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Encyclopedia > Jan Smuts
Jan Christian Smuts
Jan Smuts

In office
September 5, 1939 – June 4, 1948
Preceded by James Barry Munnik Hertzog
Succeeded by Daniel François Malan
In office
September 3, 1919 – June 30, 1924
Preceded by Louis Botha
Succeeded by James Barry Munnik Hertzog

Born 24 May 1870(1870-05-24)
Bovenplaats, near Malmesbury, Cape Colony (now South Africa)
Died 11 September 1950 (aged 80)
Doornkloof, Irene, near Pretoria, South Africa
Political party South African Party
United Party
Spouse Isie Krige
Religion Calvinist

Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, PC, ED, KC, FRS (May 24, 1870September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader, and philosopher. In addition to various cabinet appointments, he served as Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa from 1919 until 1924 and from 1939 until 1948. He served as a British Field Marshal in both the First World War[1] and the Second World War. Image File history File links JanSmutsFM.png‎ This work is in the public domain worldwide. ... This is a list of South African Prime Ministers. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cover of Time Magazine (April 27, 1925) James Barry Munnik Hertzog, better known as Barry Hertzog, (1866-1942) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1924 to 1939. ... Daniel François Malan Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 – 7 February 1959) was a Prime Minister of South Africa. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Louis Botha Louis Botha (September 17, 1862-August 27, 1919) was an Afrikaner and first Prime Minister of the modern South African state, then called the Union of South Africa. ... Cover of Time Magazine (April 27, 1925) James Barry Munnik Hertzog, better known as Barry Hertzog, (1866-1942) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1924 to 1939. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Malmesbury lies in an area known as the Swartland (‘black land’) due to the rich dark soil that becomes visible when the vast golden wheat fields are ploughed. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Irene is a small town south of Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa (pronounced eye-REE-nee). Stone arrowheads and tools, discovered in the Hennops river bed and dating back many years prove that people have been living in the area for a very long time. ... Pretoria is one of South Africas three capital cities, serving as the executive (administrative) capital; it is situated in the province of Gauteng. ... The South African Party was a liberal political party that existed in the Union of South Africa from 1911 to 1934. ... The United Party was South Africas ruling political party between 1934 and 1948. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Field Marshal Viscount Slim in his Field Marshals uniform, holding a marshals baton. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order (decoration). ... This article concerns the British Sovereigns Privy Council. ... An overview of South African military decorations and medals, which form part of the South African honours system. ... Queens Counsel (postnominal QC), during the reign of a male Sovereign known as Kings Counsel (KC), are barristers or, in Scotland, advocates appointed by Letters patent to be one of Her Majestys Counsel learned in the law. They do not constitute a separate order or degree of... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... This is a list of South African Prime Ministers. ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Smuts was for most of his life a strong supporter of segregation between the races and always opposed the enfranchisement of the black African majority in South Africa, fearing that would lead to the ultimate destruction of Western civilization in the country.[2] However, in 1948 his government issued the Fagan Report, which stressed the impracticability of complete racial segregation in South Africa and wanted to abolish the restrictions on African migration into urban areas. In this he was opposed by a majority of Afrikaners under the political leadership of the Nationalist Party who wished to deepen segregation and formalise it into a system of apartheid. This contributed to his narrow loss in the 1948 general election. Segregation means separation. ... Suffrage is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article is about the Southern African ethnic group. ... National Party or Nationalist Party can refer to several political parties, including: Australia - National Party of Australia, Nationalist Party of Australia Bangladesh - Bangladesh National Party, National Party, National Party (Manju), National Party (Naziur) Bohemia - National Party Britain - British National Party, Cornish Nationalist Party, Constitutional Movement Canada - National Party of Canada... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... The South African general election of 1948 was held on the May 26, 1948 and saw Herenigde Nasionale Party leader DF Malan call for the prohibition of mixed marriages, for the banning of black trade unions and for stricter enforcement of job reservation. ...


He led commandos in the Second Boer War for the Transvaal. During the First World War, he led the armies of South Africa against Germany, capturing German South-West Africa and commanding the British Army in East Africa. From 1917 to 1919, he was also one of five members of the British War Cabinet, helping to create the Royal Air Force. He became a Field Marshal in the British Army in 1941, and served in the Imperial War Cabinet under Winston Churchill. He was the only person to sign the peace treaties ending both the First and Second World Wars. For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Anthem Transvaalse Volkslied Location of the Transvaal in pre-1994 South Afica Capital Pretoria Language(s) Dutch, English, Afrikaans Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1857-1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius  - 1883-1902 Paul Kruger  - 1900-1902 Schalk Willem Burger (acting) History  - Established June 27, 1857  - British annexation 1877-1881... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... Flag German South-West Africa (black), other German colonies in red Capital Windhoek (from 1891) Political structure Colony Governor  - 1898-1905 Theodor von Leutwein  - 1905-1907 Friedrich von Lindequist  - 1907-1910 Bruno von Schuckmann  - 1910-1915 Theodor Seitz Historical era The Scramble for Africa  - Established 7 August, 1884  - Genocide 1904... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... RAF redirects here. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Imperial War Cabinet in 1917 The Imperial War Cabinet was created by British Prime Minister David Lloyd George in the spring of 1917 as a means of co-ordinating the British Empires military policy during the First World War. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


One of his greatest international accomplishments was the establishment of the League of Nations, the exact design and implementation of which relied upon Smuts.[2] He later urged the formation of a new international organisation for peace: the United Nations. Smuts wrote the preamble to the United Nations Charter, and was the only person to sign the charters of both the League of Nations and the UN. He sought to redefine the relationship between the United Kingdom and her colonies, by establishing the British Commonwealth, as it was known at the time. However, in 1946 the Smuts government was strongly condemned by a large majority in the United Nations Assembly for its discriminatory racial policies. 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... UN redirects here. ... The Preamble to the United Nations Charter is the opening of the United Nations Charter. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...


In 2004 he was named by voters in a poll held by the South African Broadcasting Corporation as one of the top ten Greatest South Africans of all time. The final positions of the top ten were to be decided by a second round of voting, but the programme was taken off the air due to political controversy, and Nelson Mandela was given the number one spot based on the first round of voting. In the first round, Jan Smuts came sixth. The South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) is the state-owned broadcaster in South Africa and provides 18 radio stations (AM/FM) as well as 4 television broadcasts to the general public. ... Great South Africans was a South African television series that aired on SABC3 and hosted by Noeleen Maholwana Sangqu and Denis Beckett. ...

The life of Jan Smuts
Early life 1870 - 1895
Transvaal 1895 - 1899
Boer War 1899 - 1902
British Transvaal 1902 - 1910
The Old Boers 1910 - 1914

Contents

Jan Smuts Jan Christian Smuts (aka Jan Christiaan Smuts), OM, CH, ED, KC, FRS (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman, military leader, and philosopher. ... Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman and military leader. ... See Second Boer War Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman and military leader. ... Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman and military leader. ... Jan Christian Smuts, OM (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman and military leader. ...

Early life

He was born on 24 May 1870, at the family farm, Bovenplaats, near Malmesbury, in the Cape Colony. His family were prosperous, traditional Afrikaner farmers, long established and highly respected. Jan Smuts Jan Christian Smuts (aka Jan Christiaan Smuts), OM, CH, ED, KC, FRS (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman, military leader, and philosopher. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Malmesbury lies in an area known as the Swartland (‘black land’) due to the rich dark soil that becomes visible when the vast golden wheat fields are ploughed. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... This article is about the Southern African ethnic group. ...


Jan was quiet and delicate as a child, strongly inclined towards solitary pursuits. During his childhood, he often went out alone, exploring the surrounding countryside; this awakened a passion for nature, which he retained throughout his life.


As the second son of the family, rural custom dictated that he would remain working on the farm; a full formal education was typically the preserve of the first son. However, in 1882, when Jan was twelve, his elder brother died, and Jan was sent to school in his brother's place. Jan attended the school in nearby Riebeek West. He made excellent progress here, despite his late start, and caught up with his contemporaries within four years. He moved on to Victoria College, Stellenbosch, in 1886, at the age of sixteen. Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Victoria College is or was the name of several institutions of secondary or higher education, including: Victoria College, Alexandria, Egypt Victoria University in the University of Toronto, University of Toronto Victoria College, Texas Victoria College of Art Victorian College of the Arts, University of Melbourne Victoria College, Jersey, Channel Islands... Stellenbosch from Botmaskop mountain looking towards Cape Town Stellenbosch (IPA: ) is the second oldest European settlement in the Western Cape Province, South Africa after Cape Town, and is situated about 50 kilometers (30 mi) away along the banks of the Eerste River. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


At Stellenbosch, he learned High Dutch, German, and Ancient Greek, and immersed himself further in literature, the classics, and Bible studies. His deeply traditional upbringing and serious outlook led to social isolation from his peers. However, he made outstanding academic progress, graduating in 1891 with double First-class honours in Literature and Science. During his last years at Stellenbosch, Smuts began to cast off some of his shyness and reserve, and it was at this time that he met Isie Krige, whom he was later to marry. Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... Biblical studies is the academic study of the Judeo-Christian Bible and related texts. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


On graduation from Victoria College, Smuts won the Ebden scholarship for overseas study. He decided travel to the United Kingdom to read law at Christ's College, Cambridge. Smuts found it difficult to settle at Cambridge; he felt homesick and isolated by his age and different upbringing from the English undergraduates. Worries over money also contributed to his unhappiness, as his scholarship was insufficient to cover his university expenses. He confided these worries to a friend from Victoria College, Professor JI Marais. In reply, Professor Marais enclosed a cheque for a substantial sum, by way of loan, urging Smuts not to hesitate to approach him should he ever find himself in need.[3] Thanks to Marais, Smuts's financial standing was secure. He gradually began to enter more into the social aspects of the university, although he retained his single-minded dedication to his studies. College name Christ’s College Named after Jesus Christ Established 1505 Previously named God’s-house (1437-1505) Location St. ... This article is about the city in England. ...


During his time in Cambridge, he found time to study a diverse number of subjects in addition to law; he wrote a book, Walt Whitman: A Study in the Evolution of Personality, although it was unpublished. The thoughts behind this book laid the foundation for Smuts' later wide-ranging philosophy of holism. Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... The Earth seen from Apollo 17. ...


Smuts graduated in 1893 with a double First. Over the previous two years, he had been the recipient of numerous academic prizes and accolades, including the coveted George Long prize in Roman Law and Jurisprudence.[4] One of his tutors, Professor Maitland, described Smuts as the most brilliant student he had ever met.[5] Lord Todd, the Master of Christ's College said in 1970 that "in 500 years of the College's history, of all its members, past and present, three had been truly outstanding: John Milton, Charles Darwin and Jan Smuts" [6] Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Frederic William Maitland (May 28, 1850 - December 19, 1906) was an English jurist and historian. ... Alexander Robertus Todd, Baron Todd (October 2, 1907 - January 10, 1997) was the 1957 Nobel Laureate in chemistry for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes. ... College name Christ’s College Named after Jesus Christ Established 1505 Previously named God’s-house (1437-1505) Location St. ... College name Christ’s College Named after Jesus Christ Established 1505 Previously named God’s-house (1437-1505) Location St. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...


In 1894, Smuts passed the examinations for the Inns of Court, entering the Middle Temple. His old college, Christ's College, offered him a fellowship in Law. However, Smuts turned his back on a potentially distinguished legal future.[7] By June 1895, he had returned to the Cape Colony, determined that he should make his future there. 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. ... Part of Middle Temple c. ...


Climbing the Ladder

Smuts began to practise law in Cape Town, but his abrasive nature made him few friends. Finding little financial success in the law, he began to divert more and more of his time to politics and journalism, writing for the Cape Times. Smuts was intrigued by the prospect of a united South Africa, and joined the Afrikaner Bond. By good fortune, Smuts’ father knew the leader of the group, Jan Hofmeyr; Hofmeyr recommended Jan to Cecil Rhodes, who owned the De Beers mining company. In 1895, Rhodes hired Smuts as his personal legal advisor, a role that found the youngster much criticised by the hostile Afrikaans press. Regardless, Smuts trusted Rhodes implicitly. Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman and military leader. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - Total 2,499 km² (964. ... The Cape Times is an English language morning newspaper published in Cape Town, South Africa. ... The Afrikanerbond or, as it was known throughout most of its history, the Afrikaner Broederbond, is an organisation which promotes the interests of Afrikaners. ... Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (July 4, 1845 - October 11, 1909), South African politician, was born at Cape Town. ... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. ... De Beers, founded in South Africa by Cecil Rhodes, comprises companies involved in rough diamond exploration, diamond mining and diamond trading. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


When Rhodes launched the Jameson Raid, in the summer of 1895-6, Smuts was outraged. Betrayed by his employer, friend, and political ally, he resigned from De Beers, and disappeared from public life. Seeing no future for him in Cape Town, he decided to move to Johannesburg in August 1896. However, he was disgusted by what appeared to be a gin-soaked mining camp, and his new law practice could attract little business in such an environment. Smuts sought refuge in the capital of the South African Republic, Pretoria. The Jameson Raid (December 29, 1895 - January 2, 1896) was a raid on Paul Krugers Transvaal Republic carried out by Sir Leander Starr Jameson and his Rhodesian and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend of 1895-96. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... Anthem Transvaalse Volkslied Location of the Transvaal in pre-1994 South Afica Capital Pretoria Language(s) Dutch, English, Afrikaans Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1857-1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius  - 1883-1902 Paul Kruger  - 1900-1902 Schalk Willem Burger (acting) History  - Established June 27, 1857  - British annexation 1877-1881... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ...


Through 1896, Smuts’ politics were turned on their head. He was transformed from being Rhodes’ most ardent supporter to being the most fervent opponent of British expansion. Through late 1896 and 1897, Smuts toured South Africa, furiously condemning the United Kingdom, Rhodes, and anyone opposed to the Transvaal President, the autocratic Paul Kruger. Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ...


In April 1897, he married Isie Krige of Cape Town. Professor JI Marais, Smuts’s benefactor at Cambridge, presided over the ceremony. Twins were born to the pair in March 1898, but unfortunately survived only a few weeks.


Kruger was opposed by many liberal elements in South Africa, and, when, in June 1898, Kruger fired the Transvaal Chief Justice, his long-term political rival John Gilbert Kotzé, most lawyers were up in arms. Recognising the opportunity, Smuts wrote a legal thesis in support of Kruger, who rewarded Smuts as State Attorney. In this capacity, he tore into the establishment, firing those he deemed to be illiberal, old-fashioned, or corrupt. His efforts to rejuvenate the republic polarised Afrikaners. Sir John Gilbert Kotzé (5 November 1849 - 1 April 1940). ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General or Attorney-General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ...


After the Jameson Raid, relations between the British and the Afrikaners had deteriorated steadily. By 1898, war seemed imminent. Orange Free State President Martinus Steyn called for a peace conference at Bloemfontein to settle each side’s grievances. With an intimate knowledge of the British, Smuts took control of the Transvaal delegation. Sir Alfred Milner, head of the British delegation, took exception to his dominance, and conflict between the two led to the collapse of the conference, consigning South Africa to war. Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Martinus Theunis Steyn (October 2, 1857 - 1916) was a South African politician, last president of the Orange Free State. ... The Bloemfontein Conference was a meeting that took place in Bloemfontein, capital of the Orange Free State from May 13 until June 5, 1899. ... Bloemfontein (pronounced , Afrikaans and Dutch for spring of Bloem (bloom), flower spring or fountain of flowers is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Lord Milner. ...


The Boer War

On October 11, 1899, the Boer republics invaded the British South African colonies, beginning the Second Boer War. In the early stages of the conflict, Smuts served as Kruger’s eyes and ears, handling propaganda, logistics, communication with generals and diplomats, and anything else that was required. See Second Boer War Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman and military leader. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians...


In the second phase of the war, Smuts served under Koos de la Rey, who commanded 500 commandos in the Western Transvaal. Smuts excelled at hit-and-run warfare, and the unit evaded and harassed a British army forty times its size. President Kruger and the deputation in Europe thought that there was good hope for their cause in the Cape Colony. They decided to send General de la Rey there to assume supreme command, but then decided to act more cautiously when they realized that General de la Rey could hardly be spared in the Western Transvaal. Koos de la Rey (Jacobus Herculaas de la Rey) (22 October 1847 - 15 September 1914) was a Boer general during the Second Boer War and is widely regarded as being one of the greatest military leaders during that conflict. ... Hit-and-run tactics is a tactical doctrine where the purpose of the combat involved is not to seize control of territory, but to inflict damage on a target and immediately exit the area to avoid the enemys defense and/or retaliation. ...


Consequently, Smuts left with a small force of 300 men while another 100 men followed him. By this point in the war, the British scorched earth policy left little grazing land. One hundred of the cavalry that had joined Smuts were therefore too weak to continue and so Smuts had to leave these men with General Kritzinger. With few exceptions, Smuts met all the commandos in the Cape Colony and found between 1,400–1,500 men under arms, and not the 3,000 men as had been reported. By the time of the peace Conference in May 1902 there were 3,300 men operating in the Cape Colony. Although the people were enthusiastic for a general rising, there was a great shortage of horses (the Boers were an entirely mounted force) as they had been taken by the British. There was an absence of grass and wheat, which meant that he was forced to refuse nine tenths of those who were willing to join. The Boer forces raided supply lines and farms, spread Afrikaner propaganda, and intimidated those that opposed them, but they never succeeded in causing a revolt against the government. This raid was to prove one of the most influential military adventures of the 20th Century and had a direct influence on the creation of the British Commandos and all the other special forces which followed. With these practical developments came the development of the military doctrines of deep penetration raids, asymmetric warfare and, more recently, elements of fourth generation warfare. For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... The British Commandos were first formed by the Army in June 1940 during World War II as a well-armed but non-regimental raider force employing unconventional and irregular tactics to assault, disrupt and reconnoitre the enemy in mainland Europe and Scandinavia. ... Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ... Fourth generation warfare (4GW) is a concept in American military doctrine defined in 1989 by a team of American analysts, including William S. Lind, used to describe warfares return to a decentralized form. ...


To end the conflict, Smuts sought to take a major target, the copper-mining town of Okiep. With a full assault impossible, Smuts packed a train full of explosives, and tried to push it downhill, into the town, where it would bring the enemy garrison to its knees. Although this failed, Smuts had proven his point: that he would stop at nothing to defeat his enemies. Combined with their failure to pacify the Transvaal, Smuts' success left the United Kingdom with no choice but to offer a ceasefire and a peace conference, to be held at Vereeniging. Ventilation shaft built by the Cape Copper Company in 1880 Okiep is a small town in the Northern Cape province of South Africa, and was in the 1870s ranked as the richest copper mine in the world. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... Vereeniging is a city in Gauteng province, South Africa, with a population of more than 350,000. ...


Before the conference, Smuts met Lord Kitchener at Kroonstad station, where they discussed the proposed terms of surrender. Smuts then took a leading role in the negotiations between the representatives from all of the commandos from the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (15th - 31st May 1902). Although he admitted that, from a purely military perspective, the war could continue, he stressed the importance of not sacrificing the Afrikaner people for that independence. He was very conscious that 'more than 20,000 women and children have already died in the Concentration Camps of the enemy'. He felt it would have been a crime to continue the war without the assurance of help from elsewhere and declared, "Comrades, we decided to stand to the bitter end. Let us now, like men, admit that that end has come for us, come in a more bitter shape than we ever thought." His opinions were representative of the conference, which then voted by 54 to 6 in favour of peace. Representatives of the Governments met Lord Kitchener and at five minutes past eleven on 31 May 1902, Acting President Burger signed the Peace Treaty, followed by the members of his Government, Acting President de Wet and the members of his Government. Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, ADC, PC (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was an Anglo-Irish British Field Marshal, diplomat and statesman popularly referred to as Lord Kitchener. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, ADC, PC (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was an Anglo-Irish British Field Marshal, diplomat and statesman popularly referred to as Lord Kitchener. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Christiaan Rudolf de Wet (7 October 1854 - 5 February 1922) was a Boer general and politician. ...


A British Transvaal

For all Smuts' exploits as a general and a negotiator, nothing could mask the fact that the Afrikaners had been defeated and humiliated. Lord Milner had full control of all South African affairs, and established an Anglophone elite, known as Milner's Kindergarten. As an Afrikaner, Smuts was excluded. Defeated but not deterred, in January 1905, he decided to join with the other former Transvaal generals to form a political party, Het Volk (People's Party), to fight for the Afrikaner cause. Louis Botha was elected leader, and Smuts his deputy. Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman and military leader. ... Lord Milner. ... Milners Kindergarten is an informal reference to a group of Britons who served in the South African Civil Service under High Commissioner Alfred, Lord Milner, between the Second Boer War and the founding of the Union of South Africa. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Het Volk was a Transvaal political party, established in 1905 under the leadership of Louis Botha and his deputy Jan Smuts. ... Louis Botha Louis Botha (September 17, 1862-August 27, 1919) was an Afrikaner and first Prime Minister of the modern South African state, then called the Union of South Africa. ...


When his term of office expired, Milner was replaced as High Commissioner by the more conciliatory Lord Selborne. Smuts saw an opportunity and pounced, urging Botha to persuade the Liberals to support Het Volk’s cause. When the Conservative government under Arthur Balfour collapsed, in December 1905, the decision paid off. Smuts joined Botha in London, and sought to negotiate full self-government for the Transvaal within British South Africa. Using the thorny political issue of Asian labourers ('coolies'), the South Africans convinced Prime Minister Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and, with him, the cabinet and Parliament. William Waldegrave Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne (1859 - 1942), was a British politician. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... Coolie labourer circa 1900 in Zhenjiang, China. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (September 7, 1836 - April 22, 1908) was a British Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister from December 5, 1905 until resigning due to ill health on April 3, 1908. ...


Through 1906, Smuts worked on the new constitution for the Transvaal, and, in December 1906, elections were held for the Transvaal parliament. Despite being shy and reserved, unlike the showman Botha, Smuts won a comfortable victory in the Wonderboom constituency, near Pretoria. His victory was one of many, with Het Volk winning in a landslide and Botha forming the government. To reward his loyalty and efforts, Smuts was given two key cabinet positions: Colonial Secretary and Education Secretary. Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Wonderboom Nature Reserve is a 1 km² reserve centered on a wild willowleaf fig tree Ficus salicifolia that is more than a thousand years old, found to the north of the Magaliesberg in the city of Tshwane north of central Pretoria, South Africa. ... In politics, a landslide victory (or just a landslide) is the victory of a candidate or political party by an overwhelming majority in an election. ...


Smuts proved to be an effective leader, if unpopular. As Education Secretary, he had fights with the Dutch Reformed Church, of which he had once been a dedicated member, who demanded Calvinist teachings in schools. As Colonial Secretary, he was forced to confront Asian workers, the very people whose plight he had exploited in London, led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Despite Smuts’ unpopularity, South Africa's economy continued to boom, and Smuts cemented his place as the Afrikaners’ brightest star. The Dutch Reformed village church of St. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869–January 30, 1948) (Devanagari : मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was a national icon who led the struggle for Indias independence from British colonial rule, empowered by tens of millions of common Indians. ...


During the years of Transvaal self-government, no-one could avoid the predominant political debate of the day: South African unification. Ever since the British victory in the war, it was an inevitability, but it remained up to the South Africans to decide what sort of country would be formed, and how it would be formed. Smuts favoured a unitary state, with power centralised in Pretoria, with English as the only official language, and with a more inclusive electorate. To impress upon his compatriots his vision, he called a constitutional convention in Durban, in October 1908. A map showing the unitary states. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


There, Smuts was up against a hard-talking Orange delegation, who refused every one of Smuts' demands. Smuts had successfully predicted this opposition, and their objectives, and tailored his own ambitions appropriately. He allowed compromise on the location of the capital, on the official language, and on suffrage, but he refused to budge on the fundamental structure of government. As the convention drew into autumn, the Orange leaders began to see a final compromise as necessary to secure the concessions that Smuts had already made. They agreed to Smuts’ draft South African constitution, which was duly ratified by the South African colonies. Smuts and Botha took the constitution to London, where it was passed by Parliament, and signed into law by Edward VII in December 1909. Smuts' dream had been realised. Flag of Orange River Colony The Orange River Colony was a British colony created by the annexation of the Orange Free State in 1900, after the Boer War. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The Old Boers

The Union of South Africa was born, and the Afrikaners held the key to political power, for they formed the largest part of the electorate. Although Botha was appointed Prime Minister of the new country, Smuts was given three key ministries: those for the Interior, the Mines, and Defence. Undeniably, Smuts was the second most powerful man in South Africa. To solidify their dominance of South African politics, the Afrikaners united to form the South African Party, a new pan-South African Afrikaner party. Jan Christian Smuts, OM (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman and military leader. ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... This is a list of South African Prime Ministers. ... The Interior Minister is a member of a Cabinet in a Government. ... Department of Defence redirects here. ... The South African Party was a liberal political party that existed in the Union of South Africa from 1911 to 1934. ...


The harmony and cooperation soon ended. Smuts was criticised for his over-arching powers, and was reshuffled, losing his positions in charge of Defence and the Mines, but gaining control of the Treasury. This was still too much for Smuts' opponents, who decried his possession of both Defence and Finance: two departments that were usually at loggerheads. At the 1913 South African Party conference, the Old Boers, of Hertzog, Steyn, and De Wet, called for Botha and Smuts to step down. The two narrowly survived a conference vote, and the troublesome triumvirate stormed out, leaving the party for good. The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


With the schism in internal party politics came a new threat to the mines that brought South Africa its wealth. A small-scale miners' dispute flared into a full-blown strike, and rioting broke out in Johannesburg after Smuts intervened heavy-handedly. After police shot dead twenty-one strikers, Smuts and Botha headed unaccompanied to Johannesburg to personally resolve the situation. They did, facing down threats to their own lives, and successfully negotiating a cease-fire.


The cease-fire did not hold, and, in 1914, a railway strike turned into a general strike, and threats of a revolution caused Smuts to declare martial law. Smuts acted ruthlessly, deporting union leaders without trial and using Parliament to retrospectively absolve him or the government of any blame. This was too much for the Old Boers, who set up their own party, the National Party, to fight the all-powerful Botha-Smuts partnership. The Old Boers urged Smuts' opponents to arm themselves, and civil war seemed inevitable before the end of 1914. In October 1914, when the Government was faced with open rebellion by Lt Col Manie Maritz and others in the Maritz Rebellion, Government forces under the command of Botha and Smuts were able to put down the rebellion without it ever seriously threatening to ignite into a Third Boer War. Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Maritz Rebellion or the Boer Revolt or the Five Shilling Rebellion1, occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I, in which men who supported the recreation of the old Boer republics rose up against the government of the Union of South Africa. ...


Soldier, statesman, and scholar

During the First World War, Smuts (right) and Botha were key members of the British Army.
During the First World War, Smuts (right) and Botha were key members of the British Army.

During the First World War, Smuts formed the South African Defence Force. His first task was to suppress the Maritz Rebellion, which was accomplished by November of 1914. Next he and Louis Botha led the South African army into German South West Africa and conquered it (see the South-West Africa Campaign for details). In 1916 General Smuts was put in charge of the conquest of German East Africa. While the East African Campaign went fairly well, the German forces were not destroyed. However, early in 1917 he was invited to join the Imperial War Cabinet by David Lloyd George, so he left the area and went to London. In 1918, Smuts helped to create a Royal Air Force, independent of the army. Image File history File links Botha_and_Smuts_in_uniforms,_1917. ... Image File history File links Botha_and_Smuts_in_uniforms,_1917. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The South African Defence Force (SADF) were the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994. ... The Maritz Rebellion or the Boer Revolt or the Five Shilling Rebellion1, occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I, in which men who supported the recreation of the old Boer republics rose up against the government of the Union of South Africa. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Louis Botha Louis Botha (September 17, 1862-August 27, 1919) was an Afrikaner and first Prime Minister of the modern South African state, then called the Union of South Africa. ... Flag of German South West Africa German South-West Africa (German: Deutsch-Südwestafrika or DSWA) was a colony of Germany from 1884 to 1915, when it was taken over by South Africa and administered as South-West Africa, later becoming Namibia. ... This article describes the conquest and occupation of German held South-West Africa, now called Namibia, by forces from the Union of South Africa acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government at the start of World War I. The outbreak of hostilities in Europe in August 1914 had long... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany Commanders Jan Smuts Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck Strength 40,000 15,500 // Introduction German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda) was a large territory with complex geography (including the massive Rift Valley and Lake Victoria). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The Imperial War Cabinet in 1917 The Imperial War Cabinet was created by British Prime Minister David Lloyd George in the spring of 1917 as a means of co-ordinating the British Empires military policy during the First World War. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... RAF redirects here. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ...


Smuts and Botha were key negotiators at the Paris Peace Conference. Both were in favour of reconciliation with Germany and limited reparations. Smuts advocated a powerful League of Nations, which failed to materialise. The Treaty of Versailles gave South Africa a Class C mandate over Namibia, which was occupied from 1919 until withdrawal in 1990. At the same time, Australia was given a similar mandate over German New Guinea, which it held until 1975. Both Smuts and the Australian Prime Minister Billy Hughes feared the rising power of Japan in the post World War 1 world. The Paris Peace Conference was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and their former enemies. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... For other persons named Billy Hughes, see Billy Hughes (disambiguation). ...


Smuts returned to South African politics after the conference. When Botha died in 1919, Smuts was elected Prime Minister, serving until a shocking defeat in 1924 at the hands of the National Party. The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ...


While in England for an Imperial Conference in June 1920, Smuts went to Ireland and met Eamon De Valera to help broker an armistice and peace deal between the warring English and Irish nationalists. Smuts attempted to sell the concept of Ireland receiving Dominion status similar to that of Australia and South Africa.[8] Eamon de Valera (born Edward George de Valera, sometimes Gaelicised Éamon de Bhailéara; October 14, 1882 – August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the early 20th century, and... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ...


While in academia, Smuts pioneered the concept of holism, defined as "the tendency in nature to form wholes that are greater than the sum of the parts through creative evolution" in his 1926 book, Holism and Evolution. One biographer ties together his far-reaching political vision with his technical philosophy: The Earth seen from Apollo 17. ...

It had very much in common with his philosophy of life as subsequently developed and embodied in his Holism and Evolution. Small units must needs develop into bigger wholes, and they in their turn again must grow into larger and ever-larger structures without cessation. Advancement lay along that path. Thus the unification of the four provinces in the Union of South Africa, the idea of the British Commonwealth of Nations, and, finally, the great whole resulting from the combination of the peoples of the earth in a great league of nations were but a logical progression consistent with his philosophical tenets.

After Einstein studied "Holism and Evolution" soon upon its publication, he wrote that two mental constructs will direct human thinking in the next millennium, his own mental construct of relativity and Smuts' of holism. In the work of Smuts he saw a clear blueprint of much of his own life, work and personality.[citation needed] Einstein also said of Smuts that he was "one of only eleven men in the world" who conceptually understood his Theory of Relativity [9][10] Einstein redirects here. ... Einstein redirects here. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ...


As a botanist, Smuts collected plants extensively over southern Africa. He went on several botanical expeditions in the 1920s and 1930s with John Hutchinson, former Botanist in charge of the African section of the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens and taxonomist of note. John Hutchinson (April 7 , 1884 - September 2, 1972) was a British botanist. ... For other places with the same name, see Royal Botanical Gardens (disambiguation). ...


Smuts and segregation

Although at times hailed as a liberal, Smuts is often depicted as a white supremacist who played an important role in establishing and supporting a racially segregated society in South Africa.[3] While he thought it was the duty of whites to deal justly with Africans and raise them up in civilization, they should not be given political power.[4] Giving the right to vote to the black African majority he feared would imply the ultimate destruction of Western civilization in South Africa.[5] White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism that believes the white race should rule over other races. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ...


Smuts was for most of his political life a vocal supporter of segregation of the races, and in 1929 he justified the erection of separate institutions for blacks and whites in tones reminiscent of the later practice of apartheid: Segregation means separation. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...

The old practice mixed up black with white in the same institutions, and nothing else was possible after the native institutions and traditions had been carelessly or deliberately destroyed. But in the new plan there will be what is called in South Africa "segregation"—separate institutions for the two elements of the population living in their own separate areas. Separate institutions involve territorial segregation of the white and black. If they live mixed together it is not practicable to sort them out under separate institutions of their own. Institutional segregation carries with it territorial segregation.[6]

In general, Smuts' view of Africans was patronising, he saw them as immature human beings that needed the guidance of whites, an attitude that reflected the common perceptions of the white minority population of South Africa in his life time. Of Africans he stated that:

These children of nature have not the inner toughness and persistence of the European, not those social and moral incentives to progress which have built up European civilization in a comparatively short period.[7]

Smuts is often accused of being a politician who extolled the virtues of humanitarianism and liberalism abroad while failing to practice what he preached at home in South Africa.[8] This was most clearly illustrated when India, in 1946, made a formal complaint in the United Nations concerning the legalised racial discrimination against Indians in South Africa. Appearing personally before the United Nations General Assembly, Smuts defended the racial policies of his government by fervently pleading that India's complaint was a matter of domestic jurisdiction. However, the General Assembly condemned South Africa for its racial policies by the requisite two-thirds majority and called upon the Smuts government to bring its treatment of the South African Indians in conformity with the basic principles of the United Nations Charter.[9] UN redirects here. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The international criticism of racial discrimination in South Africa led Smuts to modify his rhetoric around segregation. In a bid to make South African racial policies sound more acceptable to Britain he declared already in 1942 that "segregation had failed to solve the Native problem of Africa and that the concept of trusteeship offered the only prospect of happy relations between European and African".[10]


In 1948 he went further away from his previous views on segregation when supporting the recommendations of the Fagan Commission that Africans should be recognized as permanent residents of White South Africa and not only temporary workers that really belonged in the reserves. [11] This was in direct opposition to the policies of the National Party that wished to extend segregation and formalise it into apartheid. This article needs to be wikified. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


There is however no evidence that Smuts ever supported the idea of equal political rights for blacks and whites. The Fagan Commission did not advocate the establishment of a non-racial democracy in South Africa, but rather wanted to liberalise influx controls of Africans into urban areas in order to facilitate the supply of African labour to the South African industry. It also envisaged a relaxation of the pass laws that had restricted the movement of Africans in general. [12] The commission was at the same time unequivocal about the continuation of white political privilege, it stated that "In South Africa, we the White men, cannot leave and cannot accept the fate of a subject race".[13] Pass laws in South Africa were designed to segregate the population and limit severely the movements of the non-white populace. ...


Second World War

After nine years in opposition and academia, Smuts returned as Deputy Prime Minister in a 'grand coalition' government under Barry Hertzog. When Hertzog advocated neutrality towards Nazi Germany in 1939, he was deposed by a party caucus, and Smuts became Prime Minister for the second time. He had served with Winston Churchill in World War I, and had developed a personal and professional rapport. Smuts was invited to the Imperial War Cabinet in 1939 as the most senior South African in favour of war. On 28 May 1941, Smuts was appointed a Field Marshal of the British Army, becoming the first South African to hold that rank. A Deputy Prime Minister is a member of a nations cabinet who can take the position of acting Prime Minister when the real Prime Minister is temporarily absent. ... James Barry Munnik Hertzog, better known as Barry Hertzog, (1866-1942) was South Africa from 1924 to 1939. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A caucus is most generally defined as being a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. ... Churchill redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Imperial War Cabinet in 1917 The Imperial War Cabinet was created by British Prime Minister David Lloyd George in the spring of 1917 as a means of co-ordinating the British Empires military policy during the First World War. ... See also: 1938 in South Africa, other events of 1939, 1940 in South Africa and the Timeline of South African history. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1940 in South Africa, other events of 1941, 1942 in South Africa and the Timeline of South African history. ... Field Marshal Viscount Slim in his Field Marshals uniform, holding a marshals baton. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


Smuts' importance to the Imperial war effort was emphasised by a quite audacious plan, proposed as early as 1940, to appoint Smuts as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, should Churchill die or otherwise become incapacitated during the war. This idea was put by Sir John Colville, Churchill's private secretary, to Queen Mary and then to George VI, both of whom warmed to the idea. [11] As Churchill lived for another twenty-five years, the plan was never put into effect and its constitutionality was never tested. This closeness to the British establishment, to the King, and to Churchill made Smuts very unpopular amongst the Afrikaner, leading to his eventual downfall. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the Queen Consort of George V. Queen Mary was also the Empress of India. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ...


In May 1945, he represented South Africa in San Francisco at the drafting of the United Nations Charter. Just as he did in 1919, Smuts urged the delegates to create a powerful international body to preserve peace; he was determined that, unlike the League of Nations, the United Nations would have teeth. Smuts signed the Paris Peace Treaty, resolving the peace in Europe, thus becoming the only signatory of both the treaty ending the First World War, and that ending the Second. See also: 1944 in South Africa, other events of 1945, 1946 in South Africa and the Timeline of South African history. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... UN redirects here. ... This page is about the partial formal conclusion of World War II. For other Paris peace treaties see article Treaty of Paris. ...


After the war

His preoccupation with the war had severe political repercussions in South Africa. Smuts' support of the war and his support for the Fagan Commission made him unpopular amongst the Afrikaner and Daniel François Malan's pro-Apartheid stance won the National Party the 1948 general election. Although widely forecast, it is a credit to Smuts' political acumen that he was only narrowly defeated (and, in fact, won the popular vote). Smuts, who had been confident of victory, lost his own seat and retired from politics; four decades of Apartheid followed. He still hoped that the tenuous Nationalist government would fall; it remained in power until 1994. This article needs to be wikified. ... Daniel François Malan Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 – 7 February 1959) was a Prime Minister of South Africa. ... The South African general election of 1948 was held on the May 26, 1948 and saw Herenigde Nasionale Party leader DF Malan call for the prohibition of mixed marriages, for the banning of black trade unions and for stricter enforcement of job reservation. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


Smuts's inauguration as chancellor of Cambridge University shortly after the election restored his morale, but the sudden and unexpected death of his eldest son, Japie, in October 1948 brought him to the depths of despair. In the last two years of his life, now frail and visibly aged, Smuts continued to comment perceptively, and on occasion presciently, on world affairs. Europe and the Commonwealth remained his dominant concerns. He regretted the departure of the Irish republic from the Commonwealth, but was unhappy when India remained within it after it became a republic, fearing the example this would set South Africa's Nationalists. His outstanding contributions as a world statesman were acknowledged in innumerable honors and medals. At home his reputation was more mixed. Nevertheless, despite ill health he continued his public commitments. The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


On May 29, 1950, a week after the public celebration of his eightieth birthday in Johannesburg and Pretoria, he suffered a coronary thrombosis. He died of a subsequent attack on his family farm of Doornkloof, Irene, near Pretoria, on September 11, 1950, and was buried at Pretoria on September 16. is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ... Irene is a small town south of Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa (pronounced eye-REE-nee). Stone arrowheads and tools, discovered in the Hennops river bed and dating back many years prove that people have been living in the area for a very long time. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Statue in Parliament Square, London, by Jacob Epstein
Statue in Parliament Square, London, by Jacob Epstein

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 298 KB) Jan Smuts statue in Parliament Square, London; 13 June 2006 NB: The sculptor was Jacob Epstein --Runcorn 19:37, 14 June 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 298 KB) Jan Smuts statue in Parliament Square, London; 13 June 2006 NB: The sculptor was Jacob Epstein --Runcorn 19:37, 14 June 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or... For other uses, see Parliament Square (disambiguation). ... Jacob Epstein photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Sir Jacob Epstein (10 November 1880 – 19 August 1959) was an American-born Jewish sculptor who worked chiefly in the UK, where he pioneered modern sculpture, often producing controversial works that challenged taboos concerning what public artworks appropriately depict. ...

Support for Zionism

South African supporters of Theodor Herzl contacted Smuts in 1916. Smuts, who supported the Balfour Declaration, met and became friends with Chaim Weizmann, the future President of Israel, in London. In 1943 Weizmann wrote to Smuts, detailing a plan to develop Britain's African colonies to compete with the United States. During his service as Premier, Smuts personally fundraised for multiple Zionist organizations.[12] His government granted de facto recognition to Israel on May 24, 1948 and de jure recognition on May 14, 1949.[13] However, Smuts was deputy prime minister when the Hertzog government in 1937 passed the Aliens Act that was aimed at preventing Jewish immigration to South Africa. The act was seen as a response to growing anti-Semitic sentiments among Afrikaners.[14] Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... Arthur James Balfour. ... Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... The President of the State of Israel (‎, Nesi HaMedina, lit. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


He lobbied against the White Paper.[14] The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over it, was a policy paper issued by the British government under Neville Chamberlain in which the idea of partitioning the British Mandate of Palestine was abandoned in favour...


Several streets and a kibbutz, Ramat Yochanan, in Israel are named after Smuts.[13] Kibbutz Merom Golan as seen from Bental mountain A Kibbutz (Hebrew: Translit. ...


Smuts' wrote an epitaph for Weizmann, describing him as the greatest Jew since Moses."[15] For other uses, see Epitaph (disambiguation). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


Smuts once said:

Great as are the changes wrought by this war, the great world war of justice and freedom, I doubt whether any of these changes surpass in interest the liberation of Palestine and its recognition as the Home of Israel.[16]

Miscellaneous

In 1931, he became the first foreign President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. In that year, he was also elected the second foreign Lord Rector of St Andrews University (after Fridtjof Nansen). In 1948, he was elected Chancellor of Cambridge University, becoming the first foreigner to hold that position. He held the position until his death. Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Association or the British Association for the Advancement of Science or the BA is a learned society with the object of promoting science, directing general attention to scientific matters, and facilitating intercourse between scientific workers. ... The position of Lord Rector of St Andrews University is elected every three years by the students at the University of St Andrews. ... Fridtjof Nansen Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (born October 10, 1861 in Store Frøen, near Christiania - died May 13, 1930 in Lysaker, outside Oslo) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist and diplomat. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of Chancellors of the University of Cambridge, from about 1246 to the present day: Hugh de Hotton, c. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ...


He is remembered also for the coining of the terms holism and holistic: abstractions not unnaturally linked to his political concerns. The earliest recorded use of the word apartheid is also attributed to him, from a 1917 speech. The Earth seen from Apollo 17. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


After the death of Woodrow Wilson and the implementation of the Treaty of Versailles, Smuts uttered the words that perhaps best defined the Treaty negotiations "Not Wilson, but humanity failed at Paris."


Smuts was an amateur botanist, and a number of South African plants are named after him.[citation needed] Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ...


The international airport servicing Johannesburg was known as 'Jan Smuts Airport' from its construction in 1952 until 1994. In 1994, it was renamed to 'Johannesburg International Airport' to remove any political connotations. In 2006, it was renamed again (re-attaching political connotation), to 'Oliver Tambo International Airport'. The South African Government has yet to explain the reversal of policy[citation needed] now allowing national service facilities to be named after political figures thus fueling the perception that there is a policy of eradicating the history or memory of the South African white population. An International airport is an airport where flights from other countries land and/or take off. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area. ... Johannesburg International Airport (IATA: JNB, ICAO: FAJS) is a large airport near the city of Johannesburg, South Africa and the largest in Africa. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ...


The premier men's residence at the University of Cape Town, Smuts Hall, is named after him. Jan Smuts Residence at Rhodes University is also named after him. UCT redirects here. ... --62. ... Rhodes University is a university in South Africa. ...


The Libertines recorded a song titled General Smuts in reference to a pub named after him located in Bloemfontein Road, Shepherds Bush, close to QPR football club. It appeared as a B-side to their single Time for Heroes. The Libertines were an English rock band formed in London in 1997 and active until 2004. ... Time for Heroes is a song by English rock band The Libertines, and is featured on their debut album, Up the Bracket. ...


In the television program, Young Indiana Jones, the protagonist at a period in the first world war in East Africa encounters a group of superb soldiers, one of whom is a General with more than a passing resemblance, and character (though not the name) of Smuts, particularly during engagements with Letto von Griem in East Africa. The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles was a TV series about the childhood and youth of the character Indiana Jones. ...


In 1932, the kibbutz Ramat-Yohanan in Israel was named after him. Smuts was a vocal proponent of the creation of a Jewish state, and spoke out against the rising anti-Semitism of the 1930s.[17] Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kibbutz Merom Golan as seen from Bental mountain A Kibbutz (Hebrew: Translit. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ...


Smuts is portrayed by South African playwright Athol Fugard in the 1982 film Gandhi. Harold Athol Lannigan Fugard (b. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Gandhi (1982) is a multi-award-winning biopic film about the life of Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi, who was a leader of the nonviolent resistance movement against British colonial rule in India during the first half of the 20th century. ...


Wilbur Smith refers to and portrays Jan Smuts in several of his South African based novels including 'When the Lion Feeds', 'The Sound of Thunder', 'A Sparrow Falls', 'Power of the Sword' and 'Rage'. Smuts is often referred to as "Slim (Clever) Jannie" or Oubaas (Old Boss) as well as his proper names.


Honours

Awards/Decorations

This article concerns the British Sovereigns Privy Council. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order (decoration). ... The Dekoratie voor Trouwe Dienst (Decoration for Devoted Service) was a South African military decoration. ... Queens Counsel (postnominal QC), during the reign of a male Sovereign known as Kings Counsel (KC), are barristers or, in Scotland, advocates appointed by Letters patent to be one of Her Majestys Counsel learned in the law. They do not constitute a separate order or degree of... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... Part of Middle Temple c. ... The Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts was instituted in 1864 as a memorial to Prince Albert, who had been President of the Society for 18 years. ...

Medals, Commmonwealth and South African

The 1914-15 Star was a campaign medal of the British Empire, for service in World War 1. ... Victory Medal can refer to one of three military decorations: Victory Medal (UK), World War One World War I Victory Medal World War II Victory Medal Category: ... The General Service Medal (GSM) was first introduced in 1918 as an Army and RAF equivalent to the Naval General Service Medal (NGSM). ... Africa Star Medal The Africa Star was a decoration of the British Empire that was issued between 1939 and 1945 for service in the North African theater of the Second World War. ... The Italy Star was a campaign medal of the British Commonwealth, awarded for service in World War Two. ... The France and Germany Star was a campaign medal of the British Commonwealth, awarded for service in World War Two. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The War Medal 1939–1945 was a British decoration awarded to those who had served in the Armed Forces full-time for at least 28 days between 3 September 1939 and 2 September 1945. ... The Africa Service Medal was a South African campaign medal for service in World War II. It was instituted by King George VI, in his capacity as South African head of state, on 23 December 1943, and was awarded in addition to the British stars and medals issued for the...

Foreign Decorations and Medals

  • Service Medal (Mediterranean Area) (USA)
  • Order of the Tower and Sword for Valour, Loyalty and Merit (Portugal)
  • Grootkruis van de Orde van de Nederlandsche Leeuw (Netherlands)
  • Grand Cordon of the Order of Mohamed Ali (Egypt)
  • Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer (Greece)
  • Grand Cross of the Order of Léopold (Belgium)
  • Croix de guerre (Belgium)
  • Légion d'honneur Croix de Commandeur (France)
  • La Grand Croix de l'Ordre de L'Etoile Africane (Belgium)
  • King Christian X Frihedsmedaille (Denmark)
  • Aristion Andrias (Greece)
  • Woodrow Wilson Peace Medal

The Order of the Redeemer (Greek: ) is an Order (decoration) of Greece. ... Order of Léopold The Order of Léopold (Leopoldsorde in Dutch, Ordre de Léopold in French) is one of the three Belgian national honorary Orders. ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ...

See also

Jan Smuts Jan Smuts
I: Early life | II: The South African Republic | III: The Boer War | IV: A British Transvaal
V: The Old Boers

The military history of South Africa chronicles a vast time period and complex events from the dawn of history until the present time. ... When Smuts Goes is a dystopian future history of South Africa (which now can be considered a kind of retroactive alternate history), published in 1947 by Dr. Arthur M. Keppel-Jones, a historian at the University of Witwatersrand. ... Motto Harambee(Swahili) Let us all pull together Anthem Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu O God of All Creation Capital (and largest city) Nairobi Official languages Swahili (since 1963), English[1] Demonym Kenyan Government Republic  -  President Mwai Kibaki  -  Vice President Moody Awori Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Date December 12, 1963... Motto: Uhuru na Umoja(Swahili) Freedom and Unity Anthem: Mungu ibariki Afrika God Bless Africa Capital Dodoma , Largest city Dar es Salaam Official languages Swahili (de facto) Demonym Tanzanian Government Republic  -  President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete  -  Prime Minister Mizengo Pinda Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Tanganyika December 9, 1961   -  Zanzibar January... Image File history File links JanSmutsFM.png‎ This work is in the public domain worldwide. ... Jan Smuts Jan Christian Smuts (aka Jan Christiaan Smuts), OM, CH, ED, KC, FRS (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman, military leader, and philosopher. ... Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman and military leader. ... See Second Boer War Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman and military leader. ... Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman and military leader. ... Jan Christian Smuts, OM (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman and military leader. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ [1] "Prime Minister Lloyd George at once recognized his abilities and made him minister of air. From then on he was used in a variety of tasks. He organized the Royal Air Force and was concerned in all major decisions about the war."
  2. ^ Crafford p. 141
  3. ^ Letter from Marais to Smuts, 8 Aug 1892; Hancock et al (1966-73): vol. 1, p. 25
  4. ^ Smuts (1952), p. 23
  5. ^ Letter from Maitland to Smuts, 15 June 1894; Hancock et al (1966-73): vol. 1, pp. 33-34
  6. ^ Jan Smuts - Memoirs of the Boer War (1994) Introduction, p. 19
  7. ^ Smuts (1952), p. 24
  8. ^ J.C. Smuts, J. C. Smuts, 1952, p. 252
  9. ^ Jan Smuts - Memoirs of the Boer War (1994) Introduction p.19
  10. ^ Crafford p. 140
  11. ^ Colville, Sir John: The Fringes of Power, pages 269-271 (ISBN 1-84212-626-1)
  12. ^ Jane Hunter and Jane Haapiseva-Hunter. Israeli Foreign Policy: South Africa and Central America, 1987. Pages 21-22.
  13. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin. The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and Why, 1988. Page 109-111.
  14. ^ Howard Stafford Crossman, Richard. A Nation Reborn: A Personal Report on the Roles Played by Weizmann, Bevin and Ben-Gurion in the story of Israel, 1960. Page 76.
  15. ^ Lockyer, Norman. Nature, digitized February 5, 2007. Nature Publishing Group.
  16. ^ S. Klieman, Aaron. The Rise of Israel, 1987. Page 16.
  17. ^ Jewish American Year Book 5695 (PDF). Jewish Publication Society of America (1934). Retrieved on 2006-08-12.. Tel Aviv and several other Israeli cities have a Jan Smuts Street.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ...

Bibliography

Primary sources

  • Hancock, WK and van der Poel, J (eds) - Selections from the Smuts Papers, 1886-1950, (7 vols), (1966-73)
  • Spies, SB and Natrass, G (eds) - Jan Smuts – Memoirs of the Boer War Jonathan Ball, Johannesburg 1994

Secondary sources

  • Armstrong, HC - Grey Steel: A Study of Arrogance, (1939), ASIN B00087SNP4)
  • Clark, NL - South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid, (2004), (ISBN 0 582 41437 7)
  • Crafford, FS - Jan Smuts: A Biography, (1943), ISBN 1417992905
  • Friedman, B - Smuts: A Reappraisal, (1975)
  • Geyser, O - Jan Smuts and His International Contemporaries, (2002), (ISBN 1-919874-10-0)
  • Hancock, WK - Smuts: 1. The Sanguine Years, 1870—1919, (1962)
  • Hancock, WK - Smuts: 2. Fields of Force, 1919-1950, (1968)
  • Hutchinson, John - A Botanist in Southern Africa, (1946), PR Gawthorn Ltd.
  • Ingham, K - Jan Christian Smuts: The Conscience of a South African, (1986)
  • Millin, SG - General Smuts, (2 vols), (1933)
  • Reitz, D - Commando: A Boer Journal of the Boer War, (ISBN 0-9627613-3-8)
  • Smuts, JC - Jan Christian Smuts, (1952)

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Jan Smuts
Political offices
Preceded by
New office
Minister for the Interior
19101912
Succeeded by
Abraham Fischer
Preceded by
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Minister for Defence (first time)
19101920
Succeeded by
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Preceded by
Henry Charles Hull
Minister for Finance
19121915
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Sir David Pieter de Villiers Graaff
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Louis Botha
Prime Minister (first time)
19191924
Succeeded by
James Barry Munnik Hertzog
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Minister for Justice
19331939
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Colin Fraser Steyn
Preceded by
James Barry Munnik Hertzog
Prime Minister (second time)
19391948
Succeeded by
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Preceded by
Oswald Pirow
Minister for Defence (second time)
19391948
Succeeded by
Frans Erasmus
Preceded by
James Barry Munnik Hertzog
Minister for Foreign Affairs
19391948
Succeeded by
Daniel François Malan
Party political offices
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Louis Botha
Leader of the South African Party
19191934
Succeeded by
Merged into United Party
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James Barry Munnik Hertzog
Leader of the United Party
19391950
Succeeded by
Jacobus Gideon Nel Strauss
Academic offices
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Sir Wilfred Grenfell
Rector of the University of St Andrews
19311934
Succeeded by
Guglielmo Marconi
Preceded by
Stanley Baldwin
Chancellor of the University of Cambridge
19481950
Succeeded by
The Lord Tedder

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Abraham Fischer (1850-1913) was the sole Prime Minister of the Orange River Colony in South Africa. ... This List of South African Ministers of Defense contains all persons to hold that position from the founding of the Union of South Africa to 2006: 1910 - 1920, Jan Smuts (first time), SAP from 1911 1920 - 1924, Hendrik Mentz, SAP 1924 - March 1933, Frederic Creswell, Labour March 1933 - September 1939... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sir David Graaff as mayor of Cape Town Sir David Pieter de Villiers Graaff, 1st Baronet (30 March 1859 - 13 April 1931) was a South African businessman and politician. ... Louis Botha Louis Botha (September 17, 1862-August 27, 1919) was an Afrikaner and first Prime Minister of the modern South African state, then called the Union of South Africa. ... This is a list of South African Prime Ministers. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Cover of Time Magazine (April 27, 1925) James Barry Munnik Hertzog, better known as Barry Hertzog, (1866-1942) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1924 to 1939. ... Oswald Pirow (born August 14, 1890 in Aberdeen, Eastern Cape, died October 11, 1959 in Pretoria) was a South African lawyer and far right politician. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cover of Time Magazine (April 27, 1925) James Barry Munnik Hertzog, better known as Barry Hertzog, (1866-1942) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1924 to 1939. ... This is a list of South African Prime Ministers. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Daniel François Malan Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 – 7 February 1959) was a Prime Minister of South Africa. ... Oswald Pirow (born August 14, 1890 in Aberdeen, Eastern Cape, died October 11, 1959 in Pretoria) was a South African lawyer and far right politician. ... This List of South African Ministers of Defense contains all persons to hold that position from the founding of the Union of South Africa to 2006: 1910 - 1920, Jan Smuts (first time), SAP from 1911 1920 - 1924, Hendrik Mentz, SAP 1924 - March 1933, Frederic Creswell, Labour March 1933 - September 1939... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frans C. Erasmus (1896 - 1967) was a South African National Party politician and minister of defence from June 1948 to 1959. ... Cover of Time Magazine (April 27, 1925) James Barry Munnik Hertzog, better known as Barry Hertzog, (1866-1942) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1924 to 1939. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Daniel François Malan Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 – 7 February 1959) was a Prime Minister of South Africa. ... Louis Botha Louis Botha (September 17, 1862-August 27, 1919) was an Afrikaner and first Prime Minister of the modern South African state, then called the Union of South Africa. ... The South African Party was a liberal political party that existed in the Union of South Africa from 1911 to 1934. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cover of Time Magazine (April 27, 1925) James Barry Munnik Hertzog, better known as Barry Hertzog, (1866-1942) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1924 to 1939. ... The United Party was South Africas ruling political party between 1934 and 1948. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jacobus Gideon Nel Strauss, known as J. G. N. Strauss (Calvinia, Northern Cape 1900-?), was leader of the South African United Party from 1950 to 1956. ... Sir Wilfred Grenfell Sir Wilfred Thomason Grenfell (February 28, 1865-October 9, 1940) was a medical missionary to Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The Lord Rector of the University of St Andrews is chosen every three years by the students of the University of St Andrews. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the inventor of radio, see the competing claims in history of radio and the invention of radio. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of Chancellors of the University of Cambridge, from about 1246 to the present day: Hugh de Hotton, c. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder (July 11, 1890 - June 3, 1967) was a signficant British Marshal of the Royal Air Force. ... Cover of Time Magazine (April 27, 1925) James Barry Munnik Hertzog, better known as Barry Hertzog, (1866-1942) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1924 to 1939. ... Nicolaas Jacobus de Wet (1873 1960) was the Governor-General of the Union of South Africa from 1943 to 1946. ... Oswald Pirow (born August 14, 1890 in Aberdeen, Eastern Cape, died October 11, 1959 in Pretoria) was a South African lawyer and far right politician. ... Charles Robberts Swart (1894 - 1982) was the last Governor-General of the Union of South Africa and the first State President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Frans C. Erasmus (1896 - 1967) was a South African National Party politician and minister of defence from June 1948 to 1959. ... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ... James Thomas Jimmy Kruger (1917 - 1987) was a South African politician who rose to the position of Minister of Justice and the Police in the cabinet of Prime Minister John Vorster from 1974 to 1979. ... Alwyn Schlebusch (born 1917) was the only holder of the title Vice State President of South Africa from 1 January 1981 to 14 September 1984. ... Hendrik Jacobus (Kobie) Coetsee (19 April 1931 - 2000) was a South African lawyer, politician and administrator as well as a negotiator during the countrys transition to democracy. ... Abdullah Mohamed Omar (May 26, 1934 - March 13, 2004), better known as Dullah Omar was a South African anti-Apartheid activist, lawyer, and a minister in the South African cabinet from 1994 till his death. ... Brigitte Sylvia Mabandla is the South African Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development. ... Hendrik Mentz (1877 - 1938) was a South African Party politician and South African minister of defence from 1920 to 1924. ... Frederic Creswell (1866 - 1948) was a South African Labour party politician and minister of defence from 1924 to March 1933. ... Oswald Pirow (born August 14, 1890 in Aberdeen, Eastern Cape, died October 11, 1959 in Pretoria) was a South African lawyer and far right politician. ... Jacobus Johannes (Jim) Fouché (6 June 1898 - 1980) was State President of South Africa from 10 January, 1968 to 10 April, 1975. ... Pieter Willem Botha (January 12, 1916 – October 31, 2006), commonly known as PW and Die Groot Krokodil (Afrikaans for The Big Crocodile), was the prime minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive state president from 1984 to 1989. ... General Magnus Malan (b. ... Roelof Petrus (Roelf) Meyer , born in Port Elizabeth on 16 July 1947, is a South African politician and businessman. ... Hendrik Jacobus (Kobie) Coetsee (19 April 1931 - 2000) was a South African lawyer, politician and administrator as well as a negotiator during the countrys transition to democracy. ... Johannes Joe Modise (May 23, 1929 - November 26, 2001) was a South African political figure. ... Mosiuoa Gerard Patrick Lekota (13 August 1948 -) is the current (as of 2006) South African Minister of Defence, a position he has held since 17 June 1999. ... Abraham Fischer (1850-1913) was the sole Prime Minister of the Orange River Colony in South Africa. ... Sir Patrick Duncan (1870-1943) was the sixth Governor-General of the Union of South Africa, holding office from 1937 to 1943. ... Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 – 7 February 1959), more commonly known as D.F. Malan, was a Prime Minister of South Africa. ... Jan Hofmeyr Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (March 20, 1894 - December 3, 1948). ... Theophilus Ebenhaezer (Eben) Dönges (1898-1968) was a South African politician who was elected State President of South Africa but died before he could take office. ... Jozua François Naudé was acting State President of South Africa from 1967 to 1968. ... Marais Viljoen (2 December 1915 - 4 January 2007) was the last non-executive State President of South Africa from June 4, 1979 until September 3, 1984. ... Connie Mulder, born Cornelius Petrus Mulder (5th June 1925–1988), was a South African politican and minister. ... Alwyn Schlebusch (born 1917) was the only holder of the title Vice State President of South Africa from 1 January 1981 to 14 September 1984. ... Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... Louis Pienaar (born 1926) is a South African lawyer and former diplomat. ... Chief Mangosuthu (Gatsha)Ashpenaz Nathan Buthelezi (born August 27, 1928) is a South African Zulu leader, and leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) which he formed in 1975. ... Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula (born 13 November 1956) is the current home affairs minister of South Africa. ... This is a list of South African Prime Ministers. ... Vice State President of South Africa was a position established briefly between 1981 and 1984. ... The Deputy President of South Africa is appointed by the President of South Africa. ... This is a list of South African Prime Ministers. ... Louis Botha Louis Botha (September 17, 1862-August 27, 1919) was an Afrikaner and first Prime Minister of the modern South African state, then called the Union of South Africa. ... Cover of Time Magazine (April 27, 1925) James Barry Munnik Hertzog, better known as Barry Hertzog, (1866-1942) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1924 to 1939. ... Daniel François Malan Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 – 7 February 1959) was a Prime Minister of South Africa. ... Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom (15 July 1893 - 24 August 1958) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 30 November 1954 to 24 August 1958. ... Hendrik Verwoerd Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (Amsterdam, 8 September 1901 – Cape Town, 6 September 1966) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 until his assassination in 1966. ... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ... Pieter Willem Botha (January 12, 1916 – October 31, 2006), commonly known as PW and Die Groot Krokodil (Afrikaans for The Big Crocodile), was the prime minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive state president from 1984 to 1989. ... Vice State President of South Africa was a position established briefly between 1981 and 1984. ... Alwyn Schlebusch (born 1917) was the only holder of the title Vice State President of South Africa from 1 January 1981 to 14 September 1984. ... The Deputy President of South Africa is appointed by the President of South Africa. ... Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki ,KStJ [2][3] (born June 18, 1942)[2] is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki ,KStJ [2][3] (born June 18, 1942)[2] is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born Inkandla, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, April 12, 1942) is deputy president of the governing political party, the African National Congress (ANC), and a former Deputy President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Mrs Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka (born November 3, 1955) is the current Deputy President of South Africa. ... Sir David Graaff as mayor of Cape Town Sir David Pieter de Villiers Graaff, 1st Baronet (30 March 1859 - 13 April 1931) was a South African businessman and politician. ... Thomas Bingham Orr (born 21 April 1924 in Greenock, died 1972) was a Scottish footballer who played as an Inside-Forward for Greenock Morton. ... Jan Hofmeyr Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (March 20, 1894 - December 3, 1948). ... Jozua François Naudé was acting State President of South Africa from 1967 to 1968. ... Theophilus Ebenhaezer (Eben) Dönges (1898-1968) was a South African politician who was elected State President of South Africa but died before he could take office. ... Nicolaas Johannes Diederichs was State President of South Africa from 1975 to 1978. ... Trevor Manuel Trevor Manuel (born January 31, 1956), is currently South Africas Minister of Finance. ...


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ZAR.co.za - Biography of Jan Smuts (783 words)
Jan Christian Smuts holds the unique distinction of being the only individual to sign both peace settlements reached after the First and Second World Wars.
Of Afrikaner roots (Smuts was born in Malmesbury, Cape Colony), Smuts fought in the Second Boer War of 1899-1902 against the British.
It was during the Boer War that Smuts became acquainted with Louis Botha, forming a close friendship that lasted until the latter's death in 1919.
Jan Smuts (245 words)
Jan Christiaan Smuts, (1870 - 1950) was a prominent South African statesman and soldier.
Smuts was a supporter of Cecil Rhodes until it was revealed that Rhodes had instigated the fateful Jameson Raid by a group of Uitlanders[?] on the Transvaal Republic[?].
Smuts returned to South Africa after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 and served two terms as prime minister (1919-1924) and (1933 - 1939).
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