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Encyclopedia > Japan Defense Agency

The Japan Defense Agency (防衛庁 Bōei-chō?) is an agency of the Cabinet Office in the Cabinet of Japan. As a result of a law enacted on December 15, 2006, it is scheduled to become a ministry on January 9, 2007. It is headquartered in Shinjuku, Tokyo, and is the largest organ of the Japanese government: in 2005, fixed personnel numbered 276,890, including 253,180 active troops. An agency is a department of a local or national government responsible for the oversight and administration of a specific function, such as a customs agency or a space agency. ... Cabinet Office (内閣府; Naikaku-fu) is an agency in the Cabinet of Japan. ... The Cabinet (内閣, Naikaku) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) will be a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Shinjuku-ku in Tokyo. ...


The Defense Agency, as part of the Office of the Prime Minister, is required by Article 66 of the constitution to be completely subordinate to civilian authority. Its head, the Minister of State for Defense, is assisted by a senior vice minister, two parliamentary secretaries, an administrative vice minister and ten directors-general. The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... U.S. President Abraham Lincolns active involvement in the conduct of the American Civil War, which frequently involved pressing his generals to undertake more aggressive actions, set a precedent for the power of the civilian Commander-in-Chief. ...


The highest figure in the command structure is the prime minister, who is responsible directly to the Diet. In a national emergency, the prime minister is authorized to order the various components of the Self-Defense Forces into action, subject to the consent of the Diet. In times of extreme emergency, that approval might be obtained after the fact. This article is about the Japanese legislature. ... The Japan Self-Defense Forces ), or JSDF, are the military forces in Japan that were established after the end of World War II. The force has not been engaged in real combat but has been engaged in some international peacekeeping operations. ...


The Defense Agency is headquartered in Ichigaya, Tokyo, on a site which housed the GHQ of the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II, and of the Ground Self-Defense Force following the war. Until May 2000, the JDA was based in Akasaka: this land is now occupied by the Tokyo Midtown Project. Ichigaya (市谷) is a neighborhood in Tokyo, Japan. ... Tokyo , literally Eastern capital)   is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, the home of the Japanese Imperial Family, and the de facto[1] capital of Japan. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... JGSDF Central force head office in Itami, Japan Tank Type 74 of Japan Ground Self Defense Force The Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) or Rikujou Jieitai (陸上自衛隊) is the name of the military ground forces (army) of Japan. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... State Guest House, Akasaka Palace Akasaka (赤坂) is a residential and commercial district of Minato-ku, Tokyo, located west of the government center in Nagatacho and north of the Roppongi nightlife district. ... Tokyo Midtown Project (東京ミッドタウンプロジェクト Tokyo-middotaun-purojekuto) is a high-rise development under construction in the Akasaka area of Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. ...

Japan Defense Agency
Japan Defense Agency

Contents

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History

The JDA was established on July 1, 1954. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 1980s, efforts were also under way to facilitate a clear and efficient command policy in the event of a crisis. The government stood by the principle that military action was permitted only under civilian control, but in recognition that delay for consultation might prove dangerous, ships of the Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF) began to be armed with live torpedoes, and fighter-interceptors were allowed to carry missiles at all times. Although aircraft had long been allowed to force down intruders without waiting for permission from the prime minister, ships were still required to receive specific orders before interdicting invading vessels. The Defense Agency had recommended drawing up more complete guidelines to clarify what action SDF combat units could take in emergencies. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force ), or JMSDF, is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan and formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II.[1] The force is based strictly on defensive armament, largely lacking...


Cooperation between the SDF and other civilian agencies in contingency planning is limited. No plans exist to ensure the support of civilian aircraft and merchant fleets in times of crisis, even though the SDF transportation capabilities are generally judged inadequate. In 1990 legislation was being studied to provide the SDF with the ability to respond in emergency situations not specifically covered by Article 76 of the Self-Defense Forces Law.


SDF training includes instilling a sense of mission. Personnel are provided with the scientific and technical education to operate and maintain modern equipment and with the physical training necessary to accomplish their missions.


Modern equipment is gradually replacing obsolescent matériel in the SDF. In 1987 the Defense Agency replaced its communications system (which formerly had relied on telephone lines of the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation) with a microwave network incorporating a three-dimensional transmission system using a communications satellite. Despite efforts to increase stocks, however, supplies of ammunition and maintenance and repair parts in 1990 remained at less than satisfactory levels. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (日本電信電話 Nippon Denshin Denwa) is a telephone company that dominates the telecommunication market in Japan. ...


The Diet had recently passed a law, changing the status of the Defense Agency to a Cabinet-level Defense Ministry.[1] The Diet's upper house had voted by a majority, including the opposition Democratic Party of Japan, to amend the change.[2]


Security Council

In July 1986, the Security Council was established. The council is presided over by the prime minister and includes the ministers of state specified in advance in Article 9 of the Cabinet Law; the foreign minister, the finance minister, the chief cabinet secretary, the chairman of the National Public Safety Commission, the director general of the Defense Agency, and the director general of the Economic Planning Agency. The chairman of the Security Council also can invite the chairman of the Joint Staff Council and any other relevant state minister or official to attend. Replacing the National Defense Council, which had acted as an advisory group on defense-related matters since 1956, the Security Council addresses a wider range of military and nonmilitary security issues, including basic national defense policy, the National Defense Program Outline, the outline on coordinating industrial production and other matters related to the National Defense Program Outline, and decisions on diplomatic initiatives and defense operations. The Security Council advises the prime minister on salaries and other matters pertaining to national government civil servants. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan is the politician responsible for Japanese foreign policy. ... The Minister of Finance is the member of the Cabinet of Japan in charge of the Ministry of Finance. ... The Chief Cabinet Secretary (naikakukan bōchōkan 内閣官房長官) is a member of the Japanese Cabinet. ...


Bureaus

The internal bureaus, especially the Bureau of Defense Policy, Bureau of Finance, and the Bureau of Equipment, are often headed by officials from other ministries and are the main centers of power and instruments of civilian control in the Defense Agency. The Bureau of Defense Policy is responsible for drafting defense policy and programs, for determining day-to-day operational activities, and for information gathering and analysis in the SDF. The Bureau of Finance is instrumental in developing the Defense Agency budget and in establishing spending priorities for the Defense Agency and the SDF. The Bureau of Equipment, organized into subunits for each of the military services, focuses on equipment procurement. Before any major purchase is recommended to the Diet by the Defense Agency, it has to be reviewed by each of these bureaus. U.S. President Abraham Lincolns active involvement in the conduct of the American Civil War, which frequently involved pressing his generals to undertake more aggressive actions, set a precedent for the power of the civilian Commander-in-Chief. ... Portions of this article or section may be outdated. ...


Organization

Executive staff
  • Prime Minister = the Commander-in-Chief of the Self Defense Forces(内閣総理大臣)
  • Minister of State for Defense = the chief of the Defense Agency, and a member of the cabinet (防衛庁長官)
    • Senior Vice-Minister for Defense (防衛庁副長官)
    • Parliamentary Secretary for Defense (2) (防衛庁長官政務官)
    • Administrative Vice-Minister for Defense (防衛事務次官)
    • Director-General for Defense (8) (防衛参事官)
Bureaus
  • Secretariat of the Minister of State for Defense (長官官房)
  • Bureau of Defense Policy (防衛政策局)
  • Bureau of Defense Operational Policy (運用企画局)
  • Bureau of Personnel and Education (人事教育局)
  • Bureau of Finance and Equipment (経理装備局)
Council
  • Defense Procurement Council (防衛調達審議会)
  • Central Council on Defense Facilities (防衛施設中央審議会)
  • Defense Personnel Review Board (防衛人事審議会)
  • Self-Defense Forces Ethics Review Board (自衛隊倫理審査会)
Facilities
  • National Defense Academy (防衛大学校)
  • National Defense Medical College (防衛医科大学校)
  • National Institute for Defense Studies (防衛研究所)
Special organizations
  • Joint Staff Office (統合幕僚監部)
  • Ground Staff Office (陸上幕僚監部)
  • Maritime Staff Office (海上幕僚監部)
  • Air Staff Office (航空幕僚監部)
  • Defense Intelligence Headquarters (情報本部)
  • Technical Research and Development Institute (技術研究本部)
  • Equipment Procurement Office (装備本部)
Military branches
External agency
  • Defense Facilities Administration Agency (防衛施設庁)

The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... National Defense Academy of Japan ) is an academy aimed to educate and train cadets who will be officers in three services of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. ... JGSDF Central force head office in Itami, Japan Tank Type 74 of Japan Ground Self Defense Force The Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) or Rikujou Jieitai (陸上自衛隊) is the name of the military ground forces (army) of Japan. ... The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force ), or JMSDF, is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan and formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II.[1] The force is based strictly on defensive armament, largely lacking... The Japan Air Self-Defense Force ), or JASDF, is the aviation branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and other aerospace operations. ...

Uniformed staff

Below these civilian groups is the uniformed Self-Defence Forces (SDF). Its senior officer is the chairman of the Joint Staff Council, a body that included the chiefs of staff of the ground, maritime, and air arms of the Self-Defense Forces. Its principal functions are to advise the director general and to plan and execute joint exercises. The three branches maintain staff offices to manage operations in their branches. Although rank establishes echelons of command within the SDF, all three branches are immediately responsible to the director general and are coequal bodies with the Joint Staff Council and the three staff offices. Japans honor guard often marches to greet the arrival of foreign dignitaries. ... JGSDF Central force head office in Itami, Japan Tank Type 74 of Japan Ground Self Defense Force The Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) or Rikujou Jieitai (陸上自衛隊) is the name of the military ground forces (army) of Japan. ... The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force ), or JMSDF, is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan and formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II.[1] The force is based strictly on defensive armament, largely lacking... The Japan Air Self-Defense Force ), or JASDF, is the aviation branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and other aerospace operations. ...


This structure precludes the concentration of power of the pre-1945 general staffs, but it impedes interservice coordination, and there are few formal exchanges among commanders from various branches. Moreover, some dissatisfaction has been reported by highranking officers who feel they have little power compared with younger civilian officials in the bureaus, who most often have no military experience. To rectify this situation and to increase input by the SDF in policy matters, in the early 1980s the Joint Staff Council was enlarged to establish better lines of communication between the internal bureaus and the three staff offices. A computerized central command and communications system and various tactical command and communications systems were established, linking service and field headquarters with general headquarters at the Defense Agency and with one another.


External link

  • Japan Defense Agency

Reference

  1. ^ "Japan creates defense ministry", Manila Times, 2006-11-30.
  2. ^ "Japan creates defense ministry for first time since 1945", Philippine Daily Inquirer, 2006-12-15.
Ministries of Japan
Cabinet
Cabinet Secretariat | Cabinet Legislation Bureau | Security Council | National Personnel Authority

Cabinet Office (National Public Safety Commission | Defense Agency) The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The most influential part of the executive of the Japanese government are the ministries. ... The Cabinet (内閣, Naikaku) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ... The Cabinet Secretariat (jp: 内閣官房; Naikaku-Kambou) is the secretariat of the cabinet of Japan responsible for supporting directly the prime minister and managing general affairs in the cabinet. ... The Security Council advises the prime minister on salaries and other matters pertaining to national government civil servants. ... The Editing National Personnel Authority (jp: 人事院; Jin-Ji-In) advises the prime minister on salaries and other matters pertaining to national government civil servants. ... Cabinet Office (内閣府; Naikaku-fu) is an agency in the Cabinet of Japan. ... The National Public Safety Commission ) is a Japanese Cabinet Office commission. ...

Internal Affairs | Justice | Foreign Affairs | Finance | Education | Health | Agriculture | Economy | Land | Environment
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (総務省 Soumu-sho) is one of ministries in the Cabinet of Japan. ... Categories: Government of Japan | Stub ... The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (外務省; gaimu-sho) is one of the ministries of the Japanese government. ... The Ministry of Finance (財務省; Zaimu-sho) is one of ministries of the Japanese government. ... The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (国土交通省; Kokudo-kōtsū-shō) is one of ministries of the Japanese government. ...


Board of Audit
(Independent)


 
 

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