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Encyclopedia > January Uprising
"Polonia (Poland), 1863," by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. Pictured is the aftermath of the failed January 1863 Uprising. Captives await transportation to Siberia. Russian officers and soldiers supervise a blacksmith placing shackles on a woman (Polonia). The blonde next to her may represent Lithuania.
"Polonia (Poland), 1863," by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. Pictured is the aftermath of the failed January 1863 Uprising. Captives await transportation to Siberia. Russian officers and soldiers supervise a blacksmith placing shackles on a woman (Polonia). The blonde next to her may represent Lithuania.

The January Uprising was the longest Lithuanian and Polish uprising against the Russian Empire: it began January 22, 1863, and the last insurgents were not captured until 1865. It started as a spontaneous protest by young Poles against conscription into the Russian Army. The uprising was soon joined by various politicians and high ranking Polish officers from the tsarist army. The insurrectionists, severely outnumbered and lacking any serious outside support, were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare tactics. The insurrectionists failed to win any major military victory, and throughout the campaign, not one major city or fortress in Russian-occupied Poland was recaptured. The uprising did, however, succeed in blunting the effect of the Tsar's abolition of serfdom in the Russian partition, which had been designed to win Polish peasants away from supporting the rest of the Polish nation. In the aftermath of the uprising, severe reprisals against the Poles, such as public executions or deportations to Siberia, led many Poles to abandon armed struggle and turn instead to the idea of "organic work" - the economic and cultural self-improvement. Battle of CioÅ‚ków (the village is currently called Ciółkowo; north-east of PÅ‚ock) of January 22, 1863, was the first skirmish of the January Uprising. ... Combatants Poland imperial Russia Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw JabÅ‚onowski Jan MatliÅ„ski colonel Georgij Papaafanasopulo Strength 2 000 infantry including scythemen 1 000 infantry, few cannons Casualties 150  ? Battle of WÄ™grów was one of the most famous skirmishes of January Uprising. ... Combatants Poland imperial Russia Commanders general Marian Langiewicz colonel Zagriashko Strength 600 unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Staszów was part of the Polish January Uprising of 1863. ... Combatants Poland imperial Russia Commanders general Marian Langiewicz colonel Dobrowolski Strength 2600, 2 very small cannons 3000, 6 heavy cannons Casualties 300 unknown Battle of MaÅ‚ogoszcz took place on February 24, 1863 near MaÅ‚ogoszcz in MaÅ‚opolska. ... Combatants Polish Rebels Russian Empire Commanders General Michal Heidenreich OBrien de Lacey[1] Strength 700[1] 500 Casualties 184 killed 282 captured The Battle of Å»yrzyn took place on August 8, 1863 in PuÅ‚awy County, Poland, between a small detachment of Russian troops and a force of Polish... Wars fought between Poland and Russia include: Kiev Expedition of 1018 Muscovite-Lithuanian Wars of the 16th century Livonian War (1558-1583) Polish-Muscovite War (1605–1618) Smolensk War (1632-1634) Polish-Muscovite War (1654-1667) Bar Confederation (1768–1776), Polish factional rebellion against Russia Polish-Russian War of 1792... Polish-Russian Wars Kiev Expedition â€“ Muscovite-Lithuanian â€“ Livonian â€“ 1605–18 â€“ Smolensk â€“ 1654–67 â€“ Bar Confederation â€“ 1792 â€“ KoÅ›ciuszko Uprising â€“ November Uprising â€“ January Uprising â€“ Polish-Soviet â€“ 1939 The Polish invasion of Kievan Rus (1018) known in Polish literature as Kiev Expedition (Polish: ) and in Russian as Киевский поход, was an episode in the... The Muscovite-Lithuanian Wars (Russian: , Polish: , also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars) [1] were a series of wars between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, allied with the Kingdom of Poland, and Muscovite Russia. ... The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. ... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Tsardom of Russia The Polish–Muscovite War of 1605–1618 (also known as Polish-Russian War, although that name is also applied to several other conflicts) is the name of the series of wars between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Tsardom of Russia, in the background... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Tsardom of Russia Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw IV Waza, Krzysztof RadziwiÅ‚Å‚, Aleksander Korwin Gosiewski, Marcin Kazanowski, Samuel Drucki-SokoliÅ„ski Mikhail Borisovich Shein Strength ~25,000-30,000 ~25,000-35,000 Casualties unknown ~15,000 Polish-Russian Wars Kiev Expedition â€“ Muscovite-Lithuanian â€“ Livonian â€“ 1605–18... The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called the War for Ukraine, was the last major conflict between Muscovite Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Confederation of Bar (1768–1776), a grouping of Polish szlachta, formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of Poland against the aggressions of the Russian government as represented by her representative at Warsaw, Prince Nikolai Repnin. ... War in Defense of the Constitution or Polish-Russian War of 1792 took place in 1792 between Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth on one side, and the Russian Empire on the other. ... KoÅ›ciuszko Uprising 1794 The KoÅ›ciuszko Uprising took place in Poland in 1794. ... Coat-of-arms of the November Uprising. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... For Nazi Germanys military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Nazi Germanys invasion of Poland (1939). ... 1863 - Polonia by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1863 - Polonia by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Polonia (disambiguation). ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... National Muzeum, main building located at 3 Maja Street, Kraków. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... A shackle is a U-shaped piece of metal secured with a pin or bolt across the opening, or a hinged metal loop secured with a quick-release locking pin mechanism. ... For other uses, see Polonia (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Polish uprisings. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... The Emancipation reform of 1861 in Russia performed by tsar Alexander II of Russia amounted to liquidation of serf dependence of Russian peasants. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Organic work (Polish: , lit. ...

Contents

History

Russian army in Warsaw during martial law 1861
Russian army in Warsaw during martial law 1861

After series of patriotic riots, the Russian namestnik of Tsar Alexander II, General Nikolai Sukhozanet, introduced martial law in Poland on 14 October 1861. The uprising broke out at a moment when general quiet prevailed in Europe, and when the Revolutionary Party had not sufficient means to arm and equip the bands of young men who were hiding in forests to escape Alexander Wielopolski's order of conscription into the Russian army. Altogether about 10,000 men rallied around the revolutionary banner; they were recruited chiefly from the ranks of the city working classes and minor clerks, although there was also a considerable admixture of the younger sons of the poorer szlachta and a number of priests of lower rank. Image File history File links Warsaw1861. ... Image File history File links Warsaw1861. ... Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ) was the title of the official representatives of the king of Poland (i. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Nikolai Sukhozanet Nikolai Onufrievich Sukhozanet (Russian: ) (1794 – 22 July 1871) was a Russian General and statesman. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Revolutionary Party is the name of several political parties, including, Dominican Republic - Dominican Revolutionary Party Guatemala - Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity Haiti - Revolutionary Progressive Nationalist Party of Haiti India - Democratic Revolutionary Peoples Party Laos - Lao Peoples Revolutionary Party Mexico - Institutional Revolutionary Party Mongolia - Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party Panama - Democratic... Count Aleksander Wielopolski, head of Polands Civil Administration within the Jews. ... Stanisław Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


To deal with these ill-armed bands the government had at its disposal a well trained army of 90,000 men under General Ramsay in Poland, 60,000 troops in Lithuania and 45,000 in Volhynia. It looked as if the rebellion would be crushed in a short while. The die was cast, however, and the provisional government applied itself to the great task with fervor. It issued a manifesto in which it pronounced "all sons of Poland free and equal citizens without distinction of creed, condition and rank." It declared that land cultivated by the peasants, whether on the basis of rent-pay or service, henceforth should become their unconditional property, and compensation for it would be given to the landlords out of the general funds of the State. The revolutionary government did its very best to supply and provision the unarmed and scattered guerrillas who, during the month of February, met the Russians in eighty bloody encounters. Meanwhile, it issued an appeal to the nations of western Europe, which was received everywhere with a genuine and heartfelt response, from Norway to Portugal. Pope Pius IX ordered a special prayer for the success of the Catholic Polish against the Orthodox Russians, and was very active in arousing sympathy for the Polish rebels. Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... The Blessed Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, ( May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878) was pope for a record pontificate of over 31 years, from June 16, 1846 until his death. ...

Zouaves of Death (żuawi śmierci), an 1863 Uprising unit organized by François Rochebrune. Drawing (published 1909) by K. Sariusz-Wolski, from a photograph. From left: Count Wojciech Komorowski, Col. Rochebrune, Lt. Tenente Bella
Zouaves of Death (żuawi śmierci), an 1863 Uprising unit organized by François Rochebrune. Drawing (published 1909) by K. Sariusz-Wolski, from a photograph. From left: Count Wojciech Komorowski, Col. Rochebrune, Lt. Tenente Bella

The provisional government counted on a revolutionary outbreak in Russia, where the discontent with the autocratic regime seemed at the time to be widely prevalent. It also counted on the active support of Napoleon III, particularly after Prussia, foreseeing an inevitable armed conflict with France, made friendly overtures to Russia and offered her assistance in suppressing the Polish uprising. On the 14th day of February arrangements had already been completed, and the British Ambassador in Berlin was able to inform his government that a Prussian military envoy "has concluded a military convention with the Russian Government, according to which the two governments will reciprocally afford facilities to each other for the suppression of the insurrectionary movements which have lately taken place in Poland. The Prussian railways are also to he placed at the disposal of the Russian military authorities for the transportation of troops through Prussian territory from one part of the Kingdom of Poland to another." This step of Bismarck's led to protests on the part of several governments and roused the Polish nation. The result was the transformation of the insignificant uprising into another national war against Russia. Encouraged by the promises made by Napoleon III, the whole nation, acting upon the advice of Wladyslaw Czartoryski, the son of Prince Adam, took to arms. Indicating their solidarity with the nation, all the Poles holding office under the Russian Government, including the Archbishop of Warsaw, resigned their positions and submitted to the newly constituted Polish Government, which was composed of five most prominent representatives of the Whites. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x773, 167 KB) The Death Zouaves (żuawi Å›mierci) unit, organized by Francois Rochebrune, of the Polish January Uprising of 1863. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x773, 167 KB) The Death Zouaves (żuawi Å›mierci) unit, organized by Francois Rochebrune, of the Polish January Uprising of 1863. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Uprising is another word for rebellion. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... Noble Family Czartoryski Coat of Arms Czartoryski Parents Adam Jerzy Czartoryski Anna Zofia Sapieha Consorts Marie Amparo Marguerite Adelaide Children with Marguerite Adelaide Adam Ludwik Czartoryski Witold Kazimierz Czartoryski Date of Birth July 3, 1828 Place of Birth Warsaw Date of Death June 23, 1894 Place of Death Boulogne-sur... Noble Family Czartoryski Coat of Arms Czartoryski Parents Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski Izabela Fleming Consorts Anna Zofia Sapieha Children with Anna Zofia Sapieha Witold Czartoryski Władysław Czartoryski Izabella Elżbieta Czartoryska Date of Birth January 14, 1770 Place of Birth Warsaw, Poland Date of Death July...

Battle of Węgrów 1863
Battle of Węgrów 1863

This transformation of the insurrection into a war changed the whole aspect of the situation. An army of 30,000 men was soon organized and new additions were made. The rich elements in the cities as well as in the country offered large sums of money. The nobility of Galicia and the Duchy of Poznań supported the war with money, supplies and men. Lithuania rose under the command of Konstanty Kalinowski and soon the flame of war spread over Samogitia, Livonia, Belarus, Volhynia, Podolia and even in some places in Ukraine. Image File history File links Wegrow. ... Image File history File links Wegrow. ... Combatants Poland imperial Russia Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw JabÅ‚onowski Jan MatliÅ„ski colonel Georgij Papaafanasopulo Strength 2 000 infantry including scythemen 1 000 infantry, few cannons Casualties 150  ? Battle of WÄ™grów was one of the most famous skirmishes of January Uprising. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... Grand Duchy of Poznań (Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie, German: Grossherzogtum Posen) was province of Prussia in the Polish lands commonly known as Great Poland between the years 1815-1849. ... Konstanty Kalinowski (also known under his Belarusian and Lithuanian names of Касту́сь Каліно́ўскі or Kastuś Kalinoŭski and Kostas Kalinauskas; 1838-1864) was a writer, journalist, lawyer and revolutionist. ... Etnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ...


The diplomatic intervention of the Powers in behalf of Poland, not sustained, except in the case of Sweden, by a real determination on their part to do something effective for her, did more harm than good, as mere verbosity often does. It alienated Austria which hitherto had maintained a friendly neutrality with reference to Poland and had not interfered with the Polish activities in Galicia. It prejudiced public opinion among the radical groups in Russia who, until that time, had been friendly because they regarded the uprising as of a social rather than a national character and it stirred the Russian Government to more energetic endeavors toward the speedy suppression of hostilities which were growing in strength and determination. For other uses, see Galicia. ...

A Vilnius chapel commemorating the suppression of the 1863 Uprising.
A Vilnius chapel commemorating the suppression of the 1863 Uprising.

In addition, to the thousands who fell in battles, 128 men were hanged personally by Mikhail Muravyov ('Muravyov the Hangman'), and 9,423 men and women were exiled to Siberia (2,500 men according to very lowered Russian data, Norman Davies gives the number of 80,000 noting it was the single largest deportation in Russian history [1]). Whole villages and towns were burned down; all activities were suspended and the szlachta was ruined by confiscation and exorbitant taxes. Such was the brutality of the Russian troops that their actions were condemned throughout Europe, and even in Russia itself Muravyov became ostracized [2]. Count Fyodor Berg, the newly appointed Namestnik of Poland, followed in Muravyov's footsteps, employing inhumanly harsh measures against the country. The Reds criticized the Conservative government for its reactionary policy with reference to the peasants but, deluded in its hopes by Napoleon III, the Government counted on French support and persisted in its tactics. It was only after the highly respected and wise Romuald Traugutt took matters in hand that the aspect of the situation became brighter. He reverted to the policy of the first provisional government and endeavored to bring the peasant masses into active participation by granting to them the land they worked and calling upon all classes to rise. The response was generous but not universal. The wise policy was adopted too late. The Russian Government had already been working among the peasants in the manner above described and giving to them liberal parcels of land for the mere asking. They were completely satisfied, and though not interfering with the revolutionaries to any great extent, became lukewarm to them. Fighting continued intermittently for several months. Among the generals Count Józef Hauke-Bosak distinguished himself most as a commander of the revolutionary forces and took several cities from the vastly superior Russian army. When Romuald Traugutt and the four other members of the Polish Government were apprehended by Russian troops and executed at the Warsaw citadel, the war in the course of which six hundred and fifty battles and skirmishes were fought and twenty-five thousand Poles killed, came to a speedy end in the latter half of 1864, having lasted for eighteen months. It is of interest to note that it persisted in Samogitia and Podlachia, where the Greek-Catholic population, outraged and persecuted for their religious convictions, clung longest to the revolutionary banner. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x787, 150 KB) Chapel in Vilna, erected to commemorate the crushing of the January Uprising against Russia Picture taken by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii, taken in 1912. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x787, 150 KB) Chapel in Vilna, erected to commemorate the crushing of the January Uprising against Russia Picture taken by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii, taken in 1912. ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Uprising is another word for rebellion. ... Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov may refer to the following historical persons of the Imperial Russia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... StanisÅ‚aw Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Count Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg (Russian: ) (Fyodor Fyodorovich Graf Berg) (1793-1874) was a Russian Field Marshal and Governor-General of Finland from 1855 to 1861. ... Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ) was the title of the official representatives of the king of Poland (i. ... Józef Hauke-Bosak was a Polish general in the January Uprising, and commander of the Polish army in MaÅ‚opolska, the closest collaborator of dictator Romuald Traugutt. ... Romuald Traugutt on a 20 zloty banknote of the Peoples Republic of Poland Romuald Traugutt (16 January 1826 - 5 August 1864) was a Polish general and war hero, best known for commanding the January Uprising. ... Etnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Old chapel Krzna river Potockis Palace i MiÄ™dzyrzec Podlaski Podlachia, Podlesia, or Podlasie is a historical region in the eastern part of Poland and western Belarus. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ...


The uprising was finally crushed by Russia in 1864. 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

Graves of January Uprising veterans at Warsaw's Powązki Cemetery.
Graves of January Uprising veterans at Warsaw's Powązki Cemetery.

After the collapse of the uprising, harsh reprisals followed. According to Russian official information, 396 persons were executed and 18,672 were exiled to Siberia. Large numbers of men and women were sent to the interior of Russia and to Caucasus, Urals and other sections. Altogether about 70,000 persons were imprisoned and subsequently taken out of Poland and stationed in the remote regions of Russia. The government confiscated 1,660 estates in Poland and 1,794 in Lithuania. A 10% income tax was imposed on all estates as a war indemnity. Only in 1869 was this tax reduced to 5% on all incomes. Besides the land granted to the peasants, the Russian Government gave them additional forest, pasture and other privileges (known under the name of servitutes) which have proven to be a source of incessant irritation between the landowners and peasants, and of serious difficulty to rational economic development. The government took over all the church estates and funds, and abolished monasteries and convents. With the exception of religious instruction, all other studies in the schools were ordered to be in Russian. Russian also became the official language of the country, used exclusively in all offices of the general and local government. All traces of the former Polish autonomy were removed and the kingdom was divided into ten provinces, each with an appointed Russian military governor and all under complete control of the Governor-General at Warsaw. All the former government functionaries were deprived of their positions. Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2824 KB)Self made File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2824 KB)Self made File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Powazki Cemetery Powązki Cemetery (Polish Cmentarz powązkowski) is the oldest and most famous cemetery in Warsaw, Poland, which is situated in the western part of the city. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Famous insurgents

StanisÅ‚aw Brzóska (1832-1865) was Polish priest, general, supreme chaplain of insurgents and last heroic partisan of January Uprising. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Niegolewski (1819-1885) was a Polish liberal politician and member of parliament, insurgent in Greater Poland Uprising 1846, Greater Poland Uprising 1848 and January Uprising 1863, cofounder of Central Economic Society (TCL) in 1861 and Peoples Libraries Society (CTG) in 1880. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Greater Poland Uprising of 1846 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1846 roku) was a planned military insurrection of the Polish people in the Greater Poland region against the occupying Prussian forces, designed to be a part of the all-Polish uprising in the 3 partitions of Poland, against the Russians, Austrians and... Greater Poland Uprising of 1848 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1848 roku) was a military insurrection of the Polish people in the Grand Duchy of Poznań (or the Greater Poland region) against the occupying Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period. ... 1863 - Polonia, oil on canvas, 1864, 156 x 232 cm, National Museum in Kraków. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Central Economic Society for the Grand Duchy of Poznań (Polish: Centralne Towarzystwo Gospodarcze dla Wielkiego Księstwa Poznańskiego) was an social-economic organization of Polish landowners in Greater Poland region (at this time called the Grand Duchy of Poznań established at the meeting on... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Peoples Libraries Society (Polish: Towarzystwo Czytelni Ludowych, TLC) was an educational society established in 1880 for the Prussian partition of Poland (active in the regions of Greater Poland or the Grand Duchy of Poznan, Pomerania, West Prussia, and Silesia). ... Konstanty Kalinowski (also known under his Belarusian and Lithuanian names of Касту́сь Каліно́ўскі or Kastuś Kalinoŭski and Kostas Kalinauskas; 1838-1864) was a writer, journalist, lawyer and revolutionist. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Saint Raphael Kalinowski (Polish: ) (September 1, 1835 – November 15, 1907) was a Polish Discalced Carmelite friar born as Józef Kalinowski in the city of Wilno, in Poland under Russian occupation (currently, Vilnius, Lithuania). ...

January Uprising in literature

Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea is a classic science fiction novel by French writer Jules Verne (1828–1905), published in 1870 under the title Vingt mille lieues sous les mers. ... This article is about the French author. ... Captain Nemo is a fictional character featured in Jules Vernes novels Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870) and The Mysterious Island (1874). ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Uprising is another word for rebellion. ... Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to... This article is about the literary concept. ... Pierre-Jules Hetzel. ... Guy de Maupassant. ... Pierre et Jean is a naturalist (or psycho-realist) work, written by Guy de Maupassant in 1887. ...

See also

An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... Polish National Government 1863-1864- underground Polish supreme authority during January Uprising against Russian occupation of Poland. ... This is a list of Polish uprisings. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
January Uprising - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1750 words)
The January Uprising was the longest Polish uprising against Tsarist Russia: it began January 22, 1863, and the last insurgents were not captured until 1865.
A Wilno chapel commemorating the suppression of the 1863 Uprising.
Graves of January Uprising veterans at Warsaw's Powązki Cemetery.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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