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Encyclopedia > Jane Jacobs

Jane Jacobs, OC, O.Ont (May 4, 1916April 25, 2006) was an American-born Canadian urbanist, writer and activist. She is best known for The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), a powerful critique of the urban renewal policies of the 1950s in the United States. The book has been credited with reaching beyond planning issues to influence the spirit of the times. "Jacobs came down firmly on the side of spontaneous inventiveness of individuals, as against abstract plans imposed by governments and corporations," wrote Canadian critic Robert Fulford. "She was an unlikely intellectual warrior, a theorist who opposed most theories, a teacher with no teaching job and no university degree, a writer who wrote well but infrequently."[citation needed] Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ... The Order of Ontario is an award given in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Urban, city, or town planning, deals with design of the built environment from the municipal and metropolitan perspective. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... The Death and Life of Great American Cities, by Jane Jacobs, is arguably the most influential book written on urban planning in the 20th century. ... Urban Renewal redirects here. ... Alternate use: see Robert Fulford (croquet player) for the English croquet player. ...


American Years

Jane Butzner was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, the daughter of a doctor and a former schoolteacher and nurse, who were Protestant in a Catholic town—adherents of a minority religion. After graduating from Scranton's Central High School, she took an unpaid position as the assistant to the women's page editor at the Scranton Tribune. A year later, in the middle of the Great Depression, she left Scranton for New York City. Scranton redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Scranton Tribune is a morning newspaper published in Scranton, Pennsylvania. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

During her first several years in the city, Jacobs held a variety of jobs, working mainly as a stenographer and freelance writer, often writing about working districts in the city. These experiences, she later said, "...gave me more of a notion of what was going on in the city and what business was like, what work was like." Her first job was for a trade magazine, first as a secretary, then as an editor. She also sold articles to the Sunday Herald Tribune. She then became a feature writer for the Office of War Information. While working there she met an architect named Robert Hyde Jacobs whom she married in 1944. Together they had two sons and a daughter. Shorthand is a writing method that can be done at speed because an abbreviated or symbolic form of language is used. ... The United States Office of War Information (OWI) was a government agency created during World War II to consolidate government information services. ...

She studied at Columbia University's extension school (now the School of General Studies) for two years, taking courses in geology, zoology, law, political science, and economics. About the freedom to study her wide-ranging interests, she said: Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... The School of General Studies, commonly known as General Studies or simply GS, is Columbia Universitys undergraduate college for non-traditional students. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...

For the first time I liked school and for the first time I made good marks. This was almost my undoing because after I had garnered, statistically, a certain number of credits I became the property of Barnard College at Columbia, and once I was the property of Barnard I had to take, it seemed, what Barnard wanted me to take, not what I wanted to learn. Fortunately my high school marks had been so bad that Barnard decided I could not belong to it and I was therefore allowed to continue getting an education.[1]

On March 25, 1952, Jacobs responded to Conrad E. Snow, chairman of the Loyalty Security Board at the United States Department of State. In her foreword to her answer she said: Barnard College, founded in 1889, is one of the four undergraduate divisions of Columbia University. ... Department of State redirects here. ...

The other threat to the security of our tradition, I believe, lies at home. It is the current fear of radical ideas and of people who propound them. I do not agree with the extremists of either the left or the right, but I think they should be allowed to speak and to publish, both because they themselves have, and ought to have, rights, and once their rights are gone, the rights of the rest of us are hardly safe...[2]

Opposing expressways and supporting neighborhoods were common themes in her life. In 1962, she was the chairperson of the Joint Committee to Stop the Lower Manhattan Expressway, when the downtown expressway plan was killed. She was again involved in stopping the Lower Manhattan Expressway and was arrested during a demonstration on April 10, 1968. Jacobs opposed Robert Moses, who had already forced through the Cross-Bronx Expressway and other roadways against neighborhood opposition. A PBS documentary series on New York's history (American Experience: New York Disc 7) devoted a full hour of its fourteen-hours to the battle between Moses and Jacobs. A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ... A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city or suburb. ... The Lower Manhattan Expressway (also known as the Canal Street Expressway or LOMEX) was a controversial plan for an expressway through lower Manhattan conceptualized by master builder Robert Moses in the early 1960s. ... This is about the urban planner; for other uses, see Robert Moses (disambiguation). ... The Cross-Bronx Expressway is a major expressway in New York City. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ...

Canadian Life

In 1968, Jacobs moved to Toronto, where she lived until her death. She decided to leave the United States in part because of her objection to the Vietnam War and worry about the fate of her two draft-age sons. She and her husband chose Toronto because it was pleasant and offered him work opportunities. She quickly became a leading figure in her new city and helped stop the proposed Spadina Expressway. A frequent theme of her work was to ask whether we are building cities for people or for cars. She was arrested twice during demonstrations.[3] She also had considerable influence on the regeneration of the St. Lawrence neighborhood, a housing project regarded as a success. She became a Canadian citizen in 1974, and she later told writer James Howard Kunstler that dual citizenship was not possible at the time, implying that her US citizenship was lost. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... “Conscript” redirects here. ... The Spadina Expressway, now known as Allen Road, was proposed in the mid-1960s as part of a network of freeways in Metropolitan Toronto. ... St. ... Public housing describes a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. ... James Howard Kunstler (born 1948) is an American author, social critic, and blogger who is perhaps best known for his book The Geography of Nowhere, a history of suburbia and urban development in the United States. ...

In 1980, she offered an urbanistic perspective on Québec's sovereignty in her book The Question of Separatism: Quebec and the Struggle over Separation. During the 1960s, a terrorist group known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices. ...

Jacobs was an advocate of a Province of Toronto to separate the city proper from Ontario. Jacobs said, "Cities, to thrive in the 21st century, must separate themselves politically from their surrounding areas." The term Province of Toronto has two senses: one political and one ecclesiastical. ...

She was selected to be an officer of the Order of Canada in 1996 for her seminal writings and thought-provoking commentaries on urban development. The Community and Urban Sociology section of the American Sociological Association awarded her its Outstanding Lifetime Contribution award in 2002. Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ... Urban, city, or town planning, deals with design of the built environment from the municipal and metropolitan perspective. ...

In 1997, the City of Toronto sponsored a conference titled "Jane Jacobs: Ideas That Matter", which led to a book by the same name. At the end of the conference, the Jane Jacobs Prize was created. It includes an annual stipend of $5,000 for three years to be given to "celebrate Toronto's original, unsung heroes — by seeking out citizens who are engaged in activities that contribute to the city's vitality".[4]

Jacobs never shied away from expressing her political support for specific candidates. She backed an outsider/ecologist, the late Tooker Gomberg in Toronto's 2000 mayoralty race (he lost) and David Miller in 2003 (he won). Tooker Gomberg was a Canadian politician and environmental activist. ... David Raymond Miller (born December 26, 1958) is a Canadian politician. ...

She died in Toronto on 25 April 2006, at the age of 89, apparently of a stroke at Toronto Western Hospital. She was survived by a brother, James Butzner; two sons, James and Ned, and a daughter, Burgin Jacobs; by two grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. Upon her death her family's statement noted: For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... The Toronto Western Hospital is part of the University Health Network with Toronto General Hospital on Bathurst Street and Dundas Street West in Toronto, Canada. ...

"What's important is not that she died but that she lived, and that her life’s work has greatly influenced the way we think. Please remember her by reading her books and implementing her ideas."[5]


As a tribute to Jacobs, the Rockefeller Foundation announced on February 9, 2007 the creation of the Jane Jacobs Medal, "to recognize individuals who have made a significant contribution to thinking about urban design, specifically in New York City."[6] From the mid 1950s to the mid 1960s, the foundation's Humanities Division sponsored an "Urban Design Studies" research program, of which Jacobs was the best known grantee.[7]. On June 25, 2007 the Rockefeller Foundation announced that Barry Benepe, co-founder of NYC's Green Market program and a founding member of Transportation Alternatives, would be awarded the Inaugural Jane Jacobs Medal for Lifetime Leadership and a $100,000 cash prize. The inaugural Jane Jacobs Medal for new Ideas and Activism was awarded to Omar Freilla, the founder of Green Worker Cooperatives in the South Bronx; Mr. Freilla donated his $100,000 to his organization. The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ...

The City of Toronto proclaimed Friday May 4, 2007 as Jane Jacobs Day in Toronto. Two dozen free walks around and about Toronto neighbourhoods, dubbed 'Jane's Walks', were held on Saturday May 5, 2007.

The Municipal Art Society of New York has partnered with the Rockefeller Foundation to host an exhibit focusing on "Jane Jacobs and the Future of New York" which opened at the MAS on September 26, 2007. The exhibit aims to educate the public on her writings and activism and usez tools to encourage new generations to become active in issues involving their own neighborhoods. An accompanying exhibit publication includes essays and articles by such architecture critics, artists, activists and journalists as Malcolm Gladwell, Reverend Billy, Robert Neuwirth, Tom Wolfe, Thomas de Monchaux, and William McDonough. [8] Many of these contributors are participating in a series of panel discussions on "Jane Jacobs and the Future of New York" taking place at venues across the city in Fall, 2007.[9] The Municipal Art Society is an arts organization on Madison Avenue in New York City (USA), which deals with public art in the city. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ... Malcolm Gladwell Malcolm Gladwell (born September 1, 1963) is a United Kingdom-born, Canadian-raised journalist now based in New York City who has been a staff writer for The New Yorker since 1996. ... The Church of Stop Shopping is an activist performance group based in New York City, led by Reverend Billy, the stage name of Bill Talen. ... Robert Neuwirth is an American journalist and author. ... Tom Wolfe gives a speech at the White House. ... William A. McDonough (1951, Tokyo, Japan - ) is an American architect whose career is focused on designing environmentally sustainable buildings and transforming industrial manufacturing processes, with the twin goals of eliminating pollution and increasing the profits of his clients. ...


Jane Jacobs spent her life studying cities. Her books include:

The Death and Life of Great American Cities

The Death and Life of Great American Cities is her single most influential book and possibly the most influential American book on urban planning and cities. Widely read by both planning professionals and the general public, the book is a strong critique of the urban renewal policies of the 1950s, which, she claimed, destroyed communities and created isolated, unnatural urban spaces. Jacobs advocated dense, mixed-use neighborhoods and frequently cited New York City's Greenwich Village as an example of a vibrant urban community. The Death and Life of Great American Cities, by Jane Jacobs, is arguably the most influential book written on urban planning in the 20th century. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ...

Robert Caro has cited it as the strongest influence on The Power Broker, his legendary biography of Robert Moses. Robert Allan Caro (born October 30, 1935) is a biographer most noted for his studies of United States political figures Robert Moses and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Power Broker is a 1973 biography of Robert Moses, New York Citys Master Builder, by Robert Caro. ...

Beyond the practical lessons in city design and planning that "Death and Life" offers, the theoretical underpinnings of the work challenge the modern development mindset. Jane Jacobs adheres to inductive, nearly scientific, reasoning. Moreover, she is open to anecdotal evidence coming to bear on what has been induced from harder data.

The Economy of Cities

The book advances two propositions, one in the field of archaeology, the other in economics. Traditional archaeologists had always presumed that a city could only appear where there was enough food for a great number of inhabitants not producing food exclusively to exist. Hence, agriculture logically preceded the city. Jacobs argues that the opposite is true. It is through trade in wild animals and grains that people in cities discovered agriculture and then exported it (like our modern factory towns) to the outskirts of the city itself.

In this work Jacobs also tackles the question of economic booms. Great cities with flourishing economies have had one of these economic booms. She asserts that it is through import replacement that cities have such economic growth. She also asserts that cities are at the root of all economic growth (agricultural, manufacturing, technology, information, etc) and therefore import replacement is the cause to all economic growth. In an interview with Bill Steigerwald in Reason Magazine (06/01), Jacobs said that if she is remembered for being a great intellectual she will be remembered not for her work concerning city planning, but for the discovery of import replacement. The libertarian Reason Magazine dedicated an issue to Ayn Rands influence one hundred years after her birth. ...

Cities and the Wealth of Nations

Beginning with a concise treatment of classical economics, this books challenges one of the fundamental assumptions of the greatest economists. Classical (and Neo-classical) economists consider the nation-state to be the main player in macroeconomics. Jacobs makes a forceful argument that it is not the nation-state, rather it is the city which is the true player in this world wide game. She restates the idea of import replacement from her earlier book The Economy of Cities, while speculating on the further ramifications of considering the city first and the nation second, or not at all. Circulation in macroeconomics Macroeconomics is a branch of economics that deals with the performance, structure, and behavior of a national economy as a whole. ...

Systems of Survival

Main article: Systems of Survival

Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics moves outside of the city, studying the moral underpinnings of work. As with her other work, she used an observational approach. This book is written as a Platonic dialogue. It appears that she (as described by characters in her book) took newspaper clippings of moral judgements related to work, collected and sorted them to find that they fit two patterns of moral behaviour that were mutually exclusive. She calls these two patterns "Moral Syndrome A", or commercial moral syndrome and "Moral Syndrome B" or guardian moral syndrome. She claims that the commercial moral syndrome is applicable to business owners, scientists, farmers, and traders. Similarly, she claims that the guardian moral syndrome is applicable to government, charities, hunter-gatherers, and religious institutions. She also claims that these Moral Syndromes are fixed, and do not fluctuate over time. Systems of Survival[1] is a 1992 book by Jane Jacobs describing two distinct ethical systems, or systems of survival as she calls them. ... This article is about the use of the moral in storytelling. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...

It is important to stress that Jane Jacobs is providing a theory about the morality of work, and not all moral ideas. Moral ideas that are not included in her syndrome are applicable to both syndromes.

Jane Jacobs goes on to describe what happens when these two moral syndromes are mixed, showing the work underpinnings of the Mafia and communism, and what happens when New York Subway Police are paid bonuses here — reinterpreted slightly as a part of the larger analysis. This article is about the criminal society. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...

The Nature of Economies

The Nature of Economies, also in Platonic dialogue form, and based on the premise that "human beings exist wholly within nature as part of the natural order in every respect" (p ix), argues that the same principles underlie both ecosystems and economies: "development and co-development through differentiations and their combinations; expansion through diverse, multiple uses of energy; and self-maintenance through self-refueling" (p82). For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...

Jacobs' characters then discuss the four methods by which "dynamically stable systems" may evade collapse: "bifurcations; positive-feedback loops; negative-feedback controls; and emergency adaptations" (p86). Their conversations also cover the "double nature of fitness for survival" (traits to avoid destroying one's own habitat as well as success in competition to feed and breed, p119), and unpredictability including the butterfly effect characterized in terms of multiplicity of variables as well as disproportionality of response to cause, and self-organization where "a system can be making itself up as it goes along" (p137). Positive feedback is a feedback system in which the system responds to the perturbation in the same direction as the perturbation (It is sometimes referred to as cumulative causation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Point attractors in 2D phase space. ... Self-organization refers to a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases automatically without being guided or managed by an outside source. ...

Through the dialogue, Jacobs' characters explore and examine the similarities between the functioning of ecosystems and economies. Topics include: environmental and economic development, growth and expansion, and how economies and environments keep themselves alive through "self-refueling". Jacobs also comments on the nature of economic and biological diversity and its role in the development and growth of the two kinds of systems.

The book is infused with many real-world economic and biological examples, which help keep the book "down to earth" and comprehensible, if dense. Concepts are furnished with both economic and biological examples, showing their coherence in both worlds.

One particularly interesting insight is the creation of "something from nothing" — an economy from nowhere[citation needed]. In the biological world, free energy is given through sunlight, but in the economic world natural resources supply this free energy, or at least starter energy. Another interesting insight is the creation of economic diversity through the combination of different technologies, for example the typewriter and television as inputs and outputs of a computer system[citation needed]: this can lead to the creation of "new species of work"[citation needed].

Dark Age Ahead

Main article: Dark Age Ahead

Published in 2004 by Random House, in Dark Age Ahead Jacobs argued that "North American" civilization showed signs of spiral of decline comparable to the collapse of the Roman empire. Her thesis focused on "five pillars of our culture that we depend on to stand firm," which can be summarized as the nuclear family (but also community), education, science, representational government and taxes, and corporate and professional accountability. As the title suggests, her outlook was far more pessimistic than in her previous books. However, in the conclusion she admitted that, "At a given time it is hard to tell whether forces of cultural life or death are in the ascendancy. Is suburban sprawl, with its murders of communities and wastes of land, time, and energy, a sign of decay? Or is rising interest in means of overcoming sprawl a sign of vigor and adaptability in North American culture? Arguably, either could turn out to be true." Dark Age Ahead is a 2004 book by Jane Jacobs describing the decay of five key pillars in the US and Canada; this decay threatens to create a dark age unless the trends are reversed. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Activism in later years

During the 2003 Toronto mayoral campaign, Jacobs helped lobby against the construction of a bridge to join the city's waterfront to Toronto City Center Airport (TCCA). [2] Following the election, Toronto City Council's earlier decision to approve the bridge was reversed and bridge construction project was stopped. TCCA did upgrade the ferry service and the airport is still in operation as of Oct 2007.

Jacobs was also active a fight against Royal St. Georges College's (an established school very close to Jacobs long-time residence in Toronto's Annex district) plan to reconfigure its facilities. Jacobs not only suggested that the redesign be stopped, but that the school be forced from the neighbourhood entirely. [3] Although Toronto council initially rejected the school's plans, the decision was later reversed - and the project was given the go-ahead by the Ontario Municipal Board (OMB) when opponents failed to produce credible witnesses and tried to withdraw from the case during the hearing.[4]

Criticism of Jane Jacobs

One of the recurring criticisms of Jacobs is that her work is impractical and does not reflect the reality of urban politics, which are often controlled by real estate developers and suburban politicians. A response to such critics is to point to the history of cities like New York City and Detroit, which suffered in the 1960s and 1970s as suburban populations grew, took control of the politics of the surrounding region, and voted to starve cities to feed suburban sprawl. This fed the vicious cycle of more departures to the suburbs (see white flight). New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... In many parts of economics there is an assumption that a complex system of determinants will tend to lead to a state of equilibrium. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ...

Some Toronto traffic planners fault Jacobs for preventing them from considering expressways to meet growing demand from suburban growth and automobile traffic as the cancellation of the Spadina Expressway heralded the end of new municipal expressways in Toronto. They allege that public transit has proven to be as expensive as and less effective than urban freeways.[citation needed] The Spadina Expressway, now known as Allen Road, was proposed in the mid-1960s as part of a network of freeways in Metropolitan Toronto. ... Toronto, Ontario is one of the few North American cities that maintains a system of expressways and arterial highways at the municipal level. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ...

Toronto businesses have had mixed feelings about Jacobs. Some have applauded her leading the way to a thriving urban core. Others have pointed to higher growth in suburban areas surrounding Toronto that have lower taxes and debt, whereas Toronto's debt is growing. Toronto's mayor argued in 2005 that this trend has more to do with inequalities in provincial tax policy than Jacobs' perceived threat to business growth. [10].

Supporters of Jacobs point out that latent costs have not been taken into consideration. Measures promoted by Jacobs such as urban living and cycling have been argued to be impractical due to skyrocketing downtown land value, although proponents counter that this is the case in the few American cities that have actually maintained a large core population. Jacobs' supporters also claim that there is a lag in time before actual costs of sprawl catch up to suburban communities. They feel it is necessary when implementing such policies to implement them to an entire metropolitan region, and not merely the central municipality.

Another criticism is that Jacobs' approach leads to gentrification: an observed urban social process whereby urban economic development leads to old neighbourhoods becoming too expensive for the original population once "renewed." The previous inhabitants are replaced by yuppies and muppies, who enjoy the semi-bohemian bourgeois lifestyle that sometimes arises.[11] This issue, however, was addressed and criticized in Jacobs' The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Jacobs refers to this phenomenon as the "self destruction of diversity," and lists it as a developmental obstacle that cities must overcome. In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ... Yuppies (young urban professionals, young up and coming professionals or less commonly young upwardly-mobile professionals[1]) is a market segment whose consumers are characterized as self-reliant, financially secure individualists. ... For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ...

See also

David Edward Crombie (born 1936) is a Canadian politician and professor and consultant. ... This is about the urban planner; for other uses, see Robert Moses (disambiguation). ...


  1. ^ (1997-10-1) in Allen, Max (ed): Ideas that Matter: The Worlds of Jane Jacobs. Ginger Press. ISBN 0-921773-44-7. 
  2. ^ Allen, p. 170
  3. ^ Allen, p. 170
  4. ^ The Jane Jacobs Prize. Ideas that Matter. Retrieved on 2006-05-06.
  5. ^ Jane Jacobs. Globe and Mail (subscription required) (2006-05-25).
  6. ^ The Jane Jacobs Medal Created by Rockefeller, The New York Sun, Feb. 9, 2007
  7. ^ Laurence, Peter L. "The Death and Life of Urban Design: Jane Jacobs, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the New Research in Urbanism, 1955-65," Journal of Urban Design 11 (June 2006), pp. 145-72.[1]
  9. ^ http://www.mas.org/images/media/original/JJMedalists.pdf
  10. ^ Miller, David (2005-10-12). Address to C. D. Howe Institute – The Business Case for City Building. City of Toronto. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
  11. ^ Lindeman, Rick (2001-07-14). Ab Urban Condita. University of Amsterdam. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the original newspaper of the same name, see The New York Sun (historical) The New York Sun is a contemporary five-day daily newspaper published in New York City. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Books by Jacobs

  • The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-60047-7
  • The Economy of Cities (1969) ISBN 0-394-70584-X
  • The Question of Separatism: Quebec and the Struggle over Separation (1980) ISBN 0-394-50981-1
  • Cities and the Wealth of Nations (1984) ISBN 0-394-72911-0
  • Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics (1992) ISBN 0-679-74816-4
  • The Nature of Economies (2000) New York: Random House, The Modern Library. ISBN 0-679-60340-9
  • Dark Age Ahead (2004) ISBN 1-4000-6232-2

The Death and Life of Great American Cities, by Jane Jacobs, is arguably the most influential book written on urban planning in the 20th century. ... Systems of Survival[1] is a 1992 book by Jane Jacobs describing two distinct ethical systems, or systems of survival as she calls them. ... Dark Age Ahead is a 2004 book by Jane Jacobs describing the decay of five key pillars in the US and Canada; this decay threatens to create a dark age unless the trends are reversed. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...


Audio and video

  • CBC Television Broadcast from March 2, 1969
  • City of Vancouver British Columbia



  • Peter L. Laurence (2006) "Contradictions and complexities: Jane Jacobs' and Robert Venturi's complexity theories", Journal of Architectural Education, 59 (3), pp. 49-60. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/joae/59/3
  • Simon Jenkins (2006) Adapt, don't destroy: Leeds is the template to revive our scarred cities. The most unsung hero of 20th-century ideas died last week. In a single, devastating book Jane Jacobs crammed insights in human behaviour as deep as any by Freud, Keynes or Hayek. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Columnists/Column/0,,1767895,00.html

Obituaries and remembrances

  Results from FactBites:
The Metropolis Observed: Jane Jacobs at 81 (1283 words)
The Vietnam War was in full roar when Jane Jacobs quit the United States for the political calm of Canada, along with her husband, architect Robert Jacobs, and their three children, Ned, Jimmy, and Mary.
Though Jacobs is now a Canadian citizen, the narrative in her mind is strongly American, a perspective earned by testing the civil rights and liberties of her native country.
Jacobs' denunciation of the planning pooh-bahs of the day was swift and brutal and took no prisoners; one target was Sir Patrick Geddes, for his endorsement of Ebenezer Howard's idea of the Garden City.
Jane Jacobs (2629 words)
By Jane Jacobs, the writer and thinker who brought penetrating eyes and ingenious insight to the sidewalk ballet of her own Greenwich Village street and came up with a book that challenged and changed the way people view cities, died yesterday in Toronto, where she moved in 1968.
Jacobs was born Jane Butzner on May 4, 1916, in Scranton, Pa. Her father was a physician and her mother a schoolteacher.
Jacobs is survived by her sons, James, of Toronto, and Ned, of Vancouver; her daughter, Burgin Jacobs, of New Denver, British Columbia, and one granddaughter.
  More results at FactBites »



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