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Encyclopedia > Japan
日本国
Nippon-koku / Nihon-koku
Japan
Flag of Japan Imperial Seal of Japan
Flag Imperial Seal
Anthem
Kimi ga Yo  (君が代)
Imperial Reign

Capital
(and largest city)
Tokyo1
35°41′N, 139°46′E
Official languages Japanese
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  Emperor HIM Emperor Akihito
 -  Prime Minister Shinzo Abe (LDP)
Formation
 -  National Foundation Day February 11, 660 BC3 
 -  Meiji Constitution November 29, 1890 
 -  Current constitution May 3, 1947 
 -  Treaty of
San Francisco

April 28, 1952 
Area
 -  Total 377,873 km² (62nd)
 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.8
Population
 -  2007 estimate 127,433,494 (10th)
 -  2004 census 127,333,002 
 -  Density 337 /km² (30th)
 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $4.220 trillion2 (3rd)
 -  Per capita $33,1002 (12th)
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $4.911 trillion2 (2nd)
 -  Per capita $38,341 (14th)
HDI (2004) 0.949 (high) (7th)
Currency Yen (International ¥, Japanese En) (JPY)
Time zone JST (UTC+9)
Internet TLD .jp
Calling code +81
1 Yokohama is the largest incorporated city.
2 World Factbook; Japan—Economy. CIA (2006-12-19). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
3 According to legend, Japan was founded on this date by the Emperor Jimmu, first emperor of Japan; it is seen as largely symbolic.

Japan  (Japanese: 日本 Nihon or Nippon,? officially 日本国 Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku) is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of China, Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea in the south. The characters that make up Japan's name mean "sun-origin", which is why Japan is sometimes identified as the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan may refer to: Japan, the East Asian island nation, also called Nippon (日本, Nihon) Japan (band), a British art rock band a lacquer technique, Japanning Japan (manga), a manga written by Eiji Otsuka and illustrated by Mami Ito This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Imperial_Seal_of_Japan. ... Civil and state flag and ensign (Aug 13, 1999. ... The National and Imperial Seal of Japan was originally the Imperial Seal, and is called 菊の御紋 Kiku No Gomon in Japanese, which, literally, means Noble Symbol of Chrysanthemum or Imperial Seal of Chrysanthemum . The Imperial Seal is used by members of the Japanese Imperial family. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Score of Kimi ga Yo Kimi ga Yo ), often translated as The Emperors Reign is Japans National Anthem, and is also one of the worlds shortest national anthems in current use. ... Image File history File links LocationMapJapan. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Birth and death rates of Japan since 1950 Japans population, currently 127,463,611, experienced a high growth rate during the 20th century, as a result of scientific, industrial, and social changes. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... Akihito () (born December 23, 1933) is the current Emperor ) of Japan, the 125th sovereign to hold that title, according to the traditional order of succession. ... The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Shinzo Abe , ; born September 21, 1954) is the current Prime Minister of Japan, elected by a special session of the National Diet on September 26, 2006. ... The Liberal Democratic Party ), frequently abbreviated to LDP or Jimintō ), is a conservative political party and the largest party in Japan, which has been ruling almost uninterruptedly since Japan regained independence after World War II. It is not to be confused with the now-defunct Liberal Party ), which merged with... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century CE. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... National Foundation Day (建国記念日, kenkoku kinen-bi; also 建国記念の日, kenkoku kinen-no-hi) is a national holiday in Japan celebrated annually on February 11. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... The present Constitution of Japan took effect on May 3, 1947, during the American occupation after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II. The Constitution of the Empire of Japan (1889–1947) The first constitution in Japan was enacted by the Emperor during the Meiji... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru gives a speech on reconciliation and rapport ) at the San Francisco Peace conference. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2004). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2004) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... ISO 4217 Code JPY User(s) Japan Inflation -0. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... An Imperial Ordinance issued on December 27, Meiji 28 (1895) Japan Standard Time (日本標準時 or 中央標準時) is the standard timezone in Japan that is 9 hours ahead of UTC; i. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .jp is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Japan. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... Japanese telephone numbering plan Country Code: 81 Area codes (市外局番 shigai-kyokuban) of selected major cities 011 Sapporo 022 Sendai 0242 Aizu Wakamatsu 025 Niigata 026 Nagano 028 (next digit 6) Utsunomiya 03 Tokyo 043 (next digit 2 or 3) Chiba 044 Kawasaki 045 Yokohama 048 Saitama (formed in 2001 by... For a tire company, known by Yokohama Tyre, see Yokohama Rubber Company. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Meiji era print of Emperor Jimmu Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇 Jinmu Tennō; also known as: Kamuyamato Iwarebiko; given name: Wakamikenu no Mikoto or Sano no Mikoto, born according to legend on January 1, 711 BC, and died, again according to legend, on March 11, 585 BC,[citation needed] was the mythical founder... Image File history File links Ja-nippon nihonkoku. ... Island countries in the world An island country is a country that is wholly confined to an island or island group, and has no territory on the mainland of a continent. ... Geographic East Asia. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Map of the Sea of Okhotsk. ... The East China Sea is a marginal sea and part of the Pacific Ocean. ... The English word Japan is not the name used for their country by the Japanese themselves: it is an exonym. ...


Japan comprises over three thousand islands,[1] the largest of which are Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū and Shikoku, together accounting for 97% of land area. Most of the islands are mountainous, many volcanic; for example, Japan’s highest peak, Mount Fuji, is a volcano. Japan has the world's tenth largest population, with about 128 million people. The Greater Tokyo Area, which includes the capital city of Tokyo and several surrounding prefectures, is the largest metropolitan area in the world, with over 30 million residents. HonshÅ« (本州 Literally Main State) is the largest island of Japan, called the Mainland; it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... KyÅ«shÅ« region of Japan and the current prefectures on KyÅ«shÅ« island KyÅ«shÅ« ), literally Nine Provinces, is the third largest island of Japan and most southerly and westerly of the four main islands. ... This article is about the island. ... Lyskamm, 4 527 m, Pennine Alps A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Mount Fuji Mount Fuji , IPA: )   is the highest mountain in Japan. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... The Greater Tokyo Area (東京都市圏 Tōkyō-toshiken), also the Tokyo-Yokohama area, is a large metropolitan area in Japan consisting of the metropolis of Tokyo and the prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa and Saitama. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... Map of the prefectures of Japan in ISO 3166-2:JP order. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 This is a list of the 100 largest urban agglomerations in the world according to the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report (2005 revision). ...


Archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan begins with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. Influence from the outside world followed by long periods of isolation has characterized Japan's history. Thus, its culture today is a mixture of outside influences and internal developments. Since adopting its constitution in 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary constitutional monarchy with an emperor and an elected parliament, the Diet. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek: αρχαίος, archaios, combining form in Latin archae-, ancient; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ...


A great power,[2] Japan is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP after the United States. It is a member of the United Nations, G8, G4 and APEC, with the world's fifth largest defense budget. It is the world's fourth largest exporter and sixth largest importer. One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... A regions gross domestic product, or GDP, is one of several measures of the size of its economy. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... G4 countries. ... APEC may refer to: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Action Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Advanced Placement European Civilization Atlantic Provinces Economic Council This article consisting of a 4-letter acronym or initialism is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Military expenditure by country using CIA World Factbook figures Military spending as a percentage of GDP using CIA World Factbook figures This is a list of countries by military expenditures using the latest information available. ... Map of amount of exports per country This is a list of countries by exports, mostly based on The World Factbook [1] accessed in February 2006. ... Map of countries by imports This is a list of countries by imports, mostly based on The World Factbook [1] accessed in October 2005. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Japan

The first signs of occupation on the Japanese archipelago appeared with a Paleolithic culture around 30,000 BC, followed from around 10,000 BC by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture of pit dwelling and a rudimentary form of agriculture. Decorated clay vessels from this period, often with plaited patterns, are some of the oldest surviving examples of pottery in the world.[3] The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century CE. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... The Japanese Archipelago which forms the country of Japan extends from north to south along the eastern coast of the Eurasian Continent, the western shore of the Pacific Ocean. ... The Japanese Paleolithic ) covers a period from around 100,000 [citation needed] to 30,000 BCE, when the earliest stone tool implements have been found, to around 12,000 BCE, at the end of the last Ice-age, which corresponds to the beginning of the Mesolithic Jomon Period. ... The 30th millennium BC is part of the Upper Paleolithic Era. ... See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ...


The Yayoi period, starting around the third century BC, introduced new practices, such as wet-rice farming, iron and bronze-making and a new style of pottery, brought by migrants from China or Korea. With the development of Yayoi culture, a predominantly agricultural society emerged in Japan.[4][5][6][7] The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ...

A middle Jōmon period vessel (3000 to 2000 BC).
A middle Jōmon period vessel (3000 to 2000 BC).
The Great Buddha at Tōdai-ji, Nara, cast in 752.
The Great Buddha at Tōdai-ji, Nara, cast in 752.

The Japanese first appear in written history in China’s Book of Han. According to the Chinese Records of the Three Kingdoms, the most powerful kingdom on the archipelago during the third century was called Yamataikoku. Jomon vessel with flame-like ornamentation. ... Jomon vessel with flame-like ornamentation. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (833 × 1250 pixel, file size: 340 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of Buddha at Todaiji in Nara Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (833 × 1250 pixel, file size: 340 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of Buddha at Todaiji in Nara Japan. ... Media:Example. ... Tōdai-ji (東大寺) (meaning the Eastern Great Temple),[1] is a Buddhist temple complex located in the city of Nara, Japan. ... Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. ... The Book of Han (Chinese: 漢書/汉书) is a classic Chinese historical writing covering the history of Western Han from 206 BC to 25. ... The Sānguó Zhì (Chinese 三國志, or 三國誌), variously translated as Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms, Records of the Three States and Records of the Three Kingdoms was the official and authoritative historical text compiled by Chen Shou during the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420... Yamataikoku (邪馬台国) was an ancient country in Japan, recorded in an old Chinese history book, Sanguo Zhi. ...


Japan was first introduced to Buddhism from Korea, but the subsequent development of Japanese Buddhism and Buddhist sculptures were primarily influenced by China.[8] Despite early resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the ruling class and eventually gained growing acceptance since the Asuka period.[9] This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or 조선 in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Japanese Buddhist priest c. ... The Buddha in Kamakura (1252). ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ...


The Nara period of the eighth century marked the first emergence of a strong central Japanese state, centered around an imperial court in the city of Heijō-kyō, or modern day Nara. In addition to the continuing adoption of Chinese administrative practices, the Nara period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent written literature with the completion of the massive chronicles Kojiki (712) and Nihonshoki (720).[10] The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... The restored Suzakumon (gate) of Heijo Palace Heijo Palace ) in Nara, was the Imperial Palace of Japan during the Nara Period (710-784 CE). ... Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... Kojiki or Furukotofumi (古事記), also known in English as the Records of Ancient Matters, is the oldest surviving historical book recounting events of ancient earth in the Japanese language. ... Nihonshoki (Japanese: 日本書紀), sometimes translated as Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. ...


In 784, Emperor Kammu moved the capital to Nagaokakyō for a brief ten-year period, before relocating it to Heian-kyō (modern day Kyoto) in 794, where it remained for more than a millennium.[11] This marked the beginning of the Heian period, during which time a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged, noted for its art, poetry and literature. Lady Murasaki's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of modern Japan's national anthem, Kimi ga Yo were written during this time.[12] Emperor Kanmu Emperor Kanmu ) (737–806) was the 50th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Nagaokakyō ) was the capital of Japan from 784 to 794. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... Bronze statue of Amida Buddha at Kotokuin in Kamakura (1252 CE) Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper, and a myriad of other types of works of art. ... Grave of the Japanese poet Yosa Buson The best-known forms of Japanese poetry (outside Japan) are haiku and senryu. ... Japanese literature spans a period of almost two millennia. ... Murasaki Shikibu (紫 式部 Murasaki Shikibu, c. ... Ilustration of ch. ... Score of Kimi ga Yo Kimi ga Yo ), often translated as The Emperors Reign is Japans National Anthem, and is also one of the worlds shortest national anthems in current use. ...


Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. In 1185, following the defeat of the rival Taira clan, Minamoto no Yoritomo was appointed Shogun and established a base of power in Kamakura. After Yoritomo's death, the Hōjō clan came to rule as regents for the shoguns. Zen Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and became popular among the samurai class. The Kamakura shogunate managed to repel Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281, aided by a storm that the Japanese interpreted as a kamikaze, or Divine Wind. The Kamakura shogunate was eventually overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo, who was soon himself defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336.[13] The succeeding Ashikaga shogunate failed to control the feudal warlords (daimyo), and a civil war erupted (the Ōnin War).[14] Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Taira (å¹³) is a Japanese surname. ... Portrait of Yoritomo (copy) Minamoto no Yoritomo May 9, 1147—February 9, 1199) was the founder and the first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan, who ruled from 1192 until 1199. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Kamakuras location in Japan Crowds of visitors in Kamakura (Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine) Great Buddha at Kōtoku-in Kamakura (Japanese: 鎌倉市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo (to which it is linked by the railway line to Yokosuka). ... The Hōjō clan (北条氏) in the history of Japan was a family of regents of the Kamakura Shogunate. ... Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism notable for its emphasis on practice and experiential wisdom—particularly as realized in the form of meditation known as zazen—in the attainment of awakening. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... This wooden Kongorikishi statue was created during the Kamakura shogunate during 14th century Japan. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Japan Commanders Kublai Khan Hōjō Tokimune Strength 35,000 Mongol & Chinese soldiers and 18,000 Korean warriors 10,000 Casualties 16,000 killed before landed minimal Defensive wall at Hakata. ... Kamikaze (神風 kamikaze) is a Japanese word, usually translated as divine wind, beleived to be a gift from the gods. ... Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇 Go-Daigo Tennō) (November 26, 1288 – September 19, 1339) was the 96th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Ashikaga Takauji 1305—June 7, 1358) was the founder and first shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate. ... The Ashikaga shogunate (Jp. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Marker at location of outbreak of ÅŒnin War The ÅŒnin War (応仁の乱 ÅŒnin no Ran) was a civil war from 1467 to 1477 during the Muromachi period in Japan. ...


During the sixteenth century, traders and missionaries from Portugal reached Japan for the first time, initiating the Nanban ("southern barbarian") period of active commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West. Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... The Nanban Trade Period (Jp:南蛮貿易時代, Lit. ...


Oda Nobunaga conquered numerous other daimyo by using European technology and firearms and had almost unified the nation when he was assassinated in 1582. Toyotomi Hideyoshi succeeded Nobunaga and united the nation in 1590. Hideyoshi invaded Korea twice, but following several defeats by Korean and Ming China forces and Hideyoshi's death, Japanese troops were withdrawn in 1598.[15] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... Toyotomi Hideyoshi (Shinjitai (modern Japanese) writing: ; KyÅ«jitai (historical) writing: 豐臣秀吉; born Hiyoshi-maru ; coming of age (Genpuku) as Kinoshita Tōkichirō and later made Hashiba and martial nobility in the style of Hashiba Chikuzen no Kami Hideyoshi ;February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598), was a Sengoku... Combatants Joseon Dynasty Korea, Ming Dynasty China Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea: Yi Sun-sin, Gwon Yul, Won Gyun, Kim Myung Won, Yi Il, Sin Lip, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Shi-min China: Li Rusong , Li Rubai, Ma Gui , Qian Shi-zhen, Ren Ziqiang, Yang Yuan, Zhang Shijue, Chen... Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ...

One of Japan's Red seal ships (1634), which were used for trade throughout Asia.
One of Japan's Red seal ships (1634), which were used for trade throughout Asia.
Samurai of the Satsuma clan during the Boshin war, circa 1867.
Samurai of the Satsuma clan during the Boshin war, circa 1867.

After Hideyoshi's death, Tokugawa Ieyasu utilized his position as regent for Hideyoshi's son Toyotomi Hideyori to gain political and military support. When open war broke out, he defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Ieyasu was appointed shōgun in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate at Edo (modern Tokyo). The Tokugawa shogunate enacted a variety of measures to control the daimyo, among them the sankin kōtai policy. In 1639, the shogunate began the isolationist sakoku ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo period. The study of Western sciences, known as rangaku, continued during this period through contacts with the Dutch enclave at Dejima in Nagasaki. The Edo period also gave rise to kokugaku, or literally "national studies", the study of Japan by the Japanese themselves.[16] 1634 painting of a Red seal ship. ... 1634 painting of a Red seal ship. ... A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... Satsuma is the name of a town in Japan, Satsuma, Kagoshima, the surrounding district, Satsuma District, Kagoshima, the former province, Satsuma Province, which is now the western half of Kagoshima Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, a revolt, the Satsuma Rebellion. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until... Grave of Toyotomi Clan at Mount Koya Toyotomi Hideyori (豊臣 秀頼 Toyotomi Hideyori), 1593-1615, was the son and designated successor of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the general who first united all of Japan. ... Combatants Forces loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori, many clans from Western Japan Forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Clans of Eastern Japan Commanders Ishida Mitsunari, Mōri Terumoto, others Tokugawa Ieyasu, others Strength 81,890 88,888 Casualties At least 40,000 dead Otani Yoshitsugu Shimazu Toyohisa Unknown; but not excessive The Battle... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Tokiwa bashi on the Nagasaki Kaido in Kitakyushu, used for sankin kotai Sankin kōtai (参勤交代) was a policy of the shogunate during most of the Edo period of Japanese history. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Seclusion. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... Rangaku (蘭学) or Dutch Learning was the method by which Japan kept abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641-1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunates policy of national isolation (sakoku). ... Dejima, also Deshima (出島, literally protruding island) in modern Japanese, Desjima in Dutch, often latinised as Decima, was a fan-shaped artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki that was a Dutch trading post during Japans self-imposed isolation (sakoku) of the Edo period, from 1641 until 1853. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Kokugaku (国学; lit. ...


On March 31, 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships" of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa. The Boshin War of 1867–1868 led to the resignation of the shogunate, and the Meiji Restoration established a government centered around the emperor. Adopting Western political, judicial and military institutions, a parliamentary system modeled after the British parliament was introduced, with Itō Hirobumi as the first Prime Minister in 1882. Meiji era reforms transformed the Empire of Japan into an industrialized world power that embarked on a number of military conflicts to increase access to natural resources. After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan gained control of Korea, Taiwan and the southern half of Sakhalin.[17] March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858) Matthew Calbraith Perry (April 10, 1794 – March 4, 1858) was the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. ... Japanese 1854 print describing Commodore Matthew Perrys Black Ships. The Black Ships (in Japanese, 黒船, kurofune) was the name given to Western vessels arriving in Japan between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... {{ USN redirects here. ... On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa (Japanese: 神奈川条約, Kanagawa Jōyaku, or 日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku) was used by Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy to force the opening of the Japanese ports of... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... Itō Hirobumi , 16 October 1841–26 October 1909, also called Hirofumi/Hakubun and Shunsuke in his youth) was a Japanese statesman, Resident-General of Korea, four times Prime Minister of Japan (the 1st, 5th, 7th and 10th) and genrō. Itō was assassinated by An Jung-geun, a Korean anti-Japanese... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai 明治&#26178... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army, Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ...


The early twentieth century saw a brief period of "Taisho democracy" overshadowed by the rise of Japanese expansionism and militarization. World War I enabled Japan, which joined the side of the victorious Allies, to expand its influence and territorial holdings. Japan continued its expansionist policy by occupying Manchuria in 1931. As a result of international condemnation for this occupation, Japan resigned from the League of Nations two years later. In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany, joining the Axis Powers in 1941.[18] The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... Flag of Japan adopted 1870, official 1999 Japanese Naval Ensign adopted 1889, re-adopted 1954 The Empire of Japan (大日本帝国; Dai Nippon Teikoku) was the official title of Japan before the end of World War II. The names Imperial Japan and Japanese Empire are also used. ... Militarism (military+-ism) is an ideology which claims that the military is the foundation of a societys security, and thereby claims to be its most important aspect. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 1937, Japan invaded other parts of China, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan.[19] On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the United States naval base in Pearl Harbor and declared war on the United States, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. This act brought the United States into World War II. After the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, along with the Soviet Union joining the war against it, Japan agreed to an unconditional surrender on August 15 (V-J Day).[20] The war cost Japan millions of lives and left much of the country's industry and infrastructure destroyed. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East, was convened by the Allies (on May 3, 1946) to prosecute Japanese leaders for war crimes such as the Nanking Massacre.[21] Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro Strength 5,600,000 4,100,000 (including 900... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel Walter Short others Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi Chuichi Hara Gunichi Mikawa Sentaro Omori others Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 aircraft 6 aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 2 battleships, 2 heavy cruisers, 1... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Japanese city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the ChÅ«goku region of western HonshÅ«, the largest of Japans islands. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... The Japanese representatives on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 15 August 1945 marked Victory over Japan or VJ Day, taking a name similar to Victory in Europe Day, which was generally known as VE Day. ... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... For the 2007 documentary film about the Nanking Massacre, see Nanking (film). ...


In 1947, Japan adopted a new pacifist constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. Official American occupation lasted until 1952[22] and Japan was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956. Under a subsequent program of aggressive industrial development aided by the US, Japan achieved spectacular growth to become the second largest economy in the world, with an annual growth rate averaging 10% for four decades. This ended in the mid-1990s when Japan suffered a major recession. Positive growth in the early twenty-first century has signaled a gradual recovery.[23] Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor of Japan  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Peace Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Japanese Post-War Economic Miracle is the name given to the historical phenomenon of Japans record period of economic growth following World War II, spurred both by US investment and Japanese government economic interventionism in particular through their Ministry of International Trade and Industry. ... Inflation-adjusted house prices in Japan (1980–2005) compared to house price appreciation the United States, Britain, and Australia (1995–2005). ...


Government and politics

The National Diet Building, in Nagatachō, Tokyo.
The National Diet Building, in Nagatachō, Tokyo.

Japan is a constitutional monarchy where the power of the Emperor is very limited. As a ceremonial figurehead, he is defined by the constitution as "the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people". Power is held chiefly by the Prime Minister of Japan and other elected members of the Diet, while sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people.[24] The Emperor effectively acts as the head of state on diplomatic occasions. Akihito is the current Emperor of Japan. Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan, stands as next in line to the throne. This article describes the structure of the Japanese Government. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#Government and politics. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixelsFull resolution (2532 × 1881 pixel, file size: 815 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Copyrighted by っ Also CC-by-2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixelsFull resolution (2532 × 1881 pixel, file size: 815 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Copyrighted by っ Also CC-by-2. ... Exterior view. ... National Diet Building Nagatachō ) is a district of Tokyo, Japan, located in Chiyoda Ward. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... Languages Japanese Religions Shinto, Buddhism, large secular groups      The Japanese people ) is the ethnic group that identifies as Japanese by culture and/or ancestry. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Akihito () (born December 23, 1933) is the current Emperor ) of Japan, the 125th sovereign to hold that title, according to the traditional order of succession. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Japan's legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral parliament. The Diet consists of a House of Representatives, containing 480 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved and a House of Councillors of 242 seats, whose popularly-elected members serve six-year terms. There is universal suffrage for adults over 20 years of age,[25] with a secret ballot for all elective offices.[24] The liberal conservative Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) has been in power since 1955, except for a short-lived coalition government formed from opposition parties in 1993.[26] The largest opposition party is the social liberal Democratic Party of Japan. The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The House of Representatives ) is the lower house of the Diet of Japan. ... The House of Councillors ) is the upper house of the Diet of Japan. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... Liberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism that combines the classical conservative concern for established tradition, respect for authority and (sometimes) religious values with liberal ideas, especially on economic issues (see economic liberalism, which advocates free market capitalism). ... The Liberal Democratic Party ), frequently abbreviated to LDP or Jimintō ), is a conservative political party and the largest party in Japan, which has been ruling almost uninterruptedly since Japan regained independence after World War II. It is not to be confused with the now-defunct Liberal Party ), which merged with... A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ... Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ... The Democratic Party of Japan ) is a liberal party in Japan. ...


The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government. The position is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the Diet from among its members and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office. The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet (the literal translation of his Japanese title is "Prime Minister of the Cabinet") and appoints and dismisses the Ministers of State, a majority of whom must be Diet members. Shinzo Abe currently serves as the Prime Minister of Japan.[27] The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... The House of Representatives ) is the lower house of the Diet of Japan. ... The Cabinet (内閣, Naikaku) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ... Minister of State is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system. ... Shinzo Abe , ; born September 21, 1954) is the current Prime Minister of Japan, elected by a special session of the National Diet on September 26, 2006. ...


Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. However, since the late nineteenth century, the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably France and Germany. For example, in 1896, the Japanese government established a civil code based on the German model. With post-World War II modifications, the code remains in effect in present-day Japan.[28] Statutory law originates in Japan's legislature, the National Diet of Japan, with the rubber-stamp approval of the Emperor. The current constitution requires that the Emperor promulgates legislation passed by the Diet, without specifically giving him the power to oppose the passing of the legislation.[24] Japan's court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts.[29] The main body of Japanese statutory law is a collection called the Six Codes.[28] Chinese law is one of the oldest legal traditions in the world. ... Japanese law was historically heavily influenced by Chinese law and developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki, but has been largely based on the civil law of Germany since the late 19th century. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... Kujikata Osadamegaki (公事方御定書, lit. ... In the judicial system of Japan, the postwar constitution guarantees that all judges shall be independent in the exercise of their conscience and shall be bound only by this constitution and the Laws (Article 76). ... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ... The Supreme Court of Japan ((最高裁判所 Saikō-Saibansho; called 最高裁 Saikō-Sai for short), located in Chiyoda, Tokyo is the highest court in Japan. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Foreign relations and military

Sailors aboard the JMSDF training vessel JDS Kashima
Sailors aboard the JMSDF training vessel JDS Kashima

Japan maintains close economic and military relations with its key ally the United States, with the US-Japan security alliance serving as the cornerstone of its foreign policy.[30] A member state of the United Nations since 1956, Japan has served as a non-permanent Security Council member for a total of 18 years, most recently in 2005–2006. It is also one of the G4 nations seeking permanent membership in the Security Council.[31] As a member of the G8, the APEC, the "ASEAN Plus Three" and a participant in the East Asia Summit, Japan actively participates in international affairs. It is also the world's second-largest donor of official development assistance, donating 0.19% of its GNP in 2004.[32] Japan contributed non-combatant troops to the Iraq War but subsequently withdrew its forces from Iraq.[33] Despite the burst of the Japanese asset price bubble in the early 1990s and the subsequent slow economic growth, Japan remains a major economic and cultural power. ... The Japan Self-Defense Forces ), or JSDF, are the military forces in Japan that were established after the end of World War II. The force has not been engaged in real combat but has been engaged in some international peacekeeping operations. ... The Ministry of Defense ) is a ministry in the Cabinet of Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Shinzo Abe , ; born September 21, 1954) is the current Prime Minister of Japan, elected by a special session of the National Diet on September 26, 2006. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Download high resolution version (1200x787, 291 KB)Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (May 4, 2004) - Japanese Sailors aboard the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) training vessel JDS Kashima (TV 3508) stand in ranks after docking in Pearl Harbor. ... Download high resolution version (1200x787, 291 KB)Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (May 4, 2004) - Japanese Sailors aboard the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) training vessel JDS Kashima (TV 3508) stand in ranks after docking in Pearl Harbor. ... The Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Force, tasked with the naval defense of Japan, and was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II. The force is based strictly on defensive armament, lacking the offensive... The relationship between Japan and the United States of America is one of very close economic and military cooperation, as well as great cultural proliferation. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... “UNSC” redirects here. ... Since 1966, the UN Security Council has included 10 elected (non-permanent) members. ... G4 countries. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... APEC member countries shown in green Headquarters Type Economic forum Member countries 21 Leaders  -  Executive Director  Colin S. Heseltine Establishment 1989 Website http://www. ... ASEAN Plus Three is a forum that function as a coordinator of cooperation between Association of Southeast Asian Nations with three East Asian nations; namely Japan, Peoples Republic of China and South Korea. ... The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a pan-Asia forum to be held annually by the leaders of 16 countries in East Asia and the region, with ASEAN in a leadership position. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Development aid. ... Previously known as Gross National Product, Gross National Income comprises the total value of goods and services produced within a country (i. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


Japan is engaged in several territorial disputes with its neighbors: with Russia over the South Kuril Islands, with South Korea over the Liancourt Rocks, with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands and with China over the status of Okinotorishima.[34] Japan also faces an ongoing dispute with North Korea over its abduction of Japanese citizens and its nuclear weapons and missile program. The Kuril Islands with the disputed islands highlighted The Kuril Island conflict is a dispute between Japan and Russia over sovereignty over the southernmost Kuril Islands. ... The Liancourt Rocks are islets in the Sea of Japan (East Sea). ... // Aerial view of Uotsuri-jima / Diaoyu-dao Kuba Jima (久場島) or Huangwei Yu (黃尾嶼 Yellow Tail) is located at has an area of 1. ... Okinotorishima Okinotorishima Okinotorishima ) (Traditional Chinese: 沖鳥礁, Simplified Chinese: 冲鸟礁) is an atoll, which in English has multiple designations (Okinotori coral reefs, Okinotori Islands). ... In May 2004, North Korea allowed the five children of two abducted couples to leave North Korea and join their families, who had come back to Japan for a year and a half. ... North Korea claims to possess nuclear weapons, and the CIA asserts that it has a substantial arsenal of chemical weapons. ...


Japan's military is restricted by Article 9 of the Constitution of Japan, which renounces Japan's right to declare war or use military force as a means of settling international disputes, although the current government is seeking to amend the Constitution via a referendum.[35] Japan's military is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and primarily consists of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF). The forces have been recently used in peacekeeping operations and the deployment of Japanese troops to Iraq marked the first overseas use of its military since World War II.[33] The Constitution of Japan has the Article 9 No War clause. ... The Constitution of Japan ) has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1946. ... The Ministry of Defense ) is a ministry in the Cabinet of Japan. ... The flag of Japan Ground Self-Defense Force The Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force ), or JGSDF, is the name of the military ground forces (army) of Japan. ... The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force ), or JMSDF, is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan and formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II.[1] The force is based strictly on defensive armament, largely lacking... The Japan Air Self-Defense Force ), or JASDF, is the aviation branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and other aerospace operations. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... In 2004, the Japanese government ordered a deployment of troops to Iraq at the request of the United States: A contingent of the Japan Self-Defense Forces was sent in order to assist the U.S.-led occupation of Iraq, sending 600 soldiers into Iraqi soil. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Administrative divisions

While there exist eight commonly defined regions of Japan, administratively Japan consists of forty-seven prefectures, each overseen by an elected governor, legislature and administrative bureaucracy. The former city of Tokyo is further divided into twenty-three special wards, each with the same powers as cities. The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ... A city ) is a local administrative unit in Japan. ... A town (町 chō) is a local administrative unit in Japan. ... A village (村 mura or son) is a local administrative unit in Japan. ... Japan has many major cities. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 222 KB) Summary Photo taken by Bobak HaEri. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 222 KB) Summary Photo taken by Bobak HaEri. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Yokohama_MinatoMirai21. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Yokohama_MinatoMirai21. ... For a tire company, known by Yokohama Tyre, see Yokohama Rubber Company. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1228, 761 KB) Summary This photograph shows the city of Osaka, Japan, from Osaka Castle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1228, 761 KB) Summary This photograph shows the city of Osaka, Japan, from Osaka Castle. ... Osaka )   is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of HonshÅ«. The city is the capital of Osaka Prefecture. ... Map of the regions of Japan. ... The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ... Tokyo City (東京市 Tōkyō-shi) was a Japanese municipality located in the center of the Tokyo urban area. ... The special wards of Tokyo are 23 municipalities that together make up the core and the most populous part of Tokyo, Japan. ...


The nation is currently undergoing administrative reorganization by merging many of the cities, towns and villages with each other. This process will reduce the number of sub-prefecture administrative regions and is expected to cut administrative costs.[36] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Japan has dozens of major cities, which play an important role in Japan's culture, heritage and economy. Those in the list below of the ten most populous are all prefectural capitals and Government Ordinance Cities, except where indicated: Japan has many major cities. ... A position of each city designated by government ordinance A city designated by government ordinance (a designated city or Government Ordinance City (Japanese: 政令指定都市 seirei shitei toshi or 政令市 seirei shi)) is a Japanese city that has a population greater than 500,000; has important economic and industrial functions; and that is...

City Prefecture Population[37]
1 Tokyoa   Tokyo 8,535,792
2 Yokohama Kanagawa   3,602,758
3 Osaka Osaka 2,635,420
4 Nagoya Aichi 2,223,148
5 Sapporo Hokkaidō 1,888,953
6 Kobe Hyōgo 1,528,687
7 Kyoto Kyoto 1,472,511
8 Fukuoka Fukuoka 1,414,417
9 Kawasakib Kanagawa 1,342,262
10 Saitama Saitama 1,182,744

a 23 municipalities. Also capital of Japan.
b Government Ordinance City only.
The special wards of Tokyo are 23 municipalities that together make up the core and the most populous part of Tokyo, Japan. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... For a tire company, known by Yokohama Tyre, see Yokohama Rubber Company. ... Kanagawa Prefecture ) is a prefecture located in the southern Kantō region of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Osaka )   is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of HonshÅ«. The city is the capital of Osaka Prefecture. ... Osaka Prefecture (大阪府 ÅŒsaka-fu) is part of the Kinki region on Honshu island, Japan. ... Nagoya ) is the fourth largest city in Japan. ... For the company, see Aichi Steel Corporation. ... Sapporo redirects here. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... Kobe ) is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture and a prominent port city in Japan with a population of about 1. ... Hyōgo Prefecture (兵庫県 Hyōgo-ken) is located in the Kinki region on Honshu island, Japan. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... The Iwashimizu Hachimangu, a Shinto shrine in Yawata. ... Concern has been expressed that this article or section is missing information about: Famous people from Fukuoka. ... Fukuoka Prefecture ) is located on KyÅ«shÅ« Island, Japan. ... This article is about the Japanese city. ... Kanagawa Prefecture ) is a prefecture located in the southern Kantō region of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Saitama ) is the capital and the most populous city of Saitama Prefecture in Japan. ... Saitama Prefecture (埼玉県; Saitama-ken) is located on Honshu island, Japan. ...


Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of Japan
Japan from space, May 2003.
Japan from space, May 2003.
Mount Fuji, the highest point in Japan, with sakura and the Shinkansen in the foreground.
Mount Fuji, the highest point in Japan, with sakura and the Shinkansen in the foreground.

Japan is a country of over three thousand islands extending along the Pacific coast of Asia. The main islands, running from north to south, are Hokkaidō, Honshū (the main island), Shikoku and Kyūshū. The Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa, are a chain of islands south of Kyushū. Together they are often known as the Japanese Archipelago. Japan is an island nation in East Asia comprised of a large stratovolcanic archipelago extending along the Pacific coast of Asia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (5800x7200, 3774 KB) Satellite image of Japan in May 2003. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (5800x7200, 3774 KB) Satellite image of Japan in May 2003. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (872x608, 89 KB) Summary self made Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (872x608, 89 KB) Summary self made Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Mount Fuji Mount Fuji , IPA: )   is the highest mountain in Japan. ... “Cherry Blossom” redirects here. ... 300 (left) and 700 Series Shinkansen at Tokyo Station Shinkansen 500 Series at Kyoto Station, March 2005 The Shinkansen ) is a network of high-speed railway lines in Japan operated by Japan Railways. ... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest of the Earths oceanic subdivisions. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... HonshÅ« (本州 Literally Main State) is the largest island of Japan, called the Mainland; it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait. ... This article is about the island. ... KyÅ«shÅ« region of Japan and the current prefectures on KyÅ«shÅ« island KyÅ«shÅ« ), literally Nine Provinces, is the third largest island of Japan and most southerly and westerly of the four main islands. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... Okinawa Island (沖縄本島 Okinawa-hontō, the main island of Okinawa) is the largest of the Ryukyu Islands at the edge of the East China Sea, helping to define the seas boundary with the open Pacific Ocean. ... The Japanese Archipelago which forms the country of Japan extends from north to south along the eastern coast of the Eurasian Continent, the western shore of the Pacific Ocean. ...


About 70% to 80% of the country is forested, mountainous,[38][39] and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial, or residential use. This is due to the generally steep elevations, climate and risk of landslides caused by earthquakes, soft ground and heavy rain. This has resulted in an extremely high population density in the habitable zones that are mainly located in coastal areas. Japan is the thirtieth most densely populated country in the world.[40] Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ...


Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire, at the juncture of three tectonic plates, gives Japan frequent low-intensity tremors and occasional volcanic activity. Destructive earthquakes, often resulting in tsunamis, occur several times each century.[41] The most recent major quakes are the 2004 Chūetsu earthquake and the Great Hanshin Earthquake of 1995. Hot springs are numerous and have been developed as resorts.[42] The Pacific Ring of Fire The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions encircling the basin of the Pacific Ocean. ... An earthquake is the result from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ... The ChÅ«etsu Earthquakes ) began at 5:56 p. ... Damage from the Great Hanshin Earthquake is kept intact at the Earthquake Memorial Park near the Port of Kobe. ... Outdoor pool, Naruko Outdoor Onsen on Nakanoshima island in Nachikatsuura, Wakayama Prefecture Old onsen in Hakone An private outdoor rotenburo in Gorakadan Guidebook to Hakone from 1811 This rotenburo at Jigokudani Onsen is for Japanese Macaques. ...


The climate of Japan is predominantly temperate, but varies greatly from north to south.[43] Japan's geographical features divide it into six principal climatic zones: In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ...

  • Hokkaidō: The northernmost zone has a temperate climate with long, cold winters and cool summers. Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snow banks in the winter.
  • Sea of Japan: On Honshū's west coast, the northwest wind in the wintertime brings heavy snowfall. In the summer, the region is cooler than the Pacific area, though it sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures, due to the Föhn wind phenomenon.
  • Central Highland: A typical inland climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter, and between day and night. Precipitation is light.
  • Seto Inland Sea: The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the region from the seasonal winds, bringing mild weather throughout the year.
  • Pacific Ocean: The east coast experiences cold winters with little snowfall and hot, humid summers due to the southeast seasonal wind.
  • South-west Islands: The Ryukyu Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very heavy, especially during the rainy season. Typhoons are common.

The main rainy season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the stationary rain front responsible for this gradually works its way north until it dissipates in northern Japan before reaching Hokkaidō in late July. In most of Honshū, the rainy season begins before the middle of June and lasts about six weeks. In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain.[43]   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... The Sea of Japan, also known as the East Sea (see naming dispute), is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered by Japan, Korea and Russia. ... A föhn wind or foehn wind occurs when a deep layer of prevailing wind is forced over a mountain range (Orographic lifting). ... The Central Highland ) (or Koshin Region )) is a region of Japan comprising most of Nagano Prefecture and Yamanashi Prefectures, as well as Hida Block and Tōnō Block of Gifu Prefecture. ... An inland sea is a shallow sea that covers central areas of continents during high stands of sea level that result in marine transgressions. ... Chugoku region, Japan The ChÅ«goku region (中国地方 ChÅ«goku-chihō) is the westernmost region of Honshu, the largest island of Japan. ... This article is about the island. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... The East Asian rainy season (梅雨), pronounced meiyu in Chinese and tsuyu or (less commonly) baiu in Japanese, refers to the frontal precipitation caused by the mei-yu front, a persistent east-west zone of disturbed weather during spring which is quasi-stationary and stretches from the east China coast, across... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004. ...


Japan is home to nine forest ecoregions which reflect the climate and geography of the islands. They range from subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Ryūkyū and Bonin islands, to temperate broadleaf and mixed forests in the mild climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold, winter portions of the northern islands.[44] Japan is home to a nine forest ecoregions, which reflect its climate and geography. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Temperate mixed forest in Yunnan, southwest China. ... Pine forests are an example of a temperate coniferous forests Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Japan
The Tokyo headquarters of the Bank of Japan, the country's central bank.
The Tokyo headquarters of the Bank of Japan, the country's central bank.

Close government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation have helped Japan become the second largest economy in the world,[45] after the United States, at around US$4.5 trillion in terms of nominal GDP[45] and third after the United States and China in terms of purchasing power parity.[46] The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#Economy. ... Download high resolution version (1000x758, 257 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1000x758, 257 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... The Bank of Japan has its headquarters in this building in Tokyo. ... Work ethic is a set of values based on the moral virtues of hard work and diligence. ... High tech refers to high technology, technology that is at the cutting-edge and the most advanced currently available. ... Portions of this article or section may be outdated. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... A regions gross domestic product, or GDP, is one of several measures of the size of its economy. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ...


Banking, insurance, real estate, retailing, transportation and telecommunications are all major industries. Japan has a large industrial capacity and is home to some of the largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles and processed foods. It is home to leading multinational corporations and commercial brands in technology and machinery.[47] Construction has long been one of Japan's largest industries, with the help of multi-billion dollar government contracts in the civil sector. Distinguishing characteristics of the Japanese economy have included the cooperation of manufacturers, suppliers, distributors and banks in closely-knit groups called keiretsu and the guarantee of lifetime employment in big corporations.[48] Recently, Japanese companies have begun to abandon some of these norms in an attempt to increase profitability.[49] “Banker” redirects here. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... A drawing of a self-service store Retailing consists of the sale of goods/merchandise for personal or household consumption either from a fixed location such as a department store or kiosk, or away from a fixed location and related subordinated services (Definition of the WTO (last page). ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as, semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures, and vacuum tubes. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ... The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily loses electrons to form positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. ... Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of offshore navigation. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... “fabric” redirects here. ... Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, texture and flavor. ... A multinational corporation (MNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... A brand is a name, logo, slogan, and/or design scheme associated with a product or service. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A keiretsu lit. ... Lifetime employment or Permanent employment (jap. ...

With a market capitalization of more than US$4 trillion, the Tokyo Stock Exchange is the second largest in the world.
With a market capitalization of more than US$4 trillion, the Tokyo Stock Exchange is the second largest in the world.

Japan is home to the world's largest bank,[50] the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group,[51] which has roughly US$1.7 trillion in assets;[50] the world's largest postal savings system; and the largest holder of personal savings, Japan Post, holding personal savings valued at around US$3.3 trillion. It is home to the world's second largest stock exchange, the Tokyo Stock Exchange, with a market capitalization of over US$4 trillion as of December 2006.[52] It is also home to some of the largest financial services companies, business groups and banks. For instance several large keiretsus (business groups) and multinational companies such as Sony, Sumitomo, Mitsubishi and Toyota own billion- and trillion-dollar operating banks, investment groups and/or financial services such as Sumitomo Bank, Fuji Bank, Mitsubishi Bank, Toyota Financial Services and Sony Financial Holdings. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 724 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1243 pixel, file size: 698 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tokyo Stock Exchange, Tokyo, Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 724 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1243 pixel, file size: 698 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tokyo Stock Exchange, Tokyo, Japan. ... The Tokyo Stock Exchange ), or TSE, is one of the largest stock exchange markets in the world by monetary volume located in Tokyo, Japan, second only to the New York Stock Exchange. ... Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group, Incorporated ) (TYO: 8306 NYSE: MTU ), or MUFG, is one of the worlds largest banks with assets of around USD $1. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... In business and accounting an asset is anything owned which can produce future economic benefit, whether in possession or by right to take possession, by a person or a group acting together, e. ... Postal savings systems were offered by many nations post offices to provide depositors who did not have access to banks a safe, convenient method to save money and to promote saving among the poor. ... Save might refer to: Save (sport) - to stop a goal or maintain the lead To save a document in computer file management (see also Saving a webpage) The River Save (Zimbabwe), Zimbabwe The River Save (Hungary), Hungary -- joins the Danube just above Belgrade. ... Japan Post ) is a public corporation in Japan offering postal and package delivery services, banking services, and life insurance. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... The Tokyo Stock Exchange ), or TSE, is one of the largest stock exchange markets in the world by monetary volume located in Tokyo, Japan, second only to the New York Stock Exchange. ... Capitalization (or capitalisation) is writing a word with its first letter as a majuscule (upper case letter) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lower case letters), in those writing systems which have a case distinction. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... Financial services is a term used to refer to the services provided by the finance industry. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... “Banker” redirects here. ... A keiretsu lit. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ... The Sumitomo Group is a group of related japanese companies, (keiretsu). ... Mitsubishi Logo The Mitsubishi Group ), Mitsubishi Group of Companies, or Mitsubishi Companies, all refer to a large grouping of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. ... This article is about the automaker. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... “Banker” redirects here. ... Invest redirects here. ... The Sumitomo Bank, Limited (Sumitomo Bank 住友銀行 Sumitomo Ginkō) was a Japanese bank. ... Fuji Bank Head Office in Tokyo, now Mizuho Financial Group Headqaurters The Fuji Bank, Limited ) was one of Japans major banks during the post-World War II era. ... The Mitsubishi Bank, Ltd. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Sony Financial Holdings Inc. ...


From the 1960s to the 1980s, overall real economic growth has been called a "miracle": a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and a 4% average in the 1980s.[53] Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s, largely due to the after-effects of over-investment during the late 1980s and domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Government efforts to revive economic growth met with little success and were further hampered in 2000 to 2001 by the deceleration of the global economy.[47] However, the economy showed strong signs of recovery after 2005. GDP growth for that year was 2.8%, with an annualized fourth quarter expansion of 5.5%, surpassing the growth rates of the US and European Union during the same period.[54] Japanese Post-War Economic Miracle is the name given to the historical phenomenon of Japans record period of economic growth following World War II, spurred both by US investment and Japanese government economic interventionism in particular through their Ministry of International Trade and Industry. ... Inflation-adjusted house prices in Japan (1980–2005) compared to house price appreciation the United States, Britain, and Australia (1995–2005). ...


Because only about 15% of Japan's land is suitable for cultivation,[55] a system of terrace farming is used to build in small areas. This results in one of the world's highest levels of crop yields per unit area. However, Japan's small agricultural sector is also highly subsidized and protected. Japan must import about 50%[56] of its requirements of grain and fodder crops other than rice, and it relies on imports for most of its supply of meat. In fishing, Japan is ranked second in the world behind China in tonnage of fish caught. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch.[47] Japan relies on foreign countries for almost all oil and food.[57] The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated...


Transportation in Japan is highly developed. As of 2004, there are 1,177,278 km (731,683 miles) of paved roadways, 173 airports, and 23,577 km (14,653 miles) of railways.[47] Air transport is mostly operated by All Nippon Airways (ANA) and Japan Airlines (JAL). Railways are operated by Japan Railways among others. There are extensive international flights from many cities and countries to and from Japan. km redirects here. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... All Nippon Airways Company, Limited , TYO: 9202 , LSE: ANA), also known as ZennikkÅ« ) or ANA, is an airline headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Japan Railway, more commonly called JR, is a collective term for the privatized descendants of the former Japanese National Railways, formed when JNR was divided into seven parts on April 1, 1987. ...


Japan's main export partners are the United States 22.9%, China 13.4%, South Korea 7.8%, Taiwan 7.3% and Hong Kong 6.1% (for 2005). Japan's main exports are transport equipment, motor vehicles, electronics, electrical machinery and chemicals.[47] With very limited natural resources to sustain economic development, Japan depends on other nations for most of its raw materials; thus it imports a wide variety of goods. Its main import partners are China 21%, U.S. 12.7%, Saudi Arabia 5.5%, UAE 4.9%, Australia 4.7%, South Korea 4.7% and Indonesia 4% (for 2005). Japan's main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs (in particular beef), chemicals, textiles and raw materials for its industries. Overall, Japan's largest trading partner is China.[58] Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as, semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures, and vacuum tubes. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... Food from plant sources Food is any substance normally eaten or drunk by living organisms. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... “fabric” redirects here. ...


Science and technology

Japan is a leading nation in the fields of scientific research, technology, machinery and medical research. Nearly 700,000 researchers share a US$130 billion research and development budget, the third largest in the world.[59] Japan is one of leading nations in the fields of scientific research, technology, machinery and medical research with the worlds third largest budget for research and development at US$130 billion, and over 677,000 researchers. ... A scientific method or process is considered fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research and applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial significance apart from its conventional coupling of scientific research and technological development. ...


Some of Japan's more important technological contributions are found in the fields of electronics, machinery, industrial robotics, optics, chemicals, semiconductors and metals. Japan leads the world in robotics, possessing more than half (402,200 of 742,500) of the world's industrial robots used for manufacturing.[60] It also produced QRIO, ASIMO and Aibo. Japan is also home to six of the world's fifteen largest automobile manufacturers and seven of the world's twenty largest semiconductor sales leaders. Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as, semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures, and vacuum tubes. ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... An industrial robot is officially defined by ISO (Standard 8373:1994, Manipulating Industrial Robots – Vocabulary) as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature, but which has a sizable electrical conductivity at room temperature. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily loses electrons to form positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. ... Robotics is the science and technology of robots, their design, manufacture, and application. ... QRIO (Quest for cuRIOsity, originally named Sony Dream Robot or SDR) was to be bipedal humanoid entertainment robot marketed and sold by Sony to follow up on the success of its AIBO toy. ... Press release photo of the most recent ASIMO model ASIMO ) is a humanoid robot created by Honda Motor Company. ... The AIBO ERS-7 resembles a small dog AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, also means love or attachment in Japanese, can also mean partner) is one of several types of robotic pets designed and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction in 1999. ... // The following data show the automobile manufacturers which produce or have produced automobiles, and some data on their relative sizes. ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... A semiconductor is a fuckin solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a metal and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ...


Japan has significant plans in space exploration, including building a moonbase by 2030.[61] The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) conducts space and planetary research, aviation research, and development of rockets and satellites. It also built the Japanese Experiment Module, which is slated to be launched and added to the International Space Station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2007 and 2008.[62] Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... “Lunar outpost” redirects here. ... The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ), or JAXA, is Japans national aerospace agency. ... ISS JAXA JEM module The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Kibō (希望, Hope) is the Japanese contribution to the International Space Station and is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and is the largest module for the ISS. It consists of 4 components: The Pressurized Module (PM) is the core component. ... International Space Station insignia ISS Statistics Crew: 3 As of June 20, 2007 Perigee: 319. ... For the current Space Shuttle mission, see STS-117 NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ...


Demographics

A view of Shibuya crossing, an example of Tokyo's often crowded streets.
A view of Shibuya crossing, an example of Tokyo's often crowded streets.
Shinto torii at Fushimi Inari-taisha, Kyoto.
Shinto torii at Fushimi Inari-taisha, Kyoto.

Japan's population is estimated at around 127.4 million.[63] For the most part, Japanese society is linguistically and culturally homogeneous with only small populations of foreign workers, Zainichi Koreans, Japanese Chinese, Japanese Filipinos, Japanese Brazilians and others. Japan also has indigenous minority groups such as the Ainu and Ryūkyūans, as well as social minority groups like the burakumin. Birth and death rates of Japan since 1950 Japans population, currently 127,463,611, experienced a high growth rate during the 20th century, as a result of scientific, industrial, and social changes. ... Japanese  ) is a language spoken by over 130 million people, in Japan and Japanese emigrant communities around the world. ... Most Japanese people do not believe in any one particular religion; instead they incorporate the features of many religions in their daily lives in a process known as syncretism. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 470 KB) Shibuya Crossing in Tokyo, Japan Photo taken summer 2003 by user en:user:Willswe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 470 KB) Shibuya Crossing in Tokyo, Japan Photo taken summer 2003 by user en:user:Willswe. ... Categories: Wards of Tokyo | Japan geography stubs ... Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 1145 KB)larger version of my Kyoto Fushimi Inari Torii photo * Author: me, Paul Vlaar * Source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 1145 KB)larger version of my Kyoto Fushimi Inari Torii photo * Author: me, Paul Vlaar * Source: http://www. ... A famous floating torii at Itsukushima Shrine Multiple torii at Osaka shrine Torii are widespread in Japan, to the extent that modern architecture sometimes emulates their form. ... The gates at Fushimi Inari Fushimi Inari Taisha ) is a shinto jinja (shrine) dedicated to the spirit Inari, located in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chinese in Japan, also referred to as kakyou (Japanese: 華僑, literally Chinese sojourners) or zainichi chuugokujin (Japanese: 在日中国人, literally Chinese people resident in Japan), have a history going back for centuries or even millenia. ... Filipinos in Japan formed a population of 245,518 individuals as of 1998. ... A Japanese-Brazilian is an ethnically Japanese person born in Brazil. ... A minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant plurality of the total population of a given society. ... Ainu IPA: /ʔáınu/) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern HonshÅ«, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ... RyÅ«kyÅ«an people (Japanese: 琉球民族, of which Okinawans, Miyako people, and Yaeyama people are subgroups), are the indigenous people of the RyÅ«kyÅ« Islands of Japan between the islands of KyÅ«shÅ« and Taiwan. ... Burakumin (: buraku, community or hamlet + min, people), or hisabetsu buraku ( discriminated communities / discriminated hamlets) are a Japanese social minority group. ...


Japan has one of the highest life expectancy rates in the world, at 81.25 years of age as of 2006.[64] However, the Japanese population is rapidly aging, the effect of a post-war baby boom followed by a decrease in births in the latter part of the twentieth century. In 2004, about 19.5% of the population was over the age of 65.[65] World map of human life expectancy, 2005 Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average length of survival of a living thing. ... A US postage stamp depicting the increase in birth rate that country experienced after World War II. As is often the case with a large war, the elation of victory and large numbers of returning males to their country triggered a baby boom after the end of World War II...


The changes in the demographic structure have created a number of social issues, particularly a potential decline in the workforce population and increases in the cost of social security benefits such as the public pension plan. It is also noted that many Japanese youth are increasingly preferring not to marry or have families as adults.[66] Japan's population is expected to drop to 100 million by 2050 and to 64 million by 2100.[65] Demographers and government planners are currently in a heated debate over how to cope with this problem.[66] Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the nation's aging population.[67] Immigration, however, is not popular.[68] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Marriage is a relationship that plays a key role in the definition of many families. ...


Around 84% of Japanese people profess to believe both Shinto (the indigenous religion of Japan) and Buddhism.[63] Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism from China have significantly influenced Japanese beliefs and mythology. Religion in Japan tends to be syncretic in nature, and this results in a variety of practices, such as parents and children celebrating Shinto rituals, students praying before exams, couples holding a wedding at a Christian church and funerals being held at Buddhist temples. A minority (0.7%) profess to Christianity.[63] In addition, since the mid-19th century, numerous religious sects (Shinshūkyō) have emerged in Japan. Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, China Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a... It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... ShinshÅ«kyō ) is a term used in Japan to describe new religious movements. ...


About 99% of the population speaks Japanese as their first language.[63] It is an agglutinative language distinguished by a system of honorifics reflecting the hierarchical nature of Japanese society, with verb forms and particular vocabulary which indicate the relative status of speaker and listener. Japanese has borrowed or derived large amounts of vocabulary from Chinese and, since the end of World War II, English. The writing system uses kanji (Chinese characters) and two sets of kana (syllabaries based on simplified Chinese characters), as well as the Roman alphabet and Arabic numerals. The Ryūkyūan languages, also part of the Japonic language family to which Japanese belongs, are spoken in Okinawa, but few children learn these languages.[69] The Ainu language is moribund, with only a few elderly native speakers remaining in Hokkaidō.[70] Most public and private schools require students to take courses in both Japanese and English.[71] It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Honorific speech is speech which shows respect. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is subordinate to a single other element. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...   Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji This article describes the modern Japanese writing system and its history. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Manyogana 万葉仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ... A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... The RyÅ«kyÅ«an languages are spoken in the RyÅ«kyÅ« Islands and make up a subfamily of the Japonic family. ... The Japonic languages or Japanese-Ryukyuan languages constitute a language family that is agreed to have descended from a common ancestral language known as Proto-Japonic or Proto-Japanese-Ryukyuan. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... The Ainu language (Ainu: , aynu itak; Japanese: ainu-go) is spoken by the Ainu ethnic group on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaidō. It was once spoken in the Kurile Islands, the northern part of HonshÅ«, and the southern half of Sakhalin. ... A language is usually considered moribund (literally, dying) when it is no longer the language of the community, and is no longer learned by children, so that without massive intervention it will likely become extinct when the last of its current speakers dies. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ...


Education and health

Primary, secondary schools and universities were introduced into Japan in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration.[72] Since 1947, compulsory education in Japan consists of elementary school and middle school, which lasts for nine years (from age 6 to age 15). Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school, and, according to the MEXT, about 75.9% of high school graduates attend a university, junior college, trade school, or other post-secondary institution in 2005.[73] Japan's education is very competitive,[74] especially for entrance to institutions of higher education. According to The Times Higher Education Supplement, the two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University.[75] A typical Japanese classroom Education is an important issue in Japanese society. ... In the Japanese health care system, public health services, including free screening examinations for particular diseases, prenatal care, and infectious disease control, are provided by national and local governments. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Office building The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology ), also known as MEXT, is one of the ministries of the Japanese government. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... For the Indian grade 11 and 12 schools, see Junior College A junior college is a two-year post-secondary school whose main purpose is to provide a method of obtaining academic, vocational and professional education. ... The Times Higher Education Supplement, also known as The Times Higher or The THES for short, is a newspaper based in London that reports specifically on issues related to higher education. ... The University of Tokyo ), abbreviated as Todai ), is one of the leading research universities in Japan. ... The Clocktower Kyoto University (Japanese: 京都大学, Kyōto Daigaku; abbreviated to 京大, Kyōdai) in Kyoto, Japan, is the second oldest university and one of the leading research universities in the country. ...


In Japan, healthcare services are provided by national and local governments. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health care insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Since 1973, all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance.[76] Patients are free to select physicians or facilities of their choice.[77]

Culture and recreation

Main article: Culture of Japan

Japanese culture has evolved greatly over the years, from the country's original Jōmon culture to its contemporary culture, which combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. Traditional Japanese arts include crafts (ikebana, origami, ukiyo-e, dolls, lacquerware, pottery), performances (bunraku, dance, kabuki, noh, rakugo), traditions (games, tea ceremony, budō, architecture, gardens, swords) and cuisine. The fusion of traditional woodblock printing and Western art led to the creation of manga, a typically Japanese comic book format that is now popular within and outside Japan.[78] Manga-influenced animation for television and film is called anime. Japanese-made video game consoles have prospered since the 1980s.[79] The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over the years, from the countrys original Jomon culture to its contemporary hybrid culture, which combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 552 pixelsFull resolution (4335 × 2990 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 552 pixelsFull resolution (4335 × 2990 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Great Wave off Kanagawa[1] The Great Wave off Kanagawa ) is a famous woodblock printing by Hokusai. ... View of Mount Fuji from Numazu, part of the Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō series by Hiroshige, published 1850 Ukiyo-e ), pictures of the floating world, is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or woodcuts) and paintings produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries, featuring motifs of... In the Hollow of a Wave off the Coast at Kanagawa, woodcut by Katsushika Hokusai 36 Views of Mount Fuji (Japanese: 富嶽三十六景; Fugaku SanjÅ«-Rokkei) is a series of woodblock prints by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849), depicting Mount Fuji in differing seasons and weather conditions from... Katsushika Hokusai, (葛飾北斎), (1760—1849[1]), was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period . ... Japanese culture and language Japans isolation until the arrival of the Black Ships and the Meiji era produced a culture distinctively different from any other, and echoes of this uniqueness persist today. ... Characters for Jōmon (Cord marks). The Jomon period ) is the time in Japanese pre-history from about 10,000 BC to 300 BC. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BC glaciation had connected the Japanese islands with the Asian mainland. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Bronze statue of Amida Buddha at Kotokuin in Kamakura (1252 CE) Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper, and a myriad of other types of works of art. ... There are many types of crafts in Japan. ... Ikebana arrangement A Japanese hanging scroll (kakemono) and Ikebana Ikebana arranged flower),[1] is the Japanese art of flower arrangement, also known as kadō , the way of flowers) In contrast to the decorative form of flower arranging in western countries, Japanese flower arrangement emphasizes the linear aspects. ... The traditional crane and papers of the same size used to fold it A paper Pegasus designed by F. Kawahata Origami ) (literally meaning folding paper) is the art of paper folding. ... View of Mount Fuji from Numazu, part of the Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō series by Hiroshige, published 1850 Ukiyo-e ), pictures of the floating world, is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or woodcuts) and paintings produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries, featuring motifs of... Momotaro (gofun doll) Daruma Kuroda bushi (Hakata ningyo) Traditional dolls in Japan are known by the name of ningyo, which means human figure in Japanese. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... Japanese pottery, one of its oldest art forms, dates back to the Neolithic period (ca. ... Bunraku (Japanese: 文楽), also known as Ningyō jōruri (人形浄瑠璃), is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theater, founded in Osaka in 1684. ... A Japanese traditional dancer There are two types of Japanese traditional dance: the sexy dance - Odori, which originated in the Edo period, and Mai, which originated in the western part of Japan. ... The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyos leading kabuki theaters. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of traditional Japanese games. ... A woman wearing a kimono performs a tea ceremony outdoors, while seated in seiza position. ... Budo (武道) is a term for Japanese martial arts. ... The need to rebuild Japan after World War II proved a great stimulus to Japanese architecture, and contemporary Japanese buildings rank with the finest in the world in terms of technology and formal conception. ... This view from the Symbolic Mountain Lookout in Cowra, NSW shows many of the typical elements of a Japanese garden Stone lantern amid plants. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... There are many views of what is fundamental to Japanese cuisine. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... Manga )   (pl. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... The Nintendo GameCube is an example of a popular video game console. ...


Japanese music is eclectic, having borrowed instruments, scales and styles from neighboring cultures. Many instruments, such as the koto, were introduced in the ninth and tenth centuries. The accompanied recitative of the Noh drama dates from the fourteenth century and the popular folk music, with the guitar-like shamisen, from the sixteenth.[80] Western music, introduced in the late nineteenth century, now forms an integral part of the culture. Post-war Japan has been heavily influenced by American and European modern music, which has led to the evolution of popular band music called J-Pop.[81] Karaoke is the most widely practiced cultural activity. A November 1993 survey by the Cultural Affairs Agency found that more Japanese had sung karaoke that year than had participated in traditional cultural pursuits such as flower arranging or tea ceremony.[82] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Masayo Ishigure plays the koto The koto (箏) is a traditional Japanese stringed musical instrument derived from Chinese zithers. ... Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas (and occasionally in operettas and even musicals), is melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Kitagawa Utamaro, Flowers of Edo: Young Womans Narrative Chanting to the Samisen, ca. ... Western music is the genres of music originating in the Western world (Europe and its former colonies) including Western classical music, American Jazz, Country and Western, pop music and rock and roll. ... J-pop (or Jpop) is an abbreviation of Japanese pop. ... A karaoke machine Karaoke 空 kara, empty or void, and オーケストラ ōkesutora, orchestra) pronounced ;   is a form of entertainment in which an amateur singer or singers sing along with recorded music on microphone. ... Office building Office building The Agency for Cultural Affairs ) is a special body of the Japanese Ministry of Education (MEXT). ... A vase arrangement of Tulips Floristry, flower arranging, floral arrangement, floral design or floral arts is the art of creating flower arrangements in vases, bowls and baskets, or making bouquets and compositions from cut flowers, foliage, herbs, ornamental grasses and other botanical materials. ... A woman wearing a kimono performs a tea ceremony outdoors, while seated in seiza position. ...


The earliest works of Japanese literature include two history books the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki and the eighth century poetry book Man'yōshū, all written in Chinese characters.[83] In the early days of the Heian period, the system of transcription known as kana (Hiragana and Katakana) was created as phonograms. The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is considered the oldest Japanese narrative.[84] An account of Heian court life is given by The Pillow Book written by Sei Shōnagon, while The Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki is often described as the world's first novel. During the Edo Period, literature became not so much the field of the samurai aristocracy as that of the chōnin, the ordinary people. Yomihon, for example, became popular and reveals this profound change in the readership and authorship.[84] The Meiji era saw the decline of traditional literary forms, during which Japanese literature integrated Western influences. Natsume Sōseki and Mori Ogai were the first "modern" novelists of Japan, followed by Akutagawa Ryūnosuke, Tanizaki Junichirō, Kawabata Yasunari, Mishima Yukio and, more recently, Murakami Haruki. Japan has two Nobel Prize-winning authors—Kawabata Yasunari (1968) and Oe Kenzaburo (1994).[84] Japanese literature spans a period of almost two millennia. ... Kojiki or Furukotofumi (古事記), also known in English as the Records of Ancient Matters, is the oldest surviving historical book recounting events of ancient earth in the Japanese language. ... Nihonshoki (日本書紀) is the second oldest history book about the ancient history of Japan. ... ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji Hiragana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana and kanji; the Latin alphabet is also used in some cases. ... Katakana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin alphabet. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The Pillow Book ) is a book of observations and musings recorded by Sei Shōnagon during her time as court lady to Empress Sadako during the 990s in Heian Japan. ... Sei Shonagon Sei Shōnagon (清少納言), (965-1010s?) was a Japanese author and a court lady who served the Empress Consort Teishi around the year 1000, known as the author of The Pillow Book (枕草子 makura no sōshi). ... Ilustration of ch. ... Murasaki Shikibu (紫 式部 Murasaki Shikibu, c. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... Chōnin (町人 townsman) was a social class that emerged in Japan during the early years of the Tokugawa period. ... Yomihon , reading books) is a type of Japanese book from the Edo period (1603–1867), that was influenced by Chinese vernacular novels such as Water Margin. ... Natsume Soseki on the former 1000 yen note. ... Mori Ogais statue at his birthhouse in Tsuwano-cho Mori ÅŒgai ); (17 February 1862–8 July 1922) was a Japanese physician, translator, novelist and poet. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Akutagawa RyÅ«nosuke Akutagawa ); (March 1, 1892 - July 24, 1927) was a Japanese writer active in Taisho period Japan. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tanizaki Junichirō Tanizaki , 24 July 1886—30 July 1965) was a Japanese author who was one of the major writers of modern Japanese literature, and remains perhaps the most popular Japanese novelist after Natsume Soseki. ... Yasunari Kawabata (川端 康成 Kawabata Yasunari, June 14, 1899 - April 16, 1972) was a Japanese novelist who became the first Japanese, and second Asian, to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 1968. ... Yukio Mishima Yukio Mishima (三島由紀夫 Mishima Yukio), was the public name of Kimitake Hiraoka (平岡公威 Hiraoka Kimitake), (January 14, 1925 - November 25, 1970), a Japanese author and rightist political activist, notable for both his nihilistic post-war writing and the circumstances of his... Haruki Murakami (村上春樹 Murakami Haruki; born January 12, 1949) is a popular contemporary Japanese writer and translator. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... Yasunari Kawabata (川端 康成 Kawabata Yasunari, June 14, 1899 - April 16, 1972) was a Japanese novelist who became the first Japanese, and second Asian, to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 1968. ... Kenzaburo Oe Kenzaburo Oe (大江 健三郎 Ōe Kenzaburō, born January 31, 1935) is a major figure in contemporary Japanese literature. ...


Sports

Main article: Sport in Japan
Sumo, a traditional Japanese sport.

Traditionally, sumo is considered Japan's national sport and is one of its most popular sport spectated within Japan.[85] Martial arts such as judo, karate and kendō are also widely practiced and enjoyed by spectators in the country. After the Meiji Restoration, many Western sports were introduced in Japan and began to spread through the education system.[86] Sumo wrestling is a popular spectator sport in Japan that dates back hundreds of years. ... Sumo match at the Kokugikan sumo arena (Ozeki Kaio vs. ... Sumo match at the Kokugikan sumo arena (Ozeki Kaio vs. ... A Sumo match (Ozeki Kaio vs. ... A Sumo match (Ozeki Kaio vs. ... Map of the World showing the most popular sports by nation. ... Japanese martial arts refers to the enormous variety of martial arts native to Japan. ... Judo ), meaning gentle way, is a modern Japanese martial art (gendai budō) and combat sport, that originated in Japan in the late nineteenth century. ... For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The professional baseball league in Japan was established in 1936.[87] Today baseball is the most popular spectator sport in the country. One of the most famous Japanese baseball players is Ichiro Suzuki, who, having won Japan's Most Valuable Player award in 1994, 1995 and 1996, now plays in North American major league baseball. The Japanese Baseball League was a professional baseball league in Japan. ... A view of the playing field at Busch Memorial Stadium, St. ... A spectator sport is one that is characterized by the presence of spectators, or watchers, at its matches. ... Ichiro Suzuki ), often known simply as Ichiro ), is a Japanese center fielder for the Seattle Mariners Major League Baseball team. ... Major League Baseball (MLB) is the highest level of play in North American professional baseball. ...


Since the establishment of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football (soccer) has also gained a wide following.[88] Japan was a venue of the Intercontinental Cup from 1981 to 2004 and co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea. Japan is one of the best soccer teams in Asia, winning the Asian Cup the most number of times (3). The Japan Professional Football League ), or J.LEAGUE ), is the top professional football (soccer) league in Japan and one of the most successful leagues in Asian club football. ... J. League Division2 match Consadole Sapporo - Avispa Fukuoka at Sapporo,Atubetsu Soccer or football in Japan, is organized professionally by the J. League and the Japan Football Association. ... 1980-2004 Logo The European/South American Cup, commonly referred to as the Intercontinental Cup or Toyota Cup, was a football competition endorsed by UEFA and CONMEBOL, contested between the winners of the European Champions League and the South American Copa Libertadores in a match played each year, from 1980... Qualifying countries The 2002 FIFA World Cup, the 17th staging of the World Cup, was held in South Korea and Japan from May 31 to June 30. ...


Golf is also popular in Japan,[89] as is auto racing, the Super GT sports car series and Formula Nippon formula racing.[90] This article is about the sport. ... “Racing cars” redirects here. ... The Super GT series, formerly known as the All-Japan Grand Touring Car Championship or JGTC (全日本GT選手権, Zen Nihon GT Sensyuken), is a grand touring car race series promoted by the GT-Association (GT-A), authorized by the Japan Automobile Federation and recognized by the FIA. Super GT racer in... Formula Nippon is a type of formula racing and the top level of open-wheeled racing in Japan. ...


See also

References

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December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ministry of Defense ) is a ministry in the Cabinet of Japan. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 4th redirects here. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Office building The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology ), also known as MEXT, is one of the ministries of the Japanese government. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... GameSpot is a video gaming website that provides news, reviews, previews, downloads, and other information. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Metropolis is a free distribution full-color 64-80 page weekly city guide and classified ads magazine published by Crisscross K.K. for Tokyos English-speaking community. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Metropolis is a free distribution full-color 64-80 page weekly city guide and classified ads magazine published by Crisscross K.K. for Tokyos English-speaking community. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Find more information on Japan by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Official
  • Kantei.go.jp—Official prime ministerial and cabinet site
  • Kunaicho.go.jp—Official site of the Imperial family.
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs—Detailed papers on Japan's foreign policy, education programs, culture and life.
  • Shugi-in.go.jp—Official site of the House of Representatives
  • National Diet Library (English)
Media
  • NHK Online
  • Kyodo News
  • Asahi Shimbun (English)
  • The Japan Times
Tourism
  • Japan National Tourist Organization
  • Japan travel guide from Wikitravel
Other
  • CIA World Factbook—Japan
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica's Japan portal site
  • Guardian Unlimited—Special Report: Japan
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Japan, holding maps related to Japan.
  • Works by Government of Japan at Project Gutenberg containing the 1889 and 1946 Constitutions

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko of Japan. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...

Further reading

  • Christopher, Robert C., The Japanese Mind: the Goliath Explained, Linden Press/Simon and Schuster, 1983 (ISBN 0330284193)
  • De Mente, The Japanese Have a Word For It, McGraw-Hill, 1997 (ISBN 0-8442-8316-9)
  • Henshall, A History of Japan, Palgrave Macmillan, 2001 (ISBN 0-312-23370-1)
  • Jansen, The Making of Modern Japan, Belknap, 2000 (ISBN 0-674-00334-9)
  • Johnson, Japan: Who Governs?, W.W. Norton, 1996 (ISBN 0-393-31450-2)
  • Reischauer, Japan: The Story of a Nation, McGraw-Hill, 1989 (ISBN 0-07-557074-2)
  • Sugimoto et al., An Introduction to Japanese Society, Cambridge University Press, 2003 (ISBN 0-521-52925-5)
  • Van Wolferen, The Enigma of Japanese Power, Vintage, 1990 (ISBN 0-679-72802-3)
Geographic locale
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Our goal is to deliver comprehensive, up to date information on traveling and living in Japan, first-hand from Japan.
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