshima, Japan. ... Hachinohe (八戸市; -shi) is a city located in Aomori, Japan. ... Atsugi (Japanese: 厚木市; -shi) is a city located in Japan. ... Naha (那覇市; -shi) is the capital city of 沖縄県 Okinawa Prefecture (Okinawan Uchinā) in Japan. ... Tateyama (Japanese: 館山市; -shi) is a city located at the southern tip of the Boso Peninsula in Chiba, Japan. ... Ōmura (大村市; -shi) is a city located in Nagasaki, Japan. ... Iwakuni, including the Kintai Bridge Iwakuni (岩国市; -shi) is a city located in Yamaguchi, Japan. ... The Lockheed SR-71, remarkably advanced for its time and unsurpassed in many areas of performance The Lockheed U-2 first flew in 1955 providing much needed intelligence on Soviet bloc countries Lockheed Corporation was an aerospace company founded in 1912 which merged with Martin Marietta in 1995 to form... The Lockheed P-3 Orion is a maritime patrol aircraft of the United States military used primarily for maritime patrol, reconnaissance, and anti-submarine warfare. ... The ShinMaywa PS-1 and US-1 (Japanese: 新明和 PS-1, US-1) are large STOL aircraft designed for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and air-sea rescue (SAR) work respectively. ... SH-60F of the United States Navy, with external fuel tank. ...


Special Forces

Special Forces units consist of the following:

  • SBU (Special Boarding Unit)
In Japanese, known as "特別警備隊(Tokubetsu keibi tai)".
  • MIT (Maritime Interception Team)
In Japanese, known as "護衛艦付き立ち入り検査隊(Goeikan-zuki Tachi'iri Kensa Tai)".

Recruitment and Training

MSDF recruits receive three months of basic training followed by courses in patrol, gunnery, mine sweeping, convoy operations and maritime transportation. Flight students, all upper-secondary school graduates, enter a two-year course. Officer candidate schools offer six-month courses to qualified enlisted personnel and those who have completed flight school. Graduates of four-year universities, the four-year National Defense Academy, and particularly outstanding enlisted personnel undergo a one-year officer course at the Officer Candidate School at Etajima (site of the former Imperial Naval Academy). Special advanced courses for officers are also available in such fields as submarine duty and flight training. The MSDF operates its own staff college in Tokyo for senior officers. The Japan National Defense Academy is an academy aimed to educate and train cadets who will be officers in three services of the Self-Defense Forces of Japan. ... Etajima (江田島町; -cho) is a town located in Aki District, Hiroshima, Japan. ...


The large volume of coastal commercial fishing and maritime traffic limits in-service sea training, especially in the relatively shallow waters required for mine laying, mine sweeping and submarine rescue practice. Training days are scheduled around slack fishing seasons in winter and summer—providing about ten days during the year. The MSDF maintains two oceangoing training ships and conducted annual long-distance on-the-job training for graduates of the one-year officer candidate school.[3]


JMSDF Fleet

JMSDF ships docked at Pearl Harbor in RIMPAC 2002. Left to right: JDS Kirishima, JDS Murasame, JDS Ikazuchi and JDS Hamagiri
JMSDF ships docked at Pearl Harbor in RIMPAC 2002. Left to right: JDS Kirishima, JDS Murasame, JDS Ikazuchi and JDS Hamagiri

RIMPAC participant naval fleet of Japan docked at Pearl Harbor Naval Base, 2002, Four Japanese ships JDS Kirishima (DDG 174), JDS Murasame (DD 101), JDS Ikazuchi (DD 107) and JDS Hamgiri (DD 155), Official United States Navy Photo by William R. Goodwin, released to public on July 26, 2002 File... RIMPAC participant naval fleet of Japan docked at Pearl Harbor Naval Base, 2002, Four Japanese ships JDS Kirishima (DDG 174), JDS Murasame (DD 101), JDS Ikazuchi (DD 107) and JDS Hamgiri (DD 155), Official United States Navy Photo by William R. Goodwin, released to public on July 26, 2002 File... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... Aircraft carriers and USS Abraham Lincoln speed towards Honolulu during RIMPAC 2000. ... The Kongō class of guided missile destroyers, a modification of the U.S. Navy Arleigh Burke class (Flight I), serves as the core ship of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF)s Escort Flotillas. ... The Murasame class destroyer is a 3rd generation vessel in service with the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF), classified by some as a large frigate. ... The Murasame class destroyer is a 3rd generation vessel in service with the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF), classified by some as a large frigate. ... The Asagiri class destroyer was built in the mid-1980s and late 1980s and is in service with Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force. ...

Destroyers (DDG)

The Kongō class of guided missile destroyers, a modification of the U.S. Navy Arleigh Burke class (Flight I), serves as the core ship of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF)s Escort Flotillas. ... The Tachikaze class destroyer is a 2nd generation vessel in service with the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF). ... The Hatakaze class of guided missle destroyer is a 3rd generation vessel in service with the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF). ...

Destroyers (DD)

The Murasame class destroyer is a 3rd generation vessel in service with the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF), classified by some as a large frigate. ... The Takanami class destroyer is the newest class of Japanese ASW destroyer, serving with the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF). ... The Asagiri class destroyer was built in the mid-1980s and late 1980s and is in service with Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force. ... The Hatsuyuki class destroyer is a class of Japanese destroyer, serving with the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF). ...

Helicopter Destroyers (DDH)

The Haruna class destroyers are a class of Japanese destroyer originally built during the 1970s and still in active service. ... The Shirane class destroyers are a class of Japanese destroyer originally built during the late 1970s and still in active service. ...

Destroyer escorts (DE)

The JDS Ishikari (DE-226) is the successor of earlier Chikugo class. ... The Yubari class destroyer escort [1] (or frigate) of the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force is the natural successor of Ishikari class frigate, the displacement is slightly larger and a newer version of the main gun by the same manufacturer was adopted. ... The Abukuma class destroyer escort (or frigate) of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force is the successor of earlier Yubari class. ...

Submarines (SS)

SS590 Oyashio, navigates through Pearl Harbour. ... Wakashio (SS 587), a Harushio class submarine docked at Yokosuka naval base. ...

Amphibious forces

  • Osumi class LST (3 in service)
  • Yura class LSU/LCU (2 in service)
  • Yusotei class LCU (2 in service)
  • YF 2150 class LCM (2 in service)
  • Landing craft air cushion (6 in service)

The Osumi class LST (), is a Japanese amphibious assault ship. ...

Minesweepers

The Yaeyama class is the largest class of Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force minesweepers, designed for open sea mine clearance operations. ...

Future Ships

The 16DDH class is a new type of helicopter destroyer (DDH) currently under construction for use by the Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force. ... The Atago class of guided missle destroyers is an improved version of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF)s Kongo class destroyers that are currently under construction. ... This is a new class of diesel-electric submarine being built in Japan for use by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
JMSDF

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... Japanese ship naming conventions are different from those in the West. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

References & notes

  1. ^ This article contains material from the Library of Congress Country Studies, which are United States government publications in the public domain.
  2. ^ Japan Maritime Self Defense Force. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 2006-04-12.
  3. ^ a b Dolan, Ronald; Robert Worden (1992). “8”, Japan : A Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0731-3. See section 2: "The Self Defense Forces"

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ...

External links

 
Japan Self-Defense Forces
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army)   Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (Navy)   Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force)

 
 

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