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Encyclopedia > Janissary
Sipahi - Akinci - Timariot - Janissary
- Nizam-ı Cedid
Navy - Air Force
Conflicts: Europe - Russian - Near East - Sieges and Landings
See also: Reform - Naval treaties - Kaptan Pashas


The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier") comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultan's household troops and bodyguard. The force originated in the 14th century; it was abolished by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826 in The Auspicious Incident. Ottoman redirects here. ... Woodcut by Melchior Lorch (1646), originally engraved in 1576. ... Akıncı was the light cavalry division of the Ottoman Army. ... A timariot (or timar holder; timarlu in Turkish) was an irregular cavalryman that served the Ottoman sultan and in return was granted a fief called a timar. ... The Nizam-ı Cedid (from Arabic Niẓām jadÄ«d via Persian Nizām-e jadÄ«d - New Order) was a series of reforms carried out by the Ottoman Empire sultan Selim III during the late eighteenth century in a drive to catch up militarily and politically with the Western Powers. ... This article details the military of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... Graphical timeline Ottoman wars in Near East covers the Levant, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Cacuses. ... The following is an List of Ottoman sieges and landings from the 14th century to World War I. // Main article: Rise of the Ottoman Empire Main article: Growth of the Ottoman Empire Main article: Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire Main article: Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire Barbary pirates Ottoman wars... When Selim III came to the throne in 1789 an ambitious effort of military reform was launched, geared towards securing the Ottoman Empire. ... There were 21 naval collaboration treaties of the Ottoman Empire. ... Below is the list of Ottoman Kaptan Pashas between 1401 and 1867. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Ottoman redirects here. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Bodyguards of Viktor Yushchenko (far left) after leaving Gdansk city hall. ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... The Auspicious Incident (in Turkish Vaka-i Hayriye) was the forced disbandment of the centuries old Janissary corps by Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II shortly before the French invasion of Ottoman Algeria (see French rule in Algeria). ...

Contents

Origin of the Janissaries

Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries Knights of Saint John, Siege of Rhodes, 1522.

Sultan Murad I of the fledgling Ottoman Empire founded the units around 1365. It was initially formed of Dhimmi (non-Muslims, originally exempted from the military service), especially Christian youths and prisoners of war, reminiscent of Mamelukes. Sultan Murad may have also used futuwa groups as a model. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 596 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1046 × 1052 pixel, file size: 557 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 596 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1046 × 1052 pixel, file size: 557 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... Combatants Ottoman Empire Knights Hospitaller Commanders Suleiman the Magnificent Mustafa Pasha Philippe Villiers de LIsle-Adam Strength 110,000 soldiers 10,000 janissaries 60,000 slaves 400 ships 600 knights 4,500 soldiers citizens Casualties 50,000 Unknown The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and ultimately... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Futuwa (sometimes translated as courage, chivalry or manliness) is a name of Sufi Islamic virtue that has some similarities to chivalry and charity. ...


Such Janissaries became the first Ottoman standing army, replacing forces that mostly comprised tribal ghazis, whose loyalty and morale could not always be trusted. A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... This article is about the history and concept of ghazw and ghāzī. For other meanings of gazi, see Gazi (disambiguation). ...


As corps other than the infantry were added, the totality of the Ottoman standing army corps was called Kapıkulu, however the term Janissary, which formally refers to one of the Kapıkulu corps is often used interchangeably (albeit incorrectly) for all of the Ottoman Kapıkulu Corps. The military of Ottoman Empire was structured in three organizational structures Army, Navy, and Air Force. ...


Significance of the Janissaries

The Janissary corps were significant in a number of ways. The Janissaries wore uniforms, were paid in cash as regular soldiers, and marched to distinctive music, the mehter, similar to a modern marching band. All of these features set the Janissaries apart from most soldiers of the time. For other uses, see Uniform (disambiguation). ... Ottoman Empire Ottoman Military bands, or Mehter Takımı(in Turkish), are considered to be the oldest type of military marching band in the world. ... An American college marching band on the field (Kansas State University) A marching band is a group of instrumental musicians who generally perform outdoors, and who incorporate movement â€“ usually some type of marching and other movements  â€“ with their musical performance. ...


The Ottomans were the first state to maintain a standing army in Europe since the Roman Empire. The Janissaries have been likened to the Roman Praetorian Guard and they had no equivalent in the Christian armies of the time, where the feudal lords raised troops during wartime.[1] A janissary regiment was effectively the soldier's family. They lived in their barracks and served as policemen and firefighters during peacetime.[2] For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ...

A Janissary drawing by Gentile Bellini (15th century).
A Janissary drawing by Gentile Bellini (15th century).

The Janissary corps was also distinctive in the regular payment of a cash salary to the troops, and differed from the contemporary practice of paying troops only during wartime. The Janissaries were paid quarterly and the Sultan himself, after authorizing the payment of the salaries, dressed as a Janissary, visited the barracks and received his salary as a regular trooper of the First Division.[3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 489 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (529 × 648 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Janissary drawing from Gentile Bellini. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 489 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (529 × 648 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Janissary drawing from Gentile Bellini. ... Portrait of Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus by Gentile Bellini, at the Magyar Szépmüvészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ...


The Janissary force became particularly significant when the foot soldier carrying firearms proved more effective than the cavalry equipped with sword and spear.[4] Janissaries adopted firearms very early, starting in 15th century. By the 16th century, the main weapon of the Janissary was the musket. Janissaries also made extensive use of early grenades and hand cannon, such as the Abus gun.[3] Firearms redirects here. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... A hand grenade is a hand-held bomb, made to be thrown by a soldier. ... Hand cannon from the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). ... The Abus gun is an early form of Howitzer created by the Ottoman empire. ...


The auxiliary support system of the Janissaries also set them apart from their contemporaries. The Janissaries waged war as one part of a well organized military machine. The Ottoman army had a corps to prepare the road, a corps to pitch the tents ahead, a corps to bake the bread. The cebeci corps carried and distributed weapons and ammunition. The Janissary corps had its own internal medical auxiliaries: Muslim and Jewish surgeons who would travel with the corps during campaigns and had organized methods of moving the wounded and the sick to traveling hospitals behind the lines.[3] Cebeci is the name of several localities in Turkey. ...


These differences, along with a war-record that was impressive, made the Janissaries into a subject of interest and study by foreigners in their own time. Although eventually the concept of the modern army incorporated and surpassed most of the distinctions of the Janissary, and the Ottoman Empire dissolved the Janissary corps, the image of the Janissary has remained as one of the symbols of the Ottomans in the western psyche.


In modern times, although the Janissary corps no longer exists as a professional fighting force, the tradition of mehter music is carried on as a cultural and tourist attraction. Ottoman Empire Ottoman Military bands, or Mehter Takımı(in Turkish), are considered to be the oldest type of military marching band in the world. ...


Recruitment, training and status

The first Janissary units comprised war captives and slaves, selecting one in five for enrollment in the ranks (Pencik rule). After the 1380s Sultan Mehmet I filled their ranks with the results of taxation in human form called devshirmeh: the Sultan's men conscripted a number of non-Muslim, usually Christian Balkan boys, taken at birth at first at random, later, by strict selection – to be converted to Islam and trained. Initially they favoured Greeks, Bulgarians, Armenians and Albanians (who also supplied many gendarmes), usually selecting about one boy from forty houses, but the numbers could be changed to correspond with the need for soldiers. Boys aged 14-18 were preferred, though ages 8-20 could be taken. Initially Greeks formed the largest part of the Janissary units[citation needed]. As the Turks expanded their borders, the devshirmeh was extended to also include Bulgarians, Serbs and other Balkan countries, later especially Ukraine and southern Russia. The Janissaries started accepting enrollment from outside the devshirmeh system first during the reign of Sultan Murad III (1546-1595) and completely stopped enrolling devshirmeh in 17th century. After this period, volunteers were enrolled, mostly of Muslim origin.[3] For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioner) (1389 – May 26, 1421) (Arabic: محمد الأول) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Devshirmeh (Turkish devÅŸirme, Greek, paedomazoma) refers to the system used by the Ottoman sultans to tax newly conquered states, and build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries. ... A gendarmerie (French) is a military body charged with general police duties. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... ... Murad III Murad III (July 4, 1546 – January 15, 1595) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death. ...


Janissaries trained under strict discipline with hard labour and in practically monastic conditions in acemi oğlan ("rookie" or "cadet") schools, where they were expected to remain celibate. They were also expected to convert to Islam. All did, as Christians were not allowed to bear arms in the Ottoman Empire until the 19th century. Unlike other Muslims, they were expressly forbidden to wear beards (a Muslim custom), only a moustache. These rules were obeyed by Janissaries, at least until 18th century when they also began to engage in other crafts and trades, breaking another of the original rules. Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Celibacy may refer either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


For all practical purposes, Janissaries belonged to the Sultan, carrying the title kapıkulu ("door slave") indicating their collective bond with the Sultan. Janissaries were taught to consider the corps as their home and family, and the Sultan as their de facto father. Only those who proved strong enough earned the rank of true Janissary at the age of twenty-four or twenty-five. The regiment inherited the property of dead Janissaries, thus amassing wealth (like religious orders and foundations enjoying the 'dead hand'). British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... The Statute of Mortmain were two enactments, in 1279 and 1290 by King Edward I of England aimed at preserving the kingdoms revenues by preventing land from passing into the possession of the Church. ...


Janissaries also learned to follow the dictates of the dervish saint Hajji Bektash Wali, disciples of whom had blessed the first troops. Bektashi served as a kind of chaplain for Janissaries. In this and in their secluded life, Janissaries resembled Christian military orders like the Johannites of Rhodes. For other uses, see Dervish (disambiguation). ... Hajji Bektash Wali (Arabic/Persian: ‎ Ḥājī Baktāš Wālī; Turkish: Hacı Bektaş Veli) was a Muslim mystic, humanist and philosopher from Khorasan, who lived approximately from 1209-1271 in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). ... The Bektashism (Turkish: Bektaşilik) is an Islamic Sufi order (tariqat). ... A chaplain in the 45th Infantry Division leads a Christmas Day service in Italy, 1943. ... Christian military orders appeared following the First Crusade. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ...


In return for their loyalty and their fervour in war, Janissaries gained privileges and benefits. They received a cash salary, received booty during wartime and enjoyed a high living standard and respected social status. At first they had to live in barracks and could not marry until retirement, or engage in any other trade but by the mid-18th century they had taken up many trades and gained the right to marry and enroll their children in the corps and very few continued to live in the barracks.[2] Many of them became administrators and scholars. Retired or discharged Janissaries received pensions and their children were also looked after. This evolution away from their original military vocation was the essence of the system's demise. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Janissary corps

Year Number of Jannisaries[5]
1514 10156
1526 7885
1567-68 12798
1609 37627
1660-61 54222
1665 49556
1669 51437
1670 49868
1680 54222
Janissary - watercolor on paper by Haydar Hatemi-2003.

The full strength of the Janissary troops varied from maybe 100 to more than 200,000. According to David Nicolle, the number of Janissaries in the 14th century was 1,000, and estimated to be 6,000 in 1475, whereas the same source estimates 40,000 as the number of Timariot, the provincial soldiers. After the defeat in 1699, the number was reduced, but it was increased in the 18th century to 113,400 soldiers according to Ottoman, but most were not actual soldiers and were accepted into the army through corrupt means and were only taking salary.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Janissaryhatemi. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Janissaryhatemi. ... Haydar Hatemi was born in Alamdar, Iran on March 3, 1945. ... David Nicolle is an historian specialising in the Military history of the Middle Ages, with a particular interest in the Middle East. ... A timariot (or timar holder; timarlu in Turkish) was an irregular cavalryman that served the Ottoman sultan and in return was granted a fief called a timar. ...


The corps was organized in ortas (equivalent to regiment) An orta was headed by çorbaci. All ortas together would comprise the proper Janissary corps and its organization named ocak (literally "hearth"). Suleiman I had 165 ortas but the number over time increased to 196. The Sultan was the supreme commander of the Army and the Janissaries in particular, but the corps was organized and led by their supreme ağa (commander). The corps was divided into three sub-corps: British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... Çorbaci (sometimes variously transliterated as chorbaji, chorbadzhi, tschorbadji) was a military rank of Janissaries, a commander of an orta (regiment), i. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was born at...

  • the cemaat (frontier troops; also spelled jemaat), with 101 ortas
  • the beyliks or beuluks (the Sultan's own bodyguard), with 61 ortas
  • the sekban or seirnen, with 34 ortas

In addition there was also 34 ortas of the ajemi (cadets).


Originally Janissaries could be promoted only through seniority and within their own orta. They would leave the unit only to assume command of another. Only Janissaries' own commanding officers could punish them. The rank names were based on positions in a kitchen staff or troop of hunters, perhaps to emphasise that Janissaries were servants of the Sultan.


In the first centuries, Janissaries were expert archers, but they adopted firearms as soon as such became available during the 1440s. The siege of Vienna in 1529 confirmed the reputation of their engineers, e.g. sapping and mining. In melee combat they used axes and sabres. Originally in peacetime they could carry only clubs or cutlasses, unless they served in border troops. Local Janissaries, stationed in a town or city for a long time, were known as yerliyyas. Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... // Combatants Austria with Bohemian, German & Spanish mercenaries Ottoman Empire Commanders Nicholas, Graf von Salm Suleiman I Strength over 16,000 [1] 120,000 [1] Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, was the Ottoman Empires first attempt to... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Undermining. ... Mining, or to undermine or undermining, was a siege method used since antiquity against a walled city, fortress or castle. ... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... French naval officers sabre of the 19th Century From left to right: two bayonets, a short curved infantry or artillery briquet, a straight infantry officers sabre, and a carbine. ... French naval cutlass of the 19th Century A cutlass is a short, thick saber or slashing sword, with a straight or slightly curved blade sharpened on the cutting edge, and a hilt often featuring a solid cupped or basket-shaped guard. ... In the Ottoman Empire of the 17th century the yerliyya was a term used to describe local Janissaries. ...


The Ottoman empire used Janissaries in all its major campaigns, including the 1453 capture of Constantinople, the defeat of the Egyptian Mamluks and wars against Hungary and Austria. Janissary troops were always led to the battle by the Sultan himself, and always had a share of the booty. This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ...


Janissaries’ reputation increased to the point that by 1683, Sultan Mehmet IV abolished the devshirmeh as increasing numbers of originally Muslim Turkish families had already enrolled their own sons into the force hoping for a lucrative career. Every governor wanted to have his own Janissary troops. Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (January 2, 1642—1693), also known as Dördüncü(fourth) and Avci(hunter), was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... Devshirmeh (Turkish devÅŸirme, Greek, paedomazoma) refers to the system used by the Ottoman sultans to tax newly conquered states, and build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries. ...


The Janissary revolts

Main article: Janissary revolts

As Janissaries became aware of their own importance they began to desire a better life. In 1449 they revolted for the first time, demanding higher wages, which they obtained. Similar scenarios took place a number of times during the following centuries. As the Janissaries were amassing more power and wealth, they gradually turned into a corrupt and largely useless caste, wielding an influence akin to that of the Roman Praetorian Guard. Finally, Mahmud II succeeded in forcibly disbanding them in 1826. The Janissaries Patrol Izmir (Une Patrouille a Smyrne) - oil painting on canvas - Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps - 1828 Janissary revolts (tr: Kazan Kaldırma) are revolts of the Janissary crops of the Ottoman Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ...


Janissary music

The military march music of the Janissaries is characteristic because of its powerful, often shrill sound combining davul (bass drum), zurna (a loud oboe), naffir (trumpet), bells, triangle, and cymbals (zil), among others. Janissary music influenced European classical musicians like Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven, both of whom composed marches in the Turkish style (Mozart's Piano Sonata in A major, K. 331 (c. 1783), and Beethoven's incidental music for The Ruins of Athens, Op. 113 (1811), and the final movement of Symphony no. 9). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tapan. ... For other meanings, see Zurna (disambiguation) and Surna (disambiguation) The Zurna (also called Surnay, birbynė, lettish horn, surla, sornai, zournas, zurma) is an Anatolian woodwind instrument. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... An old-fashioned triangle, with wand (beater) Angelika Kauffmann: LAllegra, 1779 The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Cymbals (band). ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... The first two bars of Sonata in A, K331 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Piano Sonata No. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Symphony No. ...


In 1952, the Janissary military band, Mehter, was organized again under the auspices of the Istanbul Military Museum. They have performances during some national holidays as well as in some parades during days of historical importance. For more details, see Turkish music (style) and Mehter. Military Band marching A military band is a group of soldiers assigned to musical duties. ... Ottoman Empire Ottoman Military bands, or Mehter Takımı(in Turkish), are considered to be the oldest type of military marching band in the world. ... Istanbul Military Museum (Turkish: Askeri Müze) is dedicated to one thousand years of Turkish military history. ... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Pop - Religious - Rock Music awards Kral - MÜ-YAP - MGD Charts Powerturk 40 - Kral 20 Annual festivals Istanbul International Music Festival - Istanbul International Jazz Festival - Ankara IMF - Izmir European Jazz Festival Media Bant magazine - Mix! - Adante - BlueJean... Ottoman Empire Ottoman Military bands, or Mehter Takımı(in Turkish), are considered to be the oldest type of military marching band in the world. ...


Appearances in popular culture

Janissaries appear in Ensemble Studio's Age of Empires II and Age of Empires III as the standard Ottoman infantry unit. Ensemble Studios is a Microsoft-owned company that has developed several computer games, including the famous Age of Empires series. ... Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings (or simply Age of Kings) is a real-time strategy computer game set in the middle ages, released in 1999. ... Age of Empires III (also called AoE III, or simply Age 3) is a real-time strategy (RTS) game developed by Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft Game Studios. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


In Sid Meier's Civilization IV, every civilization in the game has an unique unit related to their country. The Ottoman Empire, which appears at the Warlords expansion, has the Jannisary as its own unique unit. Sid Meiers Civilization IV (Civilization IV or Civ4) is a turn-based strategy computer game released in 2005 and developed by lead designer Soren Johnson under the direction of Sid Meier and Meiers studio Firaxis Games. ...


See also

A modern mehter marching band Ottoman military bands are thought to be the oldest variety of military marching band in the world. ... Devshirmeh (Turkish devşirme) refers to the system used by the Ottoman sultans to tax newly conquered states, and build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries. ... Early on as the Ottoman Turks drove out the Byzantines from Anatolia and later pursued them into Europe, the pursuit was a part of the Jihad (or Holy War) against Christianity, and the first Ottoman rulers called themselves Gazi, or Holy Warriors. ... // Cantonists in Prussia Cantonists (German: Kantonist, or a person living in a canton) were recruits in Prussia in 1733-1813, liable for draft in one of the cantons. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ...

Sources and references

  • Godfrey Goodwin, Janissaries
  • David Nicolle, Janissary, 1995. Osprey Publishing
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Janissary section on German-language website about Ottomman empire (not yet exploited)

Godfrey Gummer Goodwin (January 11, 1873 – February 16, 1933) was a Representative from Minnesota; born as Alfred Gustafson near St. ... David Nicolle is an historian specialising in the Military history of the Middle Ages, with a particular interest in the Middle East. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

References

  1. ^ Lord Kinross (1977). Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. New York: Morrow Quill Paperbacks, 52. ISBN 0-688-08093-6. 
  2. ^ a b Goodwin, Jason (1998). Lords of the Horizons: A History of the Ottoman Empire. New York: H. Holt, 59,179-181. ISBN 0-8050-4081-1. 
  3. ^ a b c d Uzunçarşılı, İsmail Hakkı (1988). Osmanlı Devleti Teşkilatından Kapıkulu Ocakları: Acemi Ocağı ve Yeniçeri Ocağı. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 411-463,376-377,405-406,66-67,482-483. ISBN 975-16-0056-1. 
  4. ^ Jelavich, Barbara (1983). History of the Balkans, 18th and 19th Centuries. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521 27458-3. 
  5. ^ Gábor Ágoston, Barut, Top ve Tüfek Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun Asker Gücü ve Silah Sanayisi, ISBN 975-6051-41-8, Page 50

John Patrick Balfour, 3rd Baron Kinross, (1904-1976), was a writer noted for his biography of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and other works in Islamic historiography. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Janissaries
  • History of the Janissary Music
  • Information about Janissaries (Yeniçeriler)
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Janissary Stomp | Reviews (1094 words)
It’s always a challenge to find music that intrigues, moves, and inspires me. It is also a challenge to present my readers with rare gems of a quality that are hard to find but worth the effort to seek out.
One of those rare gems, and the CD at hand is: The Janissary Stomp by Roger Landes and Chipper Thompson.
All in all, The Janissary Stomp is a great album for those who embrace a successful merging of global folk music and styles that borrow from their modern and ancient forms.
The religion of Janissary (Selma Tolon) (1279 words)
Posted: Apr 25, 2006 4:22 AM The Janissary, who'd found the fabled scimitar of Suleiman the Magnificent (a sword enchanted by Merlin in the East as he had Excalibur in the West) and who also found Merlin's spellbook resting beside it.
Anyhow, yeah, she was a Turkish woman who'd studied medicine in America and then returned home to save lives for the Red Crescent; she took Islam quite seriously, had a little crush on Aquaman, and sure enough hasn't been much seen since.
I like to see characters like Zauriel, Janissary, etc., who represent different belief systems, but I don't like the idea of a character acting on what I supposedly believe, because a writer's interpretation of what a Christian, Muslim, Jew, etc. believes may not reflect my personal beliefs...
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