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Encyclopedia > Jane Austen
A watercolour and pencil sketch of Jane Austen, believed to be drawn from life by her sister Cassandra (c. 1810)[a]
A watercolour and pencil sketch of Jane Austen, believed to be drawn from life by her sister Cassandra (c. 1810)[a]

Jane Austen (16 December 177518 July 1817) was an English novelist whose realism, biting social commentary and masterful use of free indirect speech, burlesque and irony have earned her a place as one of the most widely-read and best-loved writers in British literature.[1] Silhouette of Cassandra Austen Cassandra Elizabeth Austen (9 January, 1773 - 22 March, 1845 [1]) was an amateur English watercolorist and the older sister of Jane Austen. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... // Literary realism most often refers to the trend, beginning with certain works of nineteenth-century French literature and extending to late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century authors in various countries, towards depictions of contemporary life and society as they were. In the spirit of general realism, Realist authors opted for... Free indirect speech (or free indirect discourse or free indirect style) is a style of third person narration which has some of the characteristics of direct speech. ... In literary criticism, the term burlesque is employed as a term in genre criticism, to describe any imitative work that derives humor from an incongruous contrast between style and subject. ... Ironic redirects here. ... British literature is literature from the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. ...


Austen lived her entire life as part of a large and close-knit family located on the lower fringes of English gentry.[2] She was educated primarily by her father and older brothers as well as through her own reading. The steadfast support of her family was critical to Austen's development as a professional writer.[3] Austen's artistic apprenticeship lasted from her teenage years until she was about thirty-five years old. During this period, she wrote three major novels and began a fourth.[b] From 1811 until 1815, with the release of Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1815), she achieved success as a published writer. She wrote two additional novels, Northanger Abbey (written in 1798 and 1799 and revised later) and Persuasion, both published after her death in 1817, and began a third (eventually titled Sanditon), but died before completing it. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Sense and Sensibility (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... For other uses, see Mansfield Park. ... For other uses, see Emma (disambiguation). ... For films named Northanger Abbey, see Northanger Abbey (1986 film) or Northanger Abbey (2007 TV drama). ... Persuasion book cover Persuasion is the last completed novel Jane Austen wrote, and was first published posthumously, in 1818. ... Sanditon, (1817) also known as Sand and Sandition, is an unfinished novel by the British novelist Jane Austen. ...


Austen's works critique the novels of sensibility of the second half of the eighteenth century and are part of the transition to nineteenth-century realism.[4][c] Austen's plots, although fundamentally comic,[5] highlight the dependence of women on marriage to secure social standing and economic security.[6] Like those of Samuel Johnson, one of the strongest influences on her writing, her works are concerned with moral issues.[7] The sentimental novel or the novel of sensibility is an 18th century literary genre which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment, sentimentalism, and sensibility. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ...


During her lifetime, Austen's works brought her little fame and only a few positive reviews. Through the mid-nineteenth century, her novels were admired only by a literary elite. However, the publication of her nephew's A Memoir of the Life of Jane Austen, in 1870, introduced her life and works to a wider public. By the 1940s, Austen was firmly ensconced in academia as a "great English writer", and the second half of the twentieth century saw a proliferation of Austen scholarship that explored many aspects of her novels: artistic, ideological, and historical. Currently, Austen's works are among the most studied and debated oeuvres in the field of academic literary criticism.[citation needed] In popular culture, a Janeite fan culture has developed, centred on Austen's life, her works, and the various film and television adaptations of them. Opus, from the Latin word opus meaning work, is usually used in the sense of a work of art. Some composers musical pieces are identified by opus numbers which generally run either in order of composition or in order of publication. ...

Contents

Life

The coat of arms of Jane Austen's family, showing a shield with three lions' paws beneath a sitting stag crest.[d]
The coat of arms of Jane Austen's family, showing a shield with three lions' paws beneath a sitting stag crest.[8][d]

Biographical information concerning Jane Austen is "famously scarce", according to one biographer.[9] Only some personal and family letters remain (by one estimate only 160 out of Austen's 3,000 letters are extant),[10] and her sister Cassandra (to whom most of the letters were originally addressed) censored those she retained.[11] Other letters were destroyed by the heirs of Admiral Francis Austen, Jane's brother.[12] Most of the biographical material produced for fifty years after Austen's death was written by her relatives and reflects the family's biases in favour of "good quiet Aunt Jane". Scholars have unearthed little more since.[13] Image File history File links Jane-Austen-family-heraldic-arms. ... Image File history File links Jane-Austen-family-heraldic-arms. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Silhouette of Cassandra Austen Cassandra Elizabeth Austen (9 January, 1773 - 22 March, 1845 [1]) was an amateur English watercolorist and the older sister of Jane Austen. ... Sir Francis Austen (1774–1865) was a British officer who spent most of his long life on active duty in the Royal Navy, rising to the position of Admiral of the Fleet. ...


Family

Jane Austen's father, George Austen, and his wife, Cassandra, were members of substantial gentry families.[14] George was descended from a family of woollen manufacturers which had risen through the professions to the lower ranks of the landed gentry.[15] Cassandra was a member of the prominent Leigh family.[16] For much of Jane's life, from 1765 until 1801, George Austen served as the rector of the Anglican parishes at Steventon, Hampshire and a nearby village. From 1773 until 1796, he supplemented this income by farming and by teaching three or four boys at a time who boarded at his home.[17] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Baron Leigh is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings, but all of them indicate someone who is in charge of something. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Steventon is a small village in north Hampshire, United Kingdom. ...


Austen's immediate family was large and close-knit: six brothers—James, George, Charles, Francis, Henry, and Edward—and a beloved older sister, Cassandra. All survived to be adults. Cassandra was Austen's closest friend and confidante throughout her life.[18] Of her brothers, Austen felt closest to Henry, who became a banker and, after his bank failed, an Anglican clergyman. Henry was also his sister's literary agent. His large circle of friends and acquaintances in London included bankers, merchants, publishers, painters, and actors: he provided Austen with a view of social worlds not normally visible from a small parish in rural Hampshire.[19] A literary agent is an agent that represents writers and their written works to publishers, theatrical producers and film producers and assists in the sale and deal negotiation of the same. ...


Early life and education

Steventon parish church, originally built around 1100
Steventon parish church, originally built around 1100

Austen was born on 16 December 1775 at Steventon rectory.[20] After a few months at home, Mrs. Austen placed her daughter with a woman living in a nearby village who wetnursed and raised Austen for a year or eighteen months.[21] Following this, Austen was educated at home, largely by her father, until leaving for boarding school with her sister Cassandra early in 1783. The school curriculum probably included some French, spelling, needlework, dancing and music and, perhaps, drama. By December 1786, Jane and Cassandra had returned home.[22] Austen acquired the remainder of her education by reading books, guided by her father and her brothers James and Henry.[23] George Austen apparently gave his daughters unfettered access to his large and varied library, was tolerant of Austen's sometimes risqué experiments in writing, and provided both sisters with expensive paper and other materials for their writing and drawing.[24] According to Park Honan, a biographer of Austen, life in the Austen home was lived in "an open, amused, easy intellectual atmosphere" where the ideas of those with whom the Austens might disagree politically or socially were considered and discussed.[25] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,140 × 1,520 pixels, file size: 180 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Steventon Church, where Jane Austen worshipped File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,140 × 1,520 pixels, file size: 180 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Steventon Church, where Jane Austen worshipped File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Steventon is a small village in north Hampshire, United Kingdom. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... A wet nurse is a woman who nurses a baby not her own. ... A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ...


Private theatricals were also a part of Austen's education. From when she was seven until she was thirteen, the family and close friends staged a series of plays, including Richard Sheridan's The Rivals (1775) and David Garrick's Bon Ton. While the details are unknown, Austen would certainly have joined in these activities, as a spectator at first and as a participant when she was older.[26] Most of the plays were comedies, which suggests to critics one way in which Austen's comedic and satirical gifts were cultivated.[27] Richard Brinsley Sheridan Richard Brinsley Sheridan (October 30, 1751 – July 7, 1816) was an Irish playwright and Whig statesman. ... The Rivals, a play by Richard Brinsley Sheridan, is a comedy of manners in five acts. ... David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ...


Juvenilia

Portrait of Henry IV. Declaredly written by "a partial, prejudiced & ignorant Historian", The History of England was illustrated by Austen's sister Cassandra (c. 1790).
Portrait of Henry IV. Declaredly written by "a partial, prejudiced & ignorant Historian", The History of England was illustrated by Austen's sister Cassandra (c. 1790).

At some point, perhaps as early as 1787, Austen began to write poems, stories, and plays for her own and her family's amusement.[28] Austen later compiled "fair copies" of 29 of these early works into three bound notebooks, now referred to as the Juvenilia, containing pieces originally written between 1787 and 1793.[29] There is manuscript evidence that Austen continued to work on these pieces as late as the period 1809-1811, and that her niece and nephew, Anna and James Edward Austen, made further additions as late as 1814.[30] Among these works are a satirical black comedy entitled Love and Freindship [sic], in which she mocked popular novels of sensibility,[31] and a History of England, a manuscript of 34 pages accompanied by 13 watercolour miniatures by her sister Cassandra. Austen's "History" parodied popular historical writing, particularly Oliver Goldsmith's History of England (1764).[32] Austen wrote, for example: "Henry the 4th ascended the throne of England much to his own satisfaction in the year 1399, after having prevailed on his cousin & predecessor Richard the 2nd, to resign it to him, & to retire for the rest of his Life to Pomfret Castle, where he happened to be murdered."[33] Austen's Juvenilia are often, according to scholar Richard Jenkyns, "boisterous" and "anarchic". He compares them to the work of eighteenth-century novelist Laurence Sterne and the twentieth-century comedy group Monty Python.[34] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Silhouette of Cassandra Austen Cassandra Elizabeth Austen (9 January, 1773 - 22 March, 1845 [1]) was an amateur English watercolorist and the older sister of Jane Austen. ... This article is about a tone of comedy. ... Love and Freindship is a juvenile story by Jane Austen, dated 1790, when Austen was 14 years old. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Oliver Goldsmith Oliver Goldsmith (November 10, 1730 or 1728 – April 4, 1774) was an Irish writer and physician known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770) (written in memory of his brother), and his plays The Good-naturd Man (1768) and... Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Irish-born English novelist and an Anglican clergyman. ... Monty Python, or The Pythons,[2][3] is the collective name of the creators of Monty Pythons Flying Circus, a British television comedy sketch show that first aired on the BBC on 5 October 1969. ...


Adulthood

A watercolour sketch of Jane Austen by her sister Cassandra (c. 1804)
A watercolour sketch of Jane Austen by her sister Cassandra (c. 1804)

As Austen grew into adulthood, she continued to live at her parents' home, carrying out those activities normal for women of her age and social standing: she practised the pianoforte, assisted her sister and mother with supervising servants, and attended female relatives during childbirth and older relatives on their deathbeds.[35] Austen was particularly proud of her accomplishments as a seamstress.[36] She also attended church regularly, socialized frequently with friends and neighbours, and read novels (often of her own composition) aloud with her family in the evenings. Socializing with the neighbours often meant dancing, either impromptu in someone's home after supper or at the balls held regularly at the assembly rooms in the town hall.[37] Her brother Henry later said that "Jane was fond of dancing, and excelled in it".[38] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Silhouette of Cassandra Austen Cassandra Elizabeth Austen (9 January, 1773 - 22 March, 1845 [1]) was an amateur English watercolorist and the older sister of Jane Austen. ... The piano Piano is a common abbreviation for pianoforte, a large musical instrument with a keyboard (see keyboard instrument). ... In Great Britain and Ireland, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries, assembly rooms were gathering places for members of the higher social classes open to members of both sexes. ...


In 1793, Austen began and then abandoned a short play, later entitled Sir Charles Grandison or the happy Man, a comedy in 6 acts, which she returned to and completed around 1800. This was a short parody of various school textbook abridgments of Austen's favourite contemporary novel, The History of Sir Charles Grandison (1753), by Samuel Richardson.[39] Honan speculates that at some point not long after writing Love and Freindship [sic] in 1789, Austen decided to "write for profit, to make stories her central effort", that is, to become a professional writer.[40] Whenever she made that decision, beginning in about 1793, Austen began to write longer, more sophisticated works.[41] Samuel Richardson (August 19, 1689 – July 4, 1761) was a major 18th century writer best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady (1748) and Sir Charles Grandison (1753). ... Love and Freindship is a juvenile story by Jane Austen, dated 1790, when Austen was 14 years old. ...


During the period between 1793 and 1795, Austen wrote Lady Susan, a short epistolary novel, usually described as her most ambitious and sophisticated early work.[42] It is unlike any of Austen's other works. Austen biographer Claire Tomalin describes the heroine of the novella as a sexual predator who uses her intelligence and charm to manipulate, betray, and abuse her victims, whether lovers, friends or family. Tomalin writes: "Told in letters, it is as neatly plotted as a play, and as cynical in tone as any of the most outrageous of the Restoration dramatists who may have provided some of her inspiration....It stands alone in Austen's work as a study of an adult woman whose intelligence and force of character are greater than those of anyone she encounters."[43] Jane Austen demonstrated her mastery of the epistolary novel genre in Lady Susan, which she wrote in 1795 but never published. ... Titlepage of Aphra Behns Love-Letters (1684) An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. ... Claire Tomalin (born June 20, 1933) is an English biographer and journalist. ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... Refinement meets burlesque in Restoration comedy. ...


Early novels

Thomas Langlois Lefroy, Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, by W. H. Mote (1855); in old age, Lefroy admitted to a nephew that he had been in love with Jane Austen: "It was boyish love."
Thomas Langlois Lefroy, Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, by W. H. Mote (1855); in old age, Lefroy admitted to a nephew that he had been in love with Jane Austen: "It was boyish love."[44]

After finishing Lady Susan, Austen attempted her first full-length novel—Elinor and Marianne. Her sister Cassandra later remembered that it was read to the family "before 1796" and was told through a series of letters. Without surviving original manuscripts, there is no way to know how much of the original draft survived in the novel published in 1811 as Sense and Sensibility.[45] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Thomas Langlois Lefroy 1855 by W.H.Mote Thomas Langlois Lefroy (8 January 1776 – 4 May 1869) was an Irish politician and judge. ... The Four Courts The headquarters of the Irish judicial system since 1804. ... Jane Austen demonstrated her mastery of the epistolary novel genre in Lady Susan, which she wrote in 1795 but never published. ... For other uses, see Sense and Sensibility (disambiguation). ...


In her twenty-first year, Austen fell in love. Tom Lefroy, a nephew of neighbours, visited Steventon from December 1795 to January 1796. He had just finished a university degree and was moving to London to train as a barrister. Lefroy and Austen would have been introduced at a ball or other neighbourhood social gathering, and it is clear from Austen's letters to Cassandra that they spent considerable time together. Their feelings for each other were strong and visible to their friends and neighbours. The Lefroy family intervened and sent him away at the end of January. Marriage was impractical, as both Lefroy and Austen must have known. Neither had any money, and he was dependent on a great-uncle in Ireland to finance his education and establish his legal career. If Tom Lefroy later visited Hampshire, he was carefully kept away from the Austens, and Jane Austen never saw him again.[46] Thomas Langlois Lefroy 1855 by W.H.Mote Thomas Langlois Lefroy (8 January 1776 – 4 May 1869) was an Irish politician and judge. ... For the musician, see Sikiru Ayinde Barrister. ...


Austen began work on a second novel, First Impressions, in 1796 and completed the initial draft in August 1797 (it would later become Pride and Prejudice). At this time, her father made the first attempt to publish one of her novels. In November 1797, George Austen wrote to Thomas Cadell, an established publisher in London, to ask if he would consider publishing "a Manuscript Novel, comprised in three Vols. about the length of Miss Burney's Evelina" at the author's financial risk. Cadell quickly returned Mr. Austen's letter, marked "Declined by Return of Post". Austen may not have known of her father's efforts.[47] Following the completion of First Impressions, Austen returned to Elinor and Marianne and from November 1797 until mid-1798, revised it heavily; she eliminated the epistolary format in favour of third-person narration and produced something close to Sense and Sensibility.[48] This article is about the novel. ... Titlepage of Aphra Behns Love-Letters (1684) An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. ... The third-person Narrative is narration in the third person. ... For other uses, see Sense and Sensibility (disambiguation). ...


During the middle of 1798, after finishing revisions of Elinor and Marianne, Austen began writing a third novel with the working title Susan (later Northanger Abbey), a satire on the popular Gothic novel (epitomized by Ann Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho [1794]).[49] Austen completed her work about a year later. In early 1803, Henry Austen offered Susan to Benjamin Crosby, a London publisher, who paid £10 for the copyright. Crosby promised early publication and went so far as to advertise the book publicly as being "in the press", but did nothing more. The manuscript remained in Crosby's hands, unpublished, until Austen repurchased the copyright from him in 1816.[50] For films named Northanger Abbey, see Northanger Abbey (1986 film) or Northanger Abbey (2007 TV drama). ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole Gothic fiction is an important genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. ... This article is about the 19th-century author. ... The Mysteries of Udolpho, by Ann Radcliffe, was published in the summer of 1794 by G. G. and J. Robinson of London in 4 volumes. ...


Bath and Southampton

In December 1800, Rev. Austen unexpectedly announced his decision to retire from the ministry, leave Steventon, and move the family to Bath. While retirement and travel were good for the elder Austens, there is evidence that Jane Austen was greatly upset by the loss of the only home she had ever known.[citation needed] Perhaps one indication of Austen's state of mind is her lack of productivity as a writer during the time she lived at Bath. She was able to make some revisions to Susan, and she began and then abandoned a new novel, The Watsons, but there was nothing like the productivity of the years 1795-1799.[51] Tomalin suggests that this reflected a deep depression that disabled her as a writer, but Honan disagrees, arguing that Austen wrote or revised her manuscripts throughout her creative life, except for a few months after her father died.[52] , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ... The Watsons is an incomplete novel by Jane Austen. ...


In December 1802, Austen received her only proposal of marriage. She and her sister visited Alethea and Catherine Bigg, old friends who lived near Basingstoke. Their younger brother, Harris Bigg-Wither, had recently finished his education at Oxford and was also at home. Bigg-Wither proposed and Austen accepted. As described by Caroline Austen, Jane's niece, and Reginald Bigg-Wither, a descendant, Harris was not attractive—he was a large, plain-looking man who spoke little, stuttered when he did speak, was aggressive in conversation, and almost completely tactless. However, Austen had known him since both were young and the marriage offered many practical advantages to Austen and her family. He was the heir to extensive family estates located in the area where the sisters had grown up. With these resources, Austen could provide her parents a comfortable old age, give Cassandra a permanent home and, perhaps, assist her brothers in their careers. By the next morning, Austen realized she had made a mistake and withdrew her acceptance.[53] No contemporary letters or diaries describe how Austen felt about this proposal.[54] In 1814, Austen wrote a letter to her niece, Fanny Knight, who had asked for advice about a serious relationship, telling her that "having written so much on one side of the question, I shall now turn around & entreat you not to commit yourself farther, & not to think of accepting him unless you really do like him. Anything is to be preferred or endured rather than marrying without Affection".[55] The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


In 1804, while living in Bath, Austen started but did not complete a new novel, The Watsons. The story centres on an invalid clergyman with little money whose four unmarried daughters are desperately seeking husbands, and the economic security that goes with marriage, before their father dies. Sutherland describes the novel as "a study in the harsh economic realities of dependent women's lives".[56] Honan suggests, and Tomalin agrees, that Austen chose to stop work on the novel after her father died on 21 January 1805 and her personal circumstances resembled those of her characters too closely for her comfort.[57] is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Jefferson. ...


Rev. Austen's final illness had struck suddenly, leaving him (as Austen reported to her brother Francis) "quite insensible of his own state", and he died quickly.[58] Jane, Cassandra, and their mother were left in a precarious financial situation. Edward, James, Henry, and Francis Austen pledged to make annual contributions to support their mother and sisters.[59] For the next four years, the family's living arrangements reflected their financial insecurity. They lived part of the time in rented quarters in Bath and then, beginning in 1806, in Southampton, where they shared a house with Frank Austen and his new wife. A large part of this time they spent visiting various branches of the family.[60] For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ...


On 5 April 1809, about three months before the family's move to Chawton, Austen wrote an angry letter to Richard Crosby, offering him a new manuscript of Susan if that was needed to secure immediate publication of the novel, and otherwise requesting the return of the original so that she could find another publisher. Crosby replied that he had not agreed to publish the book by any particular time, or at all, and that Austen could repurchase the manuscript for the £10 he had paid her and find another publisher. However, Austen did not have the resources to repurchase the book.[61] is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Chawton

Chawton Cottage, where Jane Austen lived during the last eight years of her life and now a museum
Chawton Cottage, where Jane Austen lived during the last eight years of her life and now a museum

Late in 1808 or early in 1809, Austen's brother Edward offered his mother and sisters a more settled life—the use of a large "cottage" in Chawton village that was part of Edward's nearby estate, Chawton House. Jane, Cassandra, and their mother moved into Chawton cottage on 7 July 1809.[62] In Chawton, life was quieter than it had been since the family's move to Bath in 1800. The Austens did not socialize with the neighbouring gentry and entertained only when family visited. Austen's niece Anna described the Austen family's life in Chawton: "It was a very quiet life, according to our ideas, but they were great readers, and besides the housekeeping our aunts occupied themselves in working with the poor and in teaching some girl or boy to read or write."[63] Austen wrote almost daily, but privately, and seems to have been relieved of some household responsibilities to give her more opportunity to write.[64] In this setting, she was able to be productive as a writer once more.[65] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Chawton is a small village in Hampshire, England, near Alton. ... Chawton is a small village in Hampshire, England, near Alton. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Published author

First edition title page from Sense and Sensibility, Jane Austen's first published novel (1811)
First edition title page from Sense and Sensibility, Jane Austen's first published novel (1811)

During her time at Chawton, Jane Austen successfully published four novels, which were generally well-received. Through her brother Henry, the publisher Thomas Egerton agreed to publish Sense and Sensibility,[e] which appeared in October 1811. Reviews were favourable and the novel became fashionable among opinion-makers;[66] the edition sold out by mid-1813.[f] Austen's earnings from Sense and Sensibility provided her with some financial and psychological independence.[67] Egerton then published Pride and Prejudice (a revision of First Impressions) in January 1813. He advertised the book widely and it was an immediate success, garnering three favourable reviews and selling well. By October 1813, Egerton was able to begin selling a second edition.[68] Mansfield Park was published by Egerton in May 1814. While Mansfield Park was ignored by reviewers, it was a great success with the public. All copies were sold within six months, and Austen's earnings on this novel were larger than for any of her other novels.[69] For other uses, see Sense and Sensibility (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sense and Sensibility (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... For other uses, see Mansfield Park. ...


Austen learned that the Prince Regent admired her novels and kept a set at each of his residences.[g] In November 1815, the Prince Regent's librarian invited Austen to visit the Prince's London residence and hinted that Austen should dedicate the forthcoming Emma to the Prince. Although Austen disliked the Prince, she could scarcely refuse the request.[70] She later wrote Plan of a Novel, according to hints from various quarters, a satiric outline of the "perfect novel" based on the librarian's many suggestions for a future Austen novel.[71] George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom and Hanover from 29 January 1820. ... For other uses, see Emma (disambiguation). ...


In mid-1815, Austen left Egerton for John Murray, a better known London publisher,[h] who published Emma in December 1815 and a second edition of Mansfield Park in February 1816. Emma sold well but the new edition of Mansfield Park did not, and this failure offset most of the profits Austen earned on Emma. These were the last of Austen's novels to be published during her lifetime.[72] John Murray is a British publishing house, renowned for the roster of authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Lord Byron and Charles Darwin. ...


While Murray prepared Emma for publication, Austen began to write a new novel she titled The Elliots (later published as Persuasion). She completed her first draft in July 1816. In addition, shortly after the publication of Emma, Henry Austen repurchased the copyright for Susan from Crosby. Austen was forced to postpone publishing either of these completed novels by family financial troubles. Henry Austen's bank failed in March 1816, depriving him of all of his assets, leaving him deeply in debt and losing Edward, James, and Frank Austen large sums. Henry and Frank could no longer afford the contributions they had made to support their mother and sisters.[73] Persuasion book cover Persuasion is the last completed novel Jane Austen wrote, and was first published posthumously, in 1818. ...


Illness and death

Memorial stone to Austen at Winchester Cathedral
Memorial stone to Austen at Winchester Cathedral

Early in 1816, Jane Austen began to feel unwell. Austen ignored her illness at first and continued to work and to participate in the usual round of family activities. By the middle of that year, her decline was unmistakable to Austen and to her family, and Austen's physical condition began a long, slow, and irregular deterioration culminating in her death the following year.[74] The majority of Austen biographers rely on Dr. Vincent Cope's tentative 1964 diagnosis and list her cause of death as Addison's disease. However, her final illness has also been described as Hodgkin's lymphoma.[i] Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with... Addisons disease(also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism or hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal gland produces insufficient amounts of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). ... Hodgkins lymphoma, also known as Hodgkins disease, is a type of lymphoma first described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. ...


Austen continued to work in spite of her illness. She became dissatisfied with the ending of The Elliots and rewrote the final two chapters, finishing them on 6 August 1816.[j] In January 1817, Austen began work on a new novel she called The Brothers (later titled Sanditon upon its first publication in 1925) and completed twelve chapters before stopping work in mid-March 1817, probably because her illness prevented her from continuing.[75] Austen made light of her condition to others, describing it as "Bile" and rheumatism, but as her disease progressed she experienced increasing difficulty walking or finding the energy for other activities. By mid-April, Austen was confined to her bed. In May, their brother Henry escorted Jane and Cassandra to Winchester for medical treatment. Jane Austen died in Winchester on 18 July 1817. Through his clerical connections, Henry arranged for his sister to be buried in the north aisle of the nave of Winchester Cathedral. The epitaph composed by her brother James praises Austen's personal qualities, expresses hope for her salvation, mentions the "extraordinary endowments of her mind", but does not explicitly mention her achievements as a writer.[76] is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sanditon, (1817) also known as Sand and Sandition, is an unfinished novel by the British novelist Jane Austen. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with...


Posthumous publication

After Austen's death, Cassandra and Henry Austen arranged with Murray for the publication of Persuasion and Northanger Abbey as a set in December 1817.[k] Henry Austen contributed a Biographical Note which for the first time identified his sister as the author of the novels. Tomalin describes it as "a loving and polished eulogy".[77] Sales were good for a year—only 321 copies remained unsold at the end of 1818—and then declined. Murray disposed of the remaining copies in 1820, and Austen's novels remained out of print for twelve years.[78] In 1832, Richard Bentley purchased the remaining copyrights to all of Austen's novels and, beginning in either December 1832 or January 1833, published them in five illustrated volumes as part of his Standard Novels series. In October 1833, Bentley published the first collected edition of Austen's works. From that time until today, Austen's novels have been continuously in print.[79]


Reception

In 1816, the editors of the New Monthly Magazine noted Emma's publication but chose not to review it.[l]
In 1816, the editors of the New Monthly Magazine noted Emma's publication but chose not to review it.[l]
Main articles: Reception history of Jane Austen, Janeite, and Jane Austen in popular culture

For other uses, see Emma (disambiguation). ... The works of Jane Austen have been represented in popular culture in a variety of forms. ...

Contemporary responses

Austen's works brought her little renown during her lifetime because she published anonymously. Although they received only a few positive reviews, Sir Walter Scott, a leading novelist of the day, contributed one of them (although it, too, was published anonymously). Using the review as a platform from which to defend the then disreputable genre of the novel, he praised Austen's works, celebrating her ability to copy "from nature as she really exists in the common walks of life, and presenting to the reader...a correct and striking representation of that which is daily taking place around him".[80] The other important early review of Austen's works was published by Richard Whately in 1821. He drew favourable comparisons between Austen and such acknowledged greats as Homer and Shakespeare, praising the dramatic qualities of her narrative. Whately and Scott set the tone for almost all subsequent nineteenth-century Austen criticism.[81] Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Richard Whately (February 1, 1787 - October 8, 1863), English logician and theological writer, archbishop of Dublin, was born in London. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Nineteenth century

Because Austen's novels failed to conform to Romantic and Victorian expectations that "powerful emotion [be] authenticated by an egregious display of sound and color in the writing",[82] nineteenth-century critics and audiences generally preferred the works of Charles Dickens and George Eliot.[83] Although Austen's novels were republished in Britain beginning in the 1830s and remained steady sellers, they were not bestsellers.[84] Romantics redirects here. ... Image:Cg Charles Dickens is still one of the best known English writers of any era. ... Dickens redirects here. ... Mary Ann (Marian) Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. ...

George Henry Lewes compared Austen's works to Shakespeare's.
George Henry Lewes compared Austen's works to Shakespeare's.

Austen did have many admiring readers in the nineteenth century who considered themselves part of a literary elite: they viewed their appreciation of Austen's works as a mark of their cultural taste. This became a common theme of literary criticism of Austen's works during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Philosopher and literary critic George Henry Lewes expressed this in a series of enthusiastic articles published in the 1840s and 1850s. In "The Novels of Jane Austen", published anonymously in Blackwood's Magazine in 1859, Lewes praised Austen's novels for their "economy of art...the easy adaptation of means to ends, with no aid from superfluous elements" and compared her works to Shakespeare's.[85] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... George Henry Lewes (April 18, 1817 – November 28, 1878) was a British philosopher and literary critic. ... George Henry Lewes (April 18, 1817 – November 28, 1878) was a British philosopher and literary critic. ... Blackwoods Magazine was a British magazine and miscellany printed between 1817 and 1980. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ...


With the publication of J. E. Austen-Leigh's A Memoir of Jane Austen in 1870, Austen was introduced to a wider public as "dear aunt Jane", the respectable maiden aunt. However, critics continued to assert that her works were sophisticated and only appropriate for those who could truly plumb their depths.[86] The publication of the Memoir spurred the reissue of Austen's novels—the first popular editions were released in 1883 in a sixpenny series by Routledge. Fancy illustrated editions and collectors' sets quickly followed.[87] This article is about the coin. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ...


It is only after the publication of the Memoir that readers started to develop a personal identification with Austen.[88] Author and critic Leslie Stephen described the popular mania that started to develop for Austen in the 1880s as "Austenolatry".[89] Around the turn of the century, members of the literary elite reacted against this popularization of Austen. They referred to themselves as Janeites in order to distinguish themselves from the masses who did not properly understand Austen.[90] One member of this literary elite was Henry James, who referred to Austen several times with approval and on one occasion ranked her with Shakespeare, Cervantes, and Henry Fielding as among "the fine painters of life".[91] However, James responded negatively to what he described as "a beguiled infatuation" with Austen, a rising tide of public interest that exceeded Austen's "intrinsic merit and interest".[92] Sir Leslie Stephen (November 28, 1832 – February 22, 1904) was an English author and critic, the father of two famous daughters, Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... Cervantes redirects here. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ...


During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the first books of criticism on Austen were published. In fact, after the publication of the Memoir, more criticism was published on Austen in two years than had appeared in the previous fifty.[93] According to Brian Southam, who has made a study of Austen reception, while Austen criticism increased in amount and, to some degree, in quality after 1870, "a certain uniformity" pervaded it. Austen's novels were "praised for their elegance of form and their surface 'finish'; for the realism of their fictional world, the variety and vitality of their characters; for their pervasive humour; and for their gentle and undogmatic morality and its unsermonising delivery. The novels are prized for their 'perfection'. Yet it is seen to be a narrow perfection, achieved within the bounds of domestic comedy."[94] However, some astute critics (largely ignored at the time), such as Richard Simpson and Margaret Oliphant, introduced key ideas that would later be taken up and developed by Austen scholars. For example, in a review of the Memoir, Simpson described Austen as a serious yet ironic critic of English society and argued that she used humor as a means of social critique.[95] Margaret Oliphant Wilson Oliphant (April 4, 1828 - June 25, 1897), Scottish novelist and historical writer, daughter of Francis Wilson, was born at Wallyford, near Musselburgh, East Lothian. ...


Although Austen's novels had been published in the United States since 1832, it was not until after 1870 that there was a distinctive American response to Austen.[96] Austen was not democratic enough for American tastes and her work did not explore the frontier themes that had come to define American literature.[97] In his book Following the Equator, for example, Mark Twain, Austen's foremost American critic, described the library on his ship: "Jane Austen's books...are absent from this library. Just that one omission alone would make a fairly good library out of a library that hadn't a book in it."[98] Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ...


Twentieth century

While there had been glimmers of brilliant Austen scholarship early in the twentieth century, it was not until the 1930s that Austen became solidly entrenched within academia. Several important works paved the way. The first was R. W. Chapman's magisterial edition of Austen's collected works. Not only was it the first scholarly edition of Austen's works, it was also the first scholarly edition of any English novelist. The Chapman text has remained the basis for all subsequent published editions of Austen's works.[99] The second important milestone was Oxford Shakespearean scholar A. C. Bradley's 1911 essay, "Jane Austen: A Lecture", which is "generally regarded as the starting-point for the serious academic approach to Jane Austen".[100] Bradley emphasized Austen's ties to Samuel Johnson, arguing that she was a moralist as well as humorist; in this he was "totally original", according to Southam.[101] Bradley established the groupings of Austen's "early" and "late" novels, which are still used by scholars today.[102] Andrew Cecil Bradley (1851–1935) was an English literary scholar. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ...

The Jane Austen Centre in Bath
The Jane Austen Centre in Bath

The 1920s saw a boom in Austen scholarship, but it was not until the publication in 1939 of Mary Lascelles's Jane Austen and Her Art that the academic study of Austen really took hold.[103] Lascelles's innovative work included an analysis of the books Jane Austen read and the effect of her reading on her work, an extended analysis of Austen's style, and her "narrative art". At the time concern arose over the fact that academics were taking over Austen criticism and it was becoming increasingly esoteric—a debate that has continued to the beginning of the twenty-first century.[104] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 797 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3040 × 2288 pixel, file size: 900 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Jane Austen Centre taken by me during my tour of Bath I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 797 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3040 × 2288 pixel, file size: 900 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Jane Austen Centre taken by me during my tour of Bath I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Jane Austen Centre, Bath The Jane Austen Centre at 40 Gay Street in Bath, Somerset is a permanent exhibition which tells the story of Jane Austens Bath experience - the effect that living here had on her and her writing. ... , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ...


In a spurt of revisionist views in the 1940s, scholars approached Austen more sceptically and argued that she was a subversive writer. These revisionist views, together with F. R. Leavis's and Ian Watt's pronouncement that Austen was one of the great writers of English fiction, did much to cement Austen's reputation amongst academics.[105] They agreed that she "combined [Henry Fielding's and Samuel Richardson's] qualities of interiority and irony, realism and satire to form an author superior to both".[106] The period since World War II has seen a flowering of scholarship on Austen using a diversity of critical approaches, including feminist theory, and perhaps most controversially, postcolonial theory. Frank Raymond Leavis (July 14, 1895 - April 14, 1978) was an influential British literary critic of the early-to-mid-twentieth century. ... Literary critic and literary historian Ian Watt (1917-1999) was a professor of English at Stanford University. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... Samuel Richardson (August 19, 1689 – July 4, 1761) was a major 18th century writer best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady (1748) and Sir Charles Grandison (1753). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Postcolonial theory is a literary theory or critical approach that deals with literature produced in countries that were once, or are now, colonies of other countries. ...


The disconnection between the popular appreciation of Austen, particularly that by modern Janeites, and the academic appreciation of Austen that began in the 1870s and continued with Lascelles has widened considerably. Austen scholar Claudia Johnson describes the "the ludic enthusiasm of...amateur reading clubs, whose 'performances' include teas, costume balls, games, readings, and dramatic representations, staged with a campy anglophilia in North America, and a brisker antiquarian meticulousness in England, and whose interests range from Austenian dramatizations, to fabrics, to genealogies, and to weekend study trips".[107] She argues that academics are prone to look askance at these endeavours, although the fact that such activities are now deemed worthy of study suggests that this attitude may be changing.[108] Claudia L. Johnson is the Murray Professor of English Literature at Princeton University; she is also currently chairperson of the English department. ...


Sequels, prequels, and adaptations of almost every sort have been based on the novels of Jane Austen, from soft-core pornographic novels to fantasy novels.[109] Beginning in the middle of the nineteenth century, Austen family members published conclusions to her incomplete novels, but it was not until the late 1990s that the industry exploded with the 1995 broadcast of the BBC Pride and Prejudice.[110] Just five years later, there were over a hundred printed adaptations.[111] According to Lynch, "her works appear to have proven more hospitable to sequelisation than those of almost any other novelist".[112] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


List of works

Novels

In order of first publication:

For other uses, see Sense and Sensibility (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... For other uses, see Mansfield Park. ... For other uses, see Emma (disambiguation). ... Persuasion book cover Persuasion is the last completed novel Jane Austen wrote, and was first published posthumously, in 1818. ... For films named Northanger Abbey, see Northanger Abbey (1986 film) or Northanger Abbey (2007 TV drama). ... Jane Austen demonstrated her mastery of the epistolary novel genre in Lady Susan, which she wrote in 1795 but never published. ...

Unfinished works

The Watsons is an incomplete novel by Jane Austen. ... Sanditon, (1817) also known as Sand and Sandition, is an unfinished novel by the British novelist Jane Austen. ...

Selected juvenilia

Love and Freindship is a juvenile story by Jane Austen, dated 1790, when Austen was 14 years old. ... The Beautifull Cassandra is a short piece from Jane Austen’s juvenilia. ...

See also

  • Timeline of Jane Austen

A watercolour sketch of Jane Austen by her sister Cassandra (c. ...

Notes

  • a. ^ The original is unsigned but was believed by the family to have been made by Cassandra and remained in the family with the one signed sketch by Cassandra until 1920. The original sketch, according to relatives who knew Jane Austen well, was not a good likeness.[113]
  • b. ^ These included the original versions of and revisions to the novels later published as Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice and Northanger Abbey, and a novel fragment, The Watsons. [114]
  • c. ^ Oliver MacDonagh says that Sense and Sensibility "may well be the first English realistic novel" based on its detailed and accurate portrayal of what he calls "getting and spending" in an English gentry family.[115]
  • d. ^ As reported by Austen's niece, Anna, the family crest appeared on George Austen's carriage at the time of Henry Austen's 1797 marriage to Eliza de Feuillide.[116]
  • e. ^ All of Jane Austen's novels except Pride and Prejudice were published "on commission", that is, at the author's financial risk. When publishing on commission, publishers would advance the costs of publication, repay themselves as books were sold and then charge a commission for each book sold, paying the rest to the author. If a novel did not recover its costs through sales, the author was responsible for them.[117]
  • f. ^ Jane Austen's novels were published in larger editions than was normal for this period. The small size of the novel-reading public and the large costs associated with hand production (particularly the cost of hand-made paper) meant that most novels were published in editions of 500 copies or less, in order to reduce the risks to the publisher and the novelist. Even some of the most successful titles during this period were issued in editions of not more than 750 or 800 copies and later reprinted if demand continued. Austen's novels were published in larger editions, ranging from about 750 copies of Sense and Sensibility to about 2,000 copies of Emma. It is not clear whether the decision to print more copies than usual of Jane Austen's novels was driven by the publishers or the author. Since all but one of Jane Austen's books were originally published "on commission", the risks of overproduction were largely hers (or Cassandra's after her death) and publishers may have been more willing to produce larger editions than was normal practice when their own funds were at risk. Editions of popular works of non-fiction were often much larger.[118]
  • g. ^ The Prince Regent's admiration was by no means reciprocated, however. In a letter of 16 February 1813 to Martha Lloyd, Austen says (referring to the Prince's wife, whom he treated notoriously badly) "I hate her Husband".[119]
  • h. ^ John Murray also published the work of Walter Scott and Lord Byron. In a letter to Cassandra dated 17/18 October, 1816, Austen comments that "Mr. Murray's Letter is come; he is a Rogue of course, but a civil one." [120]
  • i. ^ Addison's disease was often a secondary effect of tuberculosis or cancer. For detailed information concerning the retrospective diagnosis, its uncertainties and related controversies, see Honan, 391-92; Le Faye, A Family Record, 236; Grey, "Life of Jane Austen," The Jane Austen Companion, 282; and Wiltshire, Jane Austen and the Body, 221. Claire Tomalin prefers a diagnosis of a lymphoma such as Hodgkin's disease, arguing that Austen's known symptoms are more consistent with a lymphoma than with Addison's disease. Tomalin, Appendix I, 283-84; see also Upfal A (2005). "Jane Austen’s lifelong health problems and final illness: New evidence points to a fatal Hodgkin’s disease and excludes the widely accepted Addison's". J Med Ethics Med Humanities 31: 3-11. 
  • j. ^ The manuscript of the revised final chapters of Persuasion is the only surviving manuscript in Austen's own handwriting for any of her published novels.[121]
  • k. ^ Cassandra and Henry Austen chose the final titles and the title page is dated 1818.
  • l. ^ Honan points to "the odd fact that most of [Austen's] reviewers sound like Mr. Collins" as evidence that contemporary critics felt that works oriented toward the interests and concerns of women were intrinsically less important and less worthy of critical notice than works (mostly non-fiction) oriented towards men.[122]

References

  1. ^ Southam, "Criticism, 1870-1940", The Jane Austen Companion, 102.
  2. ^ Lascelles, 2.
  3. ^ Lascelles, 4-5; MacDonagh, 110-28; Honan, 79, 183-85; Tomalin, 66-68.
  4. ^ Litz, 3-14; Grundy, "Jane Austen and Literary Traditions", The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, 192-93; Waldron, "Critical Responses, Early", Jane Austen in Context, p. 83, 89-90; Duffy, "Criticism, 1814-1870", The Jane Austen Companion, 93-94.
  5. ^ Litz, 142.
  6. ^ MacDonagh, 66-75.
  7. ^ Honan, 124-27; Trott, "Critical Responses, 1830-1970", Jane Austen in Context, 92.
  8. ^ Le Faye, Family Record, 236, n.1.
  9. ^ Fergus, "Biography", Jane Austen in Context, 3-4.
  10. ^ Le Faye, "Letters", Jane Austen in Context, 33.
  11. ^ Le Faye, A Family Record, 270.
  12. ^ Le Faye, A Family Record, 279.
  13. ^ Fergus, "Biography", Jane Austen in Context, 3-4.
  14. ^ Honan, 29-30.
  15. ^ Honan, 11-14.
  16. ^ Tomalin, 6, 13-16, 147-51, 170-71; Greene, "Jane Austen and the Peerage", Jane Austen: A Collection of Critical Essays, 156-57; Fergus, "Biography", Jane Austen in Context, 5-6.
  17. ^ Honan, 14, 17-18.
  18. ^ Fergus, "Biography", 3; Tomalin, 142; Honan, 23, 119.
  19. ^ MacDonagh, 50-51; Honan, 246.
  20. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology of Jane Austen's Life", The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, 2.
  21. ^ Tomalin, 7-9; Honan, 21-22; Le Faye, A Family Record, 19.
  22. ^ Tomalin, 9-10, 26, 33-38, 42-43.
  23. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology", 2-3; Grundy, "Jane Austen and Literary Traditions", 190-91; Tomalin, 28-29, 33-43, 66-67; Honan, 31-34; Lascelles, 7-8.
  24. ^ Honan, 66-68.
  25. ^ Honan, 211-12.
  26. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology", 2-3; Tucker, "Amateur Theatricals at Steventon", The Jane Austen Companion, 1-2; Tomalin, 31-32, 40-42, 55-57, 62-63; Honan, 35, 47-52, 423-24, n. 20.
  27. ^ Honan, 53-54; Lascelles, 106-07; Litz, 14-17.
  28. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology", 2; Litz, "Chronology of Composition", The Jane Austen Companion, 48; Honan, 61-62, 70; Lascelles, 4.
  29. ^ Honan, 62-76; Le Faye, A Family Record, 270.
  30. ^ Sutherland, 14; Doody, "The Short Fiction", The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, 85-86.
  31. ^ Litz, 21; Tomalin, 47; Honan, 73-74; Southam, "Juvenilia", The Jane Austen Companion, 248-49.
  32. ^ Honan, 75.
  33. ^ Austen, The History of England, Catharine and Other Writings, 134.
  34. ^ Jenkyns, 31.
  35. ^ Gary Kelly, "Education and accomplishments," Jane Austen in Context, 256-57; Tomalin, 101-03, 120-23, 144.
  36. ^ Honan, 265.
  37. ^ Tomalin, 101-03, 120-23, 144; Honan, 119.
  38. ^ Quoted in Tomalin, 102; see also Honan, 84.
  39. ^ Southam, "Grandison", The Jane Austen Companion, 187-89.
  40. ^ Honan, 93.
  41. ^ Honan, 93.
  42. ^ Honan, 101-102; Tomalin, 82-83
  43. ^ Tomalin, 83-84; see also Sutherland, 15.
  44. ^ Tomalin, 118.
  45. ^ Sutherland, 16-18; LeFaye, "Chronology", 4; Tomalin, 107, 120, 154, 208.
  46. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology", 4; Fergus, "Biography", 7-8; Tomalin, 112-20, 159; Honan, 105-11.
  47. ^ Le Fay, "Chronology", 4-5; Sutherland, 17, 21; quotations from Tomalin, 120-22.
  48. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology", 5, 7; Fergus, "Biography", 7; Sutherland, 16-18, 21; Tomalin, 120-21; Honan, 122-24.
  49. ^ Litz, 59-60.
  50. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology", 5, 6, 10; Fergus, "Biography", 8-9; Sutherland, 16, 18-19, 20-22; Tomalin, 182, 199, 254.
  51. ^ Sutherland, 21.
  52. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology", 6-8; Fergus, "Biography", 8; Sutherland, 15, 20-22; Tomalin, 168-75; Honan, 215. Doody agrees with Tomalin. Margaret Anne Doody, "Jane Austen, that disconcerting child" in Alexander and McMaster, The Child Writer, 105.
  53. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology" 6; Fergus, "Biography", p. 7-8; Tomalin, 178-81; Honan, 189-98.
  54. ^ Le Faye, "Memoirs and Biographies", Jane Austen in Context, 51.
  55. ^ Letter dated November 18-20, 1814, Jane Austen's Letters, 278-82.
  56. ^ Sutherland, 15, 21.
  57. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology", 7; Tomalin, 182-84; Honan, 203-05.
  58. ^ MacDonagh, 111; Honan, 212; Tomalin, 186.
  59. ^ Honan, 213-14.
  60. ^ Tomalin, 194-206.
  61. ^ Tomalin, 207.
  62. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology", 8; Tomalin, 194-206; Honan, 237-45; MacDonagh, 49.
  63. ^ Grey, "Chawton", in The Jane Austen Companion, 38
  64. ^ Grey, "Chawton", 37-38; Tomalin, 208, 211-12; Honan, 265-66, 351-52.
  65. ^ Doody, "The Shorter Fiction", The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, 87.
  66. ^ Honan, 289-290.
  67. ^ Honan, 290, Tomalin, 218.
  68. ^ Sutherland, 16-17, 21; Le Faye, "Chronology" 8-9; Fergus, "The Professional Woman Writer", 19-23; Tomalin, 210-12, 216-20; Honan, 287.
  69. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology", 9; Fergus, "The Professional Woman Writer", 22-24; Sutherland, 18-19; Tomalin, 236, 240-41, 315, n. 5.
  70. ^ Austen letter to James Stannier Clarke, 15 November 1815; Clarke letter to Austen, 16 November 1815; Austen letter to John Murray, 23 November 1815, Le Faye, Jane Austen's Letters, 296-98.
  71. ^ Note on the relationship; Correspondence; Litz, 164-165; Honan, 367-69, describes the episode in detail.
  72. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology", 8-9; Sutherland, 16-21; Fergus, "The Professional Woman Writer", 23-27, 30, n.29, 31, n.33; Fergus, "Biography", 10; Tomalin, 256.
  73. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology", 6, 10; Fergus, "The Professional Woman Writer", 26-27; Tomalin, 252-54.
  74. ^ Honan, 378-79, 385-95
  75. ^ Tomalin, 261.
  76. ^ Le Faye, "Chronology", 10-11; Fergus, "The Professional Woman Writer", 26-27; Tomalin, 254-71; Honan, 385-405.
  77. ^ Tomalin, 272.
  78. ^ Tomalin, 321, n.1 and 3; Gilson, "Editions and Publishing History", in The Jane Austen Companion, 136-37.
  79. ^ Gilson, "Editions and Publishing History", p. 137; Gilson, "Later publishing history, with illustrations," Jane Austen in Context, p. 127; Southam, "Criticism, 1870-1940", 102.
  80. ^ Southam, "Scott in the Quarterly Review", Vol. 1, 58; Waldron, "Critical Responses, Early", Jane Austen in Context, 86; Duffy, "Criticism, 1814-1870", The Jane Austen Companion, 94-96.
  81. ^ Waldron, "Critical Responses, Early", Jane Austen in Context, 89-90; Duffy, "Criticism, 1814-1870", The Jane Austen Companion, 97; Watt, "Introduction", 4-5.
  82. ^ Duffy, "Criticism, 1814-1870", The Jane Austen Companion, 98-99; MacDonagh, 146; Watt, "Introduction", 3-4.
  83. ^ Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 1, 2; Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 1.
  84. ^ Johnson, "Austen cults and cultures", The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, 211; Gilson, "Later publishing history, with illustrations," p. 127.
  85. ^ Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 1, 152; Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 20-21.
  86. ^ Southam, "Criticism, 1870-1940", 102-03; see also Watt, "Introduction", 6; Johnson, "Austen cults and cultures", The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, 211.
  87. ^ Southam, “Introduction”, Vol. 2, 58-62.
  88. ^ Lynch, "Cult of Jane Austen", Jane Austen in Context, 112.
  89. ^ Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 47.
  90. ^ Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 46; Johnson, "Austen cults and cultures", The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, 213.
  91. ^ Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 70.
  92. ^ Southam, "Henry James on Jane Austen", Vol. 2, 230.
  93. ^ Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 1, 1.
  94. ^ Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 13-14.
  95. ^ Watt, "Introduction", 5-6.
  96. ^ Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 49-50.
  97. ^ Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 52.
  98. ^ Southam, "Mark Twain on Jane Austen", Vol. 2, 232.
  99. ^ Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 99-100; see also Watt, "Introduction", 10-11; Gilson, "Later Publishing History, with Illustrations", 149-50; Johnson, “Austen cults and cultures”, 218.
  100. ^ Brian Southam, quoted in Trott, "Critical Responses, 1830-1970", 92; Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 79.
  101. ^ Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 79; see also Watt, "Introduction", 10; Trott, "Critical Responses, 1830-1970", 93.
  102. ^ Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 79.
  103. ^ Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 107-109, 124.
  104. ^ Southam, "Criticism 1870-1940", 108; Watt, "Introduction", 10-11; Stovel, "Further Reading", 233; Southam, "Introduction", Vol. 2, 127; Todd, 20.
  105. ^ Johnson, “Austen cults and cultures”, 219; Todd, 20.
  106. ^ Todd, 20.
  107. ^ Johnson, “Austen cults and cultures”, The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, 223.
  108. ^ Johnson, “Austen cults and cultures”, The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, 224.
  109. ^ Lynch, "Sequels", Jane Austen in Context, 160.
  110. ^ Lynch, "Sequels", Jane Austen in Context, 161-62.
  111. ^ Lynch, "Sequels", Jane Austen in Context, 160.
  112. ^ Lynch, "Sequels", Jane Austen in Context, 162.
  113. ^ Kirkham, "Portraits", Jane Austen in Context, 69-72.
  114. ^ Sutherland, "Chronology of Composition and Publication", Jane Austen in Context, 13.
  115. ^ MacDonagh, 65, 136-37.
  116. ^ Le Faye, Family Record, 106.
  117. ^ Fergus, "The Professional Woman Writer", 15-17; Raven, "Book Production", in Jane Austen in Context, 198; Honan, 285-86.
  118. ^ For more information and a discussion of the economics of book publishing during this period, see Fergus, "The Professional Woman Writer", 18, and Raven, "Book Production", 196-203.
  119. ^ passage online; Le Faye, Jane Austen's Letters, 207-08.
  120. ^ Honan, 364-65; Le Faye, Jane Austen's Letters, 291
  121. ^ Tomalin, 255.
  122. ^ Honan, 317.

Bibliography

Primary works

  • Austen, Jane. Catharine and Other Writings. Ed. Margaret Anne Doody and Douglas Murray. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-19-282823-1.
  • Austen, Jane. The History of England. Ed. David Starkey. Icon Books, HarperCollins Publishers, 2006. ISBN 0-06-135195-4.

Biographical works

  • Austen, Henry Thomas. "Biographical Notice of the Author". Northanger Abbey and Persuasion. London: John Murray, 1817.
  • Austen-Leigh, James Edward. A Memoir of Jane Austen. 1926. Ed. R. W. Chapman. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967.
  • Austen-Leigh, William and Richard Arthur Austen-Leigh. Jane Austen: Her Life and Letters, A Family Record. London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1913.
  • Fergus, Jan. Jane Austen: A Literary Life. London: Macmillan, 1991. ISBN 0-333-44701-8.
  • Honan, Park. Jane Austen: A Life. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987. ISBN 0-312-01451-1.
  • Le Faye, Deirdre, ed. Jane Austen's Letters. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-19-283297-2.
  • Le Faye, Deirdre. Jane Austen: A Family Record. Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-53417-8.
  • Tomalin, Claire. Jane Austen: A Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997. ISBN 0-679-44628-1.

Literary criticism Claire Tomalin (born June 20, 1933) is an English biographer and journalist. ...

Essay collections
  • Alexander, Christine and Juliet McMaster, eds. The Child Writer from Austen to Woolf. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 10-0-521-81293-3.
  • Copeland, Edward and Juliet McMaster, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-521-49867-8.
  • Grey, J. David, ed. The Jane Austen Companion. New York: Macmillan, 1986. ISBN 0-52-545540-0.
  • Lynch, Deidre, ed. Janeites: Austen's Disciples and Devotees. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-691-05005-8.
  • Southam, B. C., ed. Jane Austen: The Critical Heritage, 1812-1870. Vol. 1. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1968. ISBN 0-7100-2942-X.
  • Southam, B. C., ed. Jane Austen: The Critical Heritage, 1870-1940. Vol. 2. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987. ISBN 0-7102-0189-3.
  • Todd, Janet, ed. Jane Austen In Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-82644-6.
  • Watt, Ian, ed. Jane Austen: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1963. ISBN 0-130-53769-0.
Monographs and articles
  • Armstrong, Nancy. Desire and Domestic Fiction. London: Oxford University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-19-506160-8
  • Butler, Marilyn. Jane Austen and the War of Ideas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975. ISBN 0-19-812968-8
  • Collins, Irene. Jane Austen and the Clergy. London: The Hambledon Press, 1994. ISBN 1-85285-114-7.
  • Devlin, D. D. Jane Austen and Education. London: Macmillan, 1975. ISBN 0-333-14431-2.
  • Duckworth, Alistair M. The Improvement of the Estate: A Study of Jane Austen's Novels. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971. ISBN 0-8018-1269-0.
  • Fergus, Jan. Jane Austen and the Didactic Novel. Totowa: Barnes & Noble, 1983. ISBN 0-389-20228-2.
  • Ferguson, Moira. "Mansfield Park, Slavery, Colonialism, and Gender". Oxford Literary Review 13 (1991): 118-39.
  • Galperin, William. The Historical Austen. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003. ISBN 0-812-23687-4.
  • Gay, Penny. Jane Austen and the Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-521-65213-8.
  • Gubar, Susan and Sandra Gilbert. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth Century Literary Imagination. 1979. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-300-02596-3.
  • Harding, D. W., "Regulated Hatred: An Aspect of the Work of Jane Austen". Jane Austen: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Ian Watt. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1963.
  • Jenkyns, Richard. A Fine Brush on Ivory: An Appreciation of Jane Austen. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-927761-7.
  • Johnson, Claudia L. Jane Austen: Women, Politics and the Novel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. ISBN 0-226-40139-1.
  • Kirkham, Margaret. Jane Austen, Feminism and Fiction. Brighton: Harvester, 1983. ISBN 0-710-80468-7.
  • Koppel, Gene. The Religious Dimension in Jane Austen's Novels. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1988.
  • Lascelles, Mary. Jane Austen and Her Art. [Original publication date]. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966.
  • Leavis, F. R. The Great Tradition: George Eliot, Henry James, Joseph Conrad. London: Chatto & Windus, 1960.
  • Litz, A. Walton. Jane Austen: A Study of Her Development. New York: Oxford University Press, 1965.
  • Lynch, Deidre. The Economy of Character. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. ISBN 0-226-49820-4.
  • MacDonagh, Oliver. Jane Austen: Real and Imagined Worlds. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-300-05084-4.
  • Miller, D. A. Jane Austen, or The Secret of Style. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-691-12387-X.
  • Mudrick, Marvin. Jane Austen: Irony as Defense and Discovery. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1952.
  • Page, Norman. The Language of Jane Austen. Oxford: Blackwell, 1972. ISBN 0-631-08280-8.
  • Poovey, Mary. The Proper Lady and the Woman Writer: Ideology as Style in the Works of Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelley, and Jane Austen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984. ISBN 0-226-67528-9.
  • Said, Edward W. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Vintage Books, 1993. ISBN 0-679-75054-1.
  • Todd, Janet. The Cambridge Introduction to Jane Austen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-521-67469-7.
  • Waldron, Mary. Jane Austen and the Fiction of Her Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-521-00388-1.
  • Wiltshire, John. Recreating Jane Austen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-521-00282-6.
  • Wiltshire, John. Jane Austen and the Body: The Picture of Health. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-521-41476-8.

Historical works Janet Todd is a prolific and well-respected author of many books on women in literature. ... Literary critic and literary historian Ian Watt (1917-1999) was a professor of English at Stanford University. ... Nancy Armstrong is the Nancy Duke Lewis Professor of Comparative Literature, English, Modern Culture & Media, and Gender Studies at Brown University. ... Marilyn Butler is a literary critic and was Rector of Exeter College, Oxford from 1993 to 2004. ... Dr. Susan Gubar is a Distinguished Professor of English and Womens Studies. ... The Madwoman in the Attic : The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination, published in 1979, examines Victorian literature from a feminist perspective. ... Claudia L. Johnson is the Murray Professor of English Literature at Princeton University; she is also currently chairperson of the English department. ... Edward Wadie Saïd, Arabic: , , (1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and Palestinian activist. ... Janet Todd is a prolific and well-respected author of many books on women in literature. ...

  • Raven, James. The Business of Books: Booksellers and the English Book Trade. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007. ISBN 0-300-12261-6.

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Jane Austen
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Jane Austen
Online works
Author information
  • The History of England, written by Austen at the age of sixteen (brief description at the British Library on-line).
  • Jane Austen's House Museum in Chawton
  • The Jane Austen Centre in Bath
Fan sites and societies
  • The Republic of Pemberley: the largest Jane Austen site on the web.
  • The Jane Austen Society of Australia
  • The Jane Austen Society of North America
  • The Jane Austen Society of the United Kingdom


Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... Chawton is a small village in Hampshire, England, near Alton. ... , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ... A watercolour sketch of Jane Austen by her sister Cassandra (c. ... The works of Jane Austen have been represented in popular culture in a variety of forms. ... The Jane Austen Centre, Bath The Jane Austen Centre at 40 Gay Street in Bath, Somerset is a permanent exhibition which tells the story of Jane Austens Bath experience - the effect that living here had on her and her writing. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sir Francis Austen (1774–1865) was a British officer who spent most of his long life on active duty in the Royal Navy, rising to the position of Admiral of the Fleet. ... Silhouette of Cassandra Austen Cassandra Elizabeth Austen (9 January, 1773 - 22 March, 1845 [1]) was an amateur English watercolorist and the older sister of Jane Austen. ... Thomas Langlois Lefroy 1855 by W.H.Mote Thomas Langlois Lefroy (8 January 1776 – 4 May 1869) was an Irish politician and judge. ... For other uses, see Sense and Sensibility (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... For other uses, see Mansfield Park. ... For other uses, see Emma (disambiguation). ... For films named Northanger Abbey, see Northanger Abbey (1986 film) or Northanger Abbey (2007 TV drama). ... Persuasion book cover Persuasion is the last completed novel Jane Austen wrote, and was first published posthumously, in 1818. ... Jane Austen demonstrated her mastery of the epistolary novel genre in Lady Susan, which she wrote in 1795 but never published. ... Sanditon, (1817) also known as Sand and Sandition, is an unfinished novel by the British novelist Jane Austen. ... The Watsons is an incomplete novel by Jane Austen. ... Love and Freindship is a juvenile story by Jane Austen, dated 1790, when Austen was 14 years old. ... The Beautifull Cassandra is a short piece from Jane Austen’s juvenilia. ... Mr. ... Elizabeth Lizzy Bennet (sometimes referred to as Eliza or Lizzy) is a fictional character and the protagonist of Jane Austens novel Pride and Prejudice. ... Elinor Dashwood is a fictional character and the main protagonist of Jane Austens Sense and Sensibility. ... Anne Elliot is the protagonist of Jane Austens sixth and last completed novel, Persuasion. ...

Persondata
NAME Austen, Jane
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English novelist
DATE OF BIRTH 16 December 1775(1775-12-16)
PLACE OF BIRTH Steventon, Hampshire, England
DATE OF DEATH 29 April
PLACE OF DEATH Winchester, Hampshire, England

is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Steventon is a small village in north Hampshire, United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close Arms of Winchester City Council Winchester is a city in southern England, and the administrative capital of the county of Hampshire, with a population of around 35,000. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jane Austen - MSN Encarta (2151 words)
Austen recognized that real people are flawed in significant ways, and so she did not permit the characters in her romances to drift too far from life.
Austen’s second important period of writing lasted from 1811 to 1816, when her works first received public recognition and she deepened her mastery of her subjects and form.
Austen has been praised for her presentation of the complex relations between the members of the families, but as in Sense and Sensibility, she frustrates the expectations of her readers that the hero and heroine be vital, attractive characters.
Jane Austen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1847 words)
In 1775, Jane Austen was born at the rectory in Steventon, Hampshire, one of two daughters of the Rev.
In 1801 the family moved to the socially esteemed spa city of Bath, which provides the setting for many of her novels, though Jane Austen, like her character Anne Elliot, seems to have "persisted in a disinclination for Bath", although her dislike may have been influenced by the family's precarious financial situation in that city.
Austen's literary strength lies in the delineation of character, especially of women, by delicate touches arising out of the most natural and everyday incidents in the life of the middle and upper classes, from which her subjects are generally taken.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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