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Encyclopedia > Jan Zamoyski
Jan Zamoyski
Noble Family Zamoyski
Coat of Arms Jelita
Parents Stanisław Zamoyski
Anna Herburt
Consorts Anna Ossolińska
Krystyna Radziwiłł
Gryzelda Batory
Barbara Tarnowska
Children with Barbara Tarnowska
Tomasz Zamoyski
Date of Birth March 19, 1542
Place of Birth Skokówka, Poland
Date of Death June 3, 1605
Place of Death Zamość, Poland

Jan Zamoyski (also known as Jan Zamojski) 1542-1605, was a Polish szlachcic, magnate, Royal Secretary from 1605, Lesser Crown Chancellor from 1576, Greater Crown Chancellor from 1578, and Greater Crown Hetman of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1581. General starost of Kraków from 1580 to 1585, starost of Bełz, Międzyrzecze, Krzeszów, Knyszyn and Derpsk. He was one of the most skilled diplomats, politicians and statesmen of his time.

Contents

Biography

Early years: the royal supporter

He attended the University of Paris and University of Padua. Since his student days he become deeply interested in politics. In 1563 he wrote De senatu Romano, a brochure about the Ancient Rome, in which he sought to apply constitutional principles of republican Rome to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.


After the extinction of the Jagiello dynasty in 1572 during the election sejm (Polish sejm konwokacyjny) he used his influence to enforce the victrom election procedure (meaning all nobles had the right to vote for the king) and for the majority voting procedure. During that time he wrote the Modus electionis brochure. He was a friend of M. Sienicki and H. Ossolinski and soon become the most important leader of the faction of the lesser nobility in the Commonwealth whose goal was the enforcement of law (Polish egzekucja praw and popularysci) - preserving the unique democratic goverment of the Commonwealth with the dominant role of lesser nobility. He was so influencial that this group was later called 'zamojczycy' (Polish adjective made from his name - Zamoyski's people).

During the 1573 election he was in favour of Henryk II Walezy. During the 1575 election he championed the case of Stephen Bathory. At that time he was one of the most powerful people in the country, having both the power of hetman and of chancellor. He supported Batory's politics who opposed the Hapsburg and Ottomans. He took part in the preparation and war against Russia in 1579-1581, where he captured Wielize and Zawoloc. He took part in the Moldavian campaign where in 1595 he helped J. Mohyla to gain the throne. In 1600 he fought againnst Michal Waleczny, hospodar wołoski, who conquered Moldavia few months earlier. He defeated him under Bukova (Bucovu) and restorted J.Mohyla to the throne, at that time he also helped his brother, S.Mohyla to gain the throne of Hungary, thus spreading the influence of the Commonwealth to those countries.


Later years: in opposition to the throne

After the death of Batory in 1586 he helped Zygmunt III Waza to gain the Polish throne, defeating during the short civil war the forces supporting Hapspurg archprince Maximilian at Byczyna in 1588. In 1601 he took part in the war against Sweden commanding the Commonwealth forces at Inflanty. In that year captured Wolmar and Fellin, and in 1602 Bialy Kamien.


Soon he joined the opposition against the politics of Zygmunt III, who wanted to strenghten the power of the king and make the Commonwealth resemble an absolute monarchy and wanted to ally with the Habspurgs and Counter-Reformation forces in order to secure their help for regaining the Sweden throne. In opposition to the king, Zamoyski advocated religious tolerance, opposed the growing power of the Catholic Church and Jesuits, and warned against forcing the Commonwealth into usless dynasty wars with Sweden, expecially with the constant danger from the Ottoman Empire. His politics and actions where responsible for Poland opposing and eventually avoiding the trend toward absolutism that characterized the other states of Europe


In 1580 he founded the city of Zamość. During his life he gathered much wealth - he owned 11 cities and 200 villages (around 6400 km˛) and was a royal caretaker of another 112 cities and 612 villages (around 17500 km˛). In 1595 he founded the Akademia Zamojska.

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Jan Zamoyski

See also


 
Chancellors of Kingdom of Poland and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Grand Chancellors of the Crown

Klemens | Jarost | Stanislaw z Krakowa | Franciszek z Krakowa | Zbigniew z Szczyrzyca | Janusz Suchywilk | Zawisza z Kurozwek | Jan Radlica z Radliczyc | Zaklika z Miedzygorza | Wojciech Jastrzebiec z Lubnicy | Jan Szafraniec z Luczyc | Jan Taszka z Koniecpola | Jan Gruszczynski | Jakub z Debna | Uriel z Gorki | Stanislaw Kurozwecki | Krzeslaw Kurozwecki | Jan Laski | Maciej Drzewicki | Krzysztof Szydlowiecki | Jan Chojenski | Pawel Wolski | Tomasz Sobocki | Samuel Maciejowski | Jan Ocieski | Walenty Dembinski | Piotr Dunin Wolski | Jan Zamoyski | Maciej Pstrokonski | Wawrzyniec Gembicki | Szczesny Kryski | Stanislaw Zolkiewski | Andrzej Lipski | Waclaw Leszczynski | Jakub Zadzik | Tomasz Zamoyski | Piotr Gebicki | Jerzy Ossolinski | Andrzej Leszczynski | Stefan Krycinski | Mikolaj Jan Prazmowski | Jan Leszczynski | Jan Stefan Wydzga | Jan Wielopolski | Jerzy Albrecht Doenhoff | Karol Tarlo | Andrzej Chryzostom Zaluski | Jan Szembek | Andrzej Stanislaw Zaluski | Jan Malachowski | Andrzej Zamoyski | Andrzej Stanislaw Kostka Mlodziejowski | Jan Jedrzej Borch | Antoni Onufry Okecki | Jacek Malachowski | Antoni Sulkowski

Grand Chancellors of Lithuania

Mikolaj Radziwillowicz | Mikolaj Radziwill | Olbracht Marcin Gasztold | Jan Jurjewicz Hlebowicz | Mikolaj Czarny Radziwill | Mikolaj Rudy Radziwill | Eustachy Wollowicz | Lew Sapieha | Albrycht Stanislaw Radziwill | Krzysztof Zygmunt Pac | Marcjan Aleksander Oginski | Dominik Mikolaj Radziwill | Karol Stanislaw Radziwill | Michal Serwacy Wisniowiecki | Jan Fryderyk Sapieha | Michal Fryderyk Czartoryski | Aleksander Michal Sapieha | Joachim Littawor Chreptowicz

Deputy Chancellors the Crown

Hieronim Radziejowski | Boguslaw Leszczyński | Jan Wielopolski | Jacek Malachowski | Hugo Kołłataj

Deputy Chancellors of Lithuania

Krzysztof Mikolaj Piorun Radziwill | Stefan Pac | Dominik Mikołaj Radziwiłł | Michal Kazimierz Radziwill | Stanislaw Antoni Szczuka | Kazimierz Czartoryski



 
Great Crown Hetmans of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Mikołaj Kamieniecki | Mikołaj Firlej | Jan Tarnowski | Mikolaj Sieniawski | Jerzy Jazłowiecki | Mikołaj Mielecki | Jan Zamoyski | Stanisław Żółkiewski | Stanisław Koniecpolski | Mikołaj Potocki | Stanisław Rewera Potocki | Jan Sobieski | Dymitr Wiśniowiecki | Stanisław Jabłonowski | Feliks Kazimierz Potocki | Hieronim Augustyn Lubomirski | Adam Mikołaj Sieniawski | Stanisław Mateusz Rzewuski | Józef Potocki | Jan Klemens Branicki | Wacław Rzewuski | Franciszek Ksawery Branicki



  Results from FactBites:
 
Jan Zamoyski - LoveToKnow 1911 (971 words)
JAN ZAMOYSKI (1541-1605), Polish statesman, was the son of Stanislaw, Castellan of Chelm, and Anna Herburtowna, who belonged to one of the most ancient and illustrious families in Poland.
Zamoyski was at first in favour of a member of the Báthory family, with which he was united by ties of amity and mutual interest; but on becoming convinced of the impossibility of any such candidature, he pronounced for a native Pole, or for whichever foreign prince might be found most profitable to Poland.
Zamoyski was undoubtedly most jealous of his dignity; his patriotism was seldom proof against private pique; and he was not always particular in his choice of means.
zamoyski (1066 words)
And Jan Zamoyski's appeal was not just that he had been the greatest landowner in Poland before the war, or that he was the head of a family with almost mythical status in the national consciousness; he had lived a remarkable and inspiring life as well.
Jan Zamoyski was born June 12, 1912 on his father's estate at Klemensow in southeastern Poland.
Zamoyski and his wife, who sacrificed all her remaining jewelry to bribe Germans, managed to hijack a number of transports of these unfortunates, and to hide large numbers of those most at risk, particularly Jewish children, in the depths of the forest.
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