FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Jan Hus
Jan Hus
Fictional Renaissance portrait of Jan Hus
Born c. 1369
Bohemia
Died July 6, 1415
Konstanz, Germany

Jan Hus (listen ) (IPA: [ˈjan ˈɦus], alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. 1370 Husinec (Prachatice District), BohemiaJuly 6, 1415 Konstanz, Germany) was a Czech religious thinker, philosopher, reformer, and master at Charles University in Prague. His followers became known as Hussites. The Roman Catholic Church considered his teachings heretical, and Hus was excommunicated in 1411, condemned by the Council of Constance, and burned at the stake. Five centuries later in 1999, Pope John Paul II expressed "deep regret for the cruel death inflicted"; he then went on to suggest an inquiry as to whether Hus might be cleared of heresy. Scanned from German Meyers Encyclopedia, 1906 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Konstanz in 1925 seen from the lake Schnetztor, a section of the former city wall Another gate from city wall Shops in Konstanz The Konzilgebäude in Konstanz Konstanz (in English formerly known as Constance) is a university town of around 80,000 inhabitants at the western end of Lake... Image File history File links Cs-Jan_Hus. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Location of Husinec in the Czech Republic See other places named Husinec. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Konstanz in 1925 seen from the lake Schnetztor, a section of the former city wall Another gate from city wall Shops in Konstanz The Konzilgebäude in Konstanz Konstanz (in English formerly known as Constance) is a university town of around 80,000 inhabitants at the western end of Lake... The Charles University of Prague (also simply University of Prague; Czech: Univerzita Karlova; Latin: Universitas Carolina) is the oldest and most prestigious Czech university and among the oldest universities in Europe, being founded in 1340s (for the exact year, see below). ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... The Hussites comprised a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... The use of the term heresy in the context of Christianity is less common today, with some notable exceptions: see for example Rudolf Bultmann and the character of debates over ordination of women and gay priests. ... Excommunication is religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Events February 11 : Peace of ToruÅ„ 1411 signed in ToruÅ„, Poland Births September 21 - Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, claimant to the English throne (died 1460) Juan de Mena, Spanish poet (died 1456) Deaths June 3 - Duke Leopold IV of Austria (born 1371) November 4 - Khalil Sultan, ruler of... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... Burning of two sodomites at the stake (execution of individuals by fire. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope of Rome... Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Hus was a key contributor to the Protestant movement whose teachings had a strong influence on the states of Europe and on Martin Luther himself. The Hussite Wars resulted in the Basel Compacts which allowed for a reformed church in the Kingdom of Bohemia - almost a century before such developments would take place in the Lutheran Reformation. Hus' extensive writings earn him a prominent place in Czech literary history. He is also responsible for introducing the use of diacritics (especially the háček) into Czech spelling in order to represent each sound by a single symbol. Today, a statue of Jan Hus can be seen at the Prague Old Town Square (Czech Staroměstské náměstí). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Hussite War Wagons and Hand Cannoneers Hussite Crossbowman and Shield Carrier Hussite War Wagons The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars involved the military actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1420 to circa 1434. ... A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent mark, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... č Å¡ ž A háček (ˇ, pronounced ), also known as a caron, is a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate palatalization or iotation in the orthography of Baltic languages and some Slavic languages, whereas some Finno-Lappic languages use it to mark postalveolar fricatives (sh, zh, ch). ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Old Town Square in Prague, Týn Cathedral in background Jan Hus statue Old Town Square (Czech: StaromÄ›stské námÄ›stí) is a historic square in the Old Town quarter of Prague in the Czech Republic. ...


Jan Hus Day (Den upálení mistra Jana Husa) on July 6, the anniversary of the execution of Jan Hus, is one of the public holidays in the Czech Republic. He is also commemorated as martyr in the Calendar of Saints of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on that day. Today most Czechs describe themselves as non-religious, and among Christians more are Roman Catholics than Hussites [1], nonetheless Jan Hus is a national hero. is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Public holidays in the Czech Republic Categories: | | ... The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which details the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by the Lutheran Church. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Jan Hus at the Stake File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Jan Hus at the Stake File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Burning of two sodomites at the stake (execution of individuals by fire. ...

Early life and studies

Jan Hus was born in Husinec (120 km SSW of Prague); different sources give his year of birth as anywhere from 1369 to 1373. Location of Husinec in the Czech Republic See other places named Husinec. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ...


Papal schism

The University of Prague around 1408 was being torn apart by the ongoing papal schism, in which Pope Gregory XII and Avignon Pope Benedict XIII both laid claim to the papacy. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Historical map of the Western Schism. ... Gregory XII, né Angelo Correr or Corraro (died October 18, 1417), Pope from 1406 to 1415, succeeded Pope Innocent VII (1404–06) on November 30, 1406, having been chosen at Rome by a conclave consisting of only fifteen cardinals, under the express condition that, should antipope Benedict XIII (1394–1423... Benedict XIII, born Pedro Martínez de Luna, (b. ...


King Wenceslaus felt Pope Gregory XII might interfere with his plans to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor; thus, he renounced Gregory and ordered his prelates to observe a strict neutrality toward both popes, and said he expected the same of the university. Archbishop Zbyněk Zajíc remained faithful to Gregory. At the university, only the "Bohemian nation" (one of four voting blocs), with Hus as its leader and spokesman, avowed neutrality. Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel, Czech: Václav IV; sometimes known as the Drunkard) (February 26, 1361 – August 16, 1419), of the house of Luxembourg, was king of Bohemia from 1378 to his death; until 1400, he also headed the Holy Roman Empire (as King of the Romans), and he continued to... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Look up prelate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope of Rome... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Kutná Hora

At the instigation of Hus and other Bohemian leaders, Wenceslaus issued a decree (while in the city of Kutná Hora) that the Bohemian nation should now have three votes (instead of one) in all affairs of the university, while the foreign nations, principally Germany, should have only one vote. As a consequence somewhere between five thousand and twenty thousand German doctors, masters, and students left the university in 1409. This exodus resulted in the foundation of the University of Leipzig, among others. Thus, Prague university lost its international importance and became a Czech school. The emigrants also spread news of the Bohemian heresies throughout the rest of Europe. Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel, Czech: Václav IV; sometimes known as the Drunkard) (February 26, 1361 – August 16, 1419), of the house of Luxembourg, was king of Bohemia from 1378 to his death; until 1400, he also headed the Holy Roman Empire (as King of the Romans), and he continued to... Kutná Hora (help· info) medieval Czech: Hory Kutné) is a city in the Czech Republic, in Central Bohemian Region of Bohemia. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... The University of Leipzig (German Universität Leipzig), located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony (former Kingdom of Saxony), Germany, is one of the oldest universities in Europe. ...


The Archbishop Zbyněk Zajíc became isolated and Hus was at the height of his fame. He became a rector of the Czech university, and enjoyed the favor of the court. In the meantime, the doctrinal views of the English theologian John Wycliffe had spread throughout Bohemia. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Alexander V becomes Pope

In 1409, in an attempt to end the papal schism, the Council of Pisa met to elect a new pope. This did not succeed, and the pope they elected, Alexander V, did not end loyalty to the other two popes. The Roman Catholic Church now considers Alexander V an antipope. Hus, his followers and Wenceslaus, transferred their allegiance to Alexander V. Under pressure from Wenceslaus, Archbishop Zbyněk Zajíc eventually did the same. Zajíc then brought his complaints before Alexander V's Papal See, accusing the Wycliffites of ecclesiastical disturbances. This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia Preliminaries The Great Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378), and none of the means employed to bring it to an end had been successful. ... Alexander V (also Peter of Candia or Peter Philarges, c. ... Alexander V (also Peter of Candia or Peter Philarges, c. ... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ... Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel, Czech: Václav IV; sometimes known as the Drunkard) (February 26, 1361 – August 16, 1419), of the house of Luxembourg, was king of Bohemia from 1378 to his death; until 1400, he also headed the Holy Roman Empire (as King of the Romans), and he continued to... Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel, Czech: Václav IV; sometimes known as the Drunkard) (February 26, 1361 – August 16, 1419), of the house of Luxembourg, was king of Bohemia from 1378 to his death; until 1400, he also headed the Holy Roman Empire (as King of the Romans), and he continued to... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, holy seat) is the episcopal see of Rome. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Excommunication of Hus

Alexander V issued his papal bull of December 20, 1409, which empowered the Archbishop to proceed against Wycliffism. All books of Wycliffe were to be given up, his doctrines revoked, and free preaching discontinued. After the publication of the bull in 1410, Hus appealed before Alexander V, but in vain. All books and valuable manuscripts of Wycliffe were burned, and Alexander V excommunicated Hus and his adherents. Riots ensued in parts of Bohemia. Alexander V (also Peter of Candia or Peter Philarges, c. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


The government took the side of Hus, and the power of his adherents increased from day to day. He continued to preach in the Bethlehem Chapel (a church building in Prague), and became bolder and bolder in his accusations against the Church. The churches of the city were put under the ban, and the interdict was pronounced against Prague, but without result. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For other meanings see Interdict The word interdict usually refers to an ecclesiastical penalty in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ...


Indulgences

Archbishop Zbyněk Zajíc died in 1411, and with his death the religious movement in Bohemia entered a new phase — the disputes concerning indulgences arose. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Events February 11 : Peace of ToruÅ„ 1411 signed in ToruÅ„, Poland Births September 21 - Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, claimant to the English throne (died 1460) Juan de Mena, Spanish poet (died 1456) Deaths June 3 - Duke Leopold IV of Austria (born 1371) November 4 - Khalil Sultan, ruler of... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ...


Crusade Against Naples

Antipope John XXIII succeeded Pope Alexander V after his death in 1410. In 1411, John issued a crusade against King Ladislaus of Naples, the protector of Gregory XII. This crusade was preached in Prague as well, and preachers of indulgences urged people to crowd the churches and give their offerings, developing a traffic in indulgences. Antipope John XXIII Baldassare Cossa, (about 1370 – November 22, 1419), also known as John XXIII,was Pope or antipope during the Western Schism (1410–1415) and is now officially regarded by the Catholic Church as an antipope. ... Alexander V (also Peter of Candia or Peter Philarges, c. ... Antipope John XXIII Baldassare Cossa, (about 1370 – November 22, 1419), also known as John XXIII,was Pope or antipope during the Western Schism (1410–1415) and is now officially regarded by the Catholic Church as an antipope. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... King Ladislas of Naples, titular king of Jerusalem (February 11, 1377-August 6, 1414) was of the Angevin line, and was called The Magnanimous. Son of Charles III, he was the King of Naples from the age of nine (1386) under his mothers regency. ... Gregory XII, né Angelo Coraria (Venice 1326 - October 18, 1417), pope from 1406 to 1409, succeeded Innocent VII on 30th November 1406, having been chosen at Rome by a conclave consisting of only fifteen cardinals, under the express condition that, should Benedict XIII, the rival pope at Avignon, renounce all... In Latin Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission granted by the Church of the temporal punishment due to sins already forgiven by God. ...


Condemnation of Indulgences and Crusade

Alfons Mucha: Master Jan Hus Preaching at the Bethlehem Chapel: Truth prevails, 1916

Hus spoke out against indulgences, but he could not carry with him the men of the university. In 1412 a dispute took place, on which occasion Hus delivered his address Quaestio magistri Johannis Hus de indulgentiis. It was taken literally from the last chapter of Wycliffe's book, De ecclesia, and his treatise, De absolutione a pena et culpa. The pamphlet stated that no pope or bishop had the right to take up the sword in the name of the Church; he should pray for his enemies and bless those that curse him; man obtains forgiveness of sins by real repentance, not through money. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (855x633, 133 KB)A painting by Alphonse Mucha showing Jan Hus preaching at the Bethlehem Chapel in Prague. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (855x633, 133 KB)A painting by Alphonse Mucha showing Jan Hus preaching at the Bethlehem Chapel in Prague. ... Alfons Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (or Alphonse Maria Mucha)   (July 24, 1860–July 14, 1939) was a Czech painter and decorative artist. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Komatsu of Japan. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope of Rome... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule, or the state of having committed such a violation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The doctors of the theological faculty replied, but without success. A few days afterward some of Hus's followers, led by Vok Voksa z Valdštejna, burnt the Papal bulls. Hus, they said, should be obeyed rather than the Church, which they considered a fraudulent mob of adulterers and Simonists. Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Look up simony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Response

In response, three men from the lower classes who openly called the indulgences a fraud were beheaded. They were later considered the first martyrs of the Hussite Church. The Hussites comprised a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ...


In the meantime, the faculty had condemned the forty-five articles anew and added several other heretical theses which had originated with Hus. The king forbade the teaching of these articles, but neither Hus nor the university complied with the ruling, requesting that the articles should be first proven to be un-scriptural. A thesis (from Greek position) is an intellectual proposition. ...


Further dissensions

The tumults at Prague had stirred up a sensation, unpleasant for the Roman party; papal legates and Archbishop Albik tried to persuade Hus to give up his opposition to the papal bulls, and the king made an unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the two parties.


Call for arrest of Hus

In the meantime the clergy of Prague, through Michael de Causis, had brought their complaints before the Pope, and he ordered the Cardinal of St. Angelo to proceed against Hus without mercy. The cardinal put him under the great church ban. He was to be seized and delivered to the archbishop, and his chapel was to be destroyed. This was followed by stricter measures against Hus and his adherents, and in turn counter-measures of the Hussites, including an appeal by Hus that Jesus Christ, and not the Pope, was the supreme judge. This intensified the excitement among the people, and Wenceslaus forced Hus to leave Prague, but his departure did little to quell the ongoing excitement. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel, Czech: Václav IV; sometimes known as the Drunkard) (February 26, 1361 – August 16, 1419), of the house of Luxembourg, was king of Bohemia from 1378 to his death; until 1400, he also headed the Holy Roman Empire (as King of the Romans), and he continued to...


Attempted reconciliation

The king made great efforts to harmonize the opposing parties. In 1412 he convoked the heads of his kingdom for a consultation, and at their suggestion ordered a synod to be held at Český Brod on February 2, 1412. It did not take place there, but in the palace of the archbishops at Prague, in order to exclude Hus from participation. A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... St Gotthard church ÄŒeský Brod (IPA: ) is a town in Central Bohemian Region, Czech Republic. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Komatsu of Japan. ...


Propositions were made to restore peace in the Church, with Hus requiring that Bohemia should have the same freedom in regard to ecclesiastical affairs as other countries and that approbation and condemnation should therefore be announced only with the permission of the state power. This is wholly the doctrine of Wycliffe (Sermones, iii. 519, etc.). There followed treatises from both parties, but no harmony was obtained. "Even if I should stand before the stake which has been prepared for me", Hus wrote at the time, "I would never accept the recommendation of the theological faculty." The synod did not produce any results, but the King ordered a commission to continue the work of reconciliation. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ...


The doctors of the university required from Hus and his adherents an approval of their conception of the Church, according to which the Pope is the head, the Cardinals are the body of the Church, and that all regulations of this Church must be obeyed. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually a bishop, of the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the College of Cardinals which as a body elects a new pope. ...


Hus protested vigorously against this conception since it made Pope and cardinals alone the Church. Nevertheless the Hussite party seems to have made a great effort toward reconciliation. To the article that the Roman Church must be obeyed, they added only "so far as every pious Christian is bound". Stanislav ze Znojma and Štěpán Páleč protested against this addition and left the convention. The king exiled them, along with two other spokesmen. Convention has at least two very distinct but related meanings. ...


Writings of Hus and Wycliffe

Of the writings occasioned by these controversies, that of Hus on the Church (De ecclesia) has been most frequently quoted and admired or criticized, and yet it is in the first ten chapters but a meagre epitome of Wycliffe's work of the same title, and in the following chapters an abstract of a work by the same author (De potentate pape) on the power of the pope, Wycliffe had written his book to oppose the common view that the Church consisted only of the clergy, and Hus now found himself in a similar condition. He wrote his work at the castle of one of his protectors in Kozí Hrádek, and sent it to Prague, where it was publicly read in the Bethlehem chapel. It was answered by Stanislav ze Znojma and Páleč with treatises of the same title.


After the most vehement opponents of Hus had left Prague, his adherents occupied the whole ground. Hus wrote his treatises and preached in the neighborhood of Kozí Hrádek. Bohemian Wyclifism was carried into Poland, Hungary, Croatia, and Austria; but at the same time the papal court was not inactive. In January of 1413, a general council assembled in Rome which condemned the writings of Wycliffe and ordered them to be burned. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


Council of Constance

Painting of Jan Hus at the Council of Constance by Václav Brožík (1883).
Painting of Jan Hus at the Council of Constance by Václav Brožík (1883).

To put an end to the papal schism and to take up the long desired reform of the Church, a general council was convened for November 1, 1414, at Constance (aka Konstanz, Germany). The Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, brother of Wenceslaus, and heir to the Bohemian crown, was anxious to put an end to religious dissension within the church; Hus likewise was willing to make an end of all dissensions, and followed the request of Sigismund to go to Constance. Image File history File links Jan_Hus-Council_of_Constance. ... Image File history File links Jan_Hus-Council_of_Constance. ... Václav Brožík (5 March 1851 – 15 April 1901) was the greatest Czech academic painter. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Look up reform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... Konstanz in 1925 seen from the lake Schnetztor, a section of the former city wall Another gate from city wall Shops in Konstanz The Konzilgebäude in Konstanz Konstanz (in English formerly known as Constance) is a university town of around 80,000 inhabitants at the western end of Lake... Sigismund (February 14/15, 1368 - December 9, 1437) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 to 1437. ... Sigismund is a common name. ...


From the sermons which he took along, it is evident that he purposed to convert the assembled fathers to his own principal doctrines. Sigismund promised him safe-conduct, guaranteeing his safety for the duration of his journey; as a secular ruler he would not have been able to make any guarantees for the safety of Hus in a Papal court, a fact that Hus would have been aware of. However Hus was probably reckoning that a guarantee of safe conduct was also a sign of patronage by the king and that therefore he could rely on royal support during the proceedings. ...


Imprisonment and preparations for trial

It is unknown whether Hus knew what his fate would be; he assembled testimonies to show the council as to his orthodoxy, but nevertheless made his will before setting out. He started on his journey on October 11, 1414; on November 3, 1414, he arrived at Constance, and on the following day the bulletins on the church doors announced that Michal z Německého Brodu would be the opponent of Hus, "the heretic." In the meantime Hus' opponents were persuading Sigismund that a promise of safe conduct to a heretic was not legally binding. October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ...


In the beginning Hus was at liberty, living at the house of a widow, but after a few weeks his opponents succeeded in imprisoning him, on the strength of a rumour that he intended to flee. He was first brought into the residence of a canon, and then, on December 8, 1414, into the dungeon of the Dominican monastery. Sigismund was greatly angered, having previously guaranteed safe-conduct, and threatened the prelates with dismissal, but when it was hinted that in such a case the council would be dissolved, he gave in. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... The dungeons of Blarney Castle. ...


On December 4, 1414, the Pope had entrusted a committee of three bishops with a preliminary investigation against him. As was usual then, witnesses for the prosecution were heard, but Hus was not allowed an advocate for his defense. His situation became worse after the catastrophe of John XXIII, who had left Constance to evade the necessity of abdicating. So far Hus had been the captive of the Pope and in constant intercourse with his friends, but now he was delivered to the Archbishop of Constance and brought to his castle, Gottlieben on the Rhine. Here he remained for seventy-three days, separated from his friends, chained day and night, poorly fed, and tortured by disease. December 4th redirects here. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... In most litigation under the common law adversarial system the defendant, perhaps with the assistance of counsel, may allege or present defenses (or defences) in order to avoid liability, civil or criminal. ... Antipope John XXIII Baldassare Cossa, (about 1370 – November 22, 1419), also known as John XXIII,was Pope or antipope during the Western Schism (1410–1415) and is now officially regarded by the Catholic Church as an antipope. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ...


Trial

On June 5, 1415, he was tried for the first time, and for that purpose was transferred to a Franciscan monastery, where he spent the last weeks of his life. June 5 is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Monastery of St. ...


He acknowledged the writings on the Church against Znojma, Páleč, as well as Stanislaus of Znaim as his own, and declared himself willing to recant if his errors should be proven to him from the Bible. Location of Znojmo in the Czech Republic Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia District Znojmo Founded 1055 Mayor Pavel Balík (KDU-ÄŒSL) Area    - City 65,93 km² Elevation 290 m Population    - City (2005) 35 177 Postal code 669 02 Website: http://www. ...


Hus conceded his veneration of Wycliffe, and said that he could only wish his soul might some time attain unto that place where Wycliffe's was. On the other hand, he denied having defended Wycliffe's doctrine of The Lord's Supper or the forty-five articles; he had only opposed their summary condemnation. The Lords Supper is a variation of the name and the service of The Last Supper or Eucharist. ...


King Wenceslaus admonished him to deliver himself up to the mercy of the Council, as he did not desire to protect a heretic. At the last trial, on June 8, 1415, there were read to him thirty-nine sentences, twenty-six of which had been excerpted from his book on the Church, seven from his treatise against Páleč, and six from that against Stanislav ze Znojma. The danger of some of these doctrines as regards worldly power was explained to the emperor to incite him against Hus. Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel, Czech: Václav IV; sometimes known as the Drunkard) (February 26, 1361 – August 16, 1419), of the house of Luxembourg, was king of Bohemia from 1378 to his death; until 1400, he also headed the Holy Roman Empire (as King of the Romans), and he continued to... Look up trial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ...


Hus again declared himself willing to submit if he could be convinced of errors. He desired only a fair trial and more time to explain the reasons for his views. If his reasons and Bible texts did not suffice, he would be glad to be instructed. This declaration was considered an unconditional surrender, and he was asked to confess: This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ...

  1. that he had erred in the theses which he had hitherto maintained;
  2. that he renounced them for the future;
  3. that he recanted them; and
  4. that he declared the opposite of these sentences.

He asked to be exempted from recanting doctrines which he had never taught; others, which the assembly considered erroneous, he was willing to revoke; to act differently would be against his conscience. These words found no favorable reception. After the trial on June 8, several other attempts were made to induce him to recant, but he resisted all of them. Conscience is a faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ...


The attitude of Sigismund was due to political considerations — he looked upon the return of Hus to his country as dangerous, and thought the terror of execution might improve the situation.


Condemnation and execution

The condemnation took place on July 6, 1415, in the presence of the assembly of the Council in the Cathedral. Each voting member stood up and delivered his own, often moving speech which ended with a vote as to whether Hus should live or die. A sizable minority voted to save Hus's life, but the majority ruled. is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ...


If the beginning of the day could be called solemn, the scene after the voting was one of scuffles and chairs being thrown. (For an eye-witness account and text of speeches, read Pogius; or Matthew Spinka, John Hus at the Council of Constance).


After the performance of High Mass and Liturgy, Hus was led into the church. The Bishop of Lodi delivered an oration on the duty of eradicating heresy; then some theses of Hus and Wycliffe and a report of his trial were read. In the United States of America the term High Mass refers to what in Great Britain & Ireland, as well as in many traditional-minded Anglo-Catholic parishes in the U.S.A., is called Sung Mass or Misa Cantata. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... For other places called Lodi, see Lodi. ...


Refusals to recant

An Italian prelate pronounced the sentence of condemnation upon Hus and his writings. Again he protested loudly, saying that even at this hour he did not wish anything but to be convinced from Holy Scripture. He fell upon his knees and asked God with a low voice to forgive all his enemies. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Then followed his degradation — he was enrobed in priestly vestments and again asked to recant; again he refused. With curses his ornaments were taken from him, his priestly tonsure was destroyed, and the sentence was pronounced that the Church had deprived him of all rights and delivered him to the secular powers. Then a high paper hat was put upon his head, with the inscription "Haeresiarcha" (meaning the leader of a heretical movement). Hus was led away to the stake under a strong guard of armed men. Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ...

Preparing the execution of Jan Hus.
Preparing the execution of Jan Hus.

At the place of execution he knelt down, spread out his hands, and prayed aloud. Some of the people asked that a confessor should be given him, but one priest exclaimed that a heretic should neither be heard nor given a confessor. The executioners undressed Hus and tied his hands behind his back with ropes, and his neck with a chain to a stake around which wood and straw had been piled up so that it covered him to the neck. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1360x920, 511 KB) From de:Bild:Jan-hus-gang-zum-scheiterhaufen-konstanz 1-1360x920. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1360x920, 511 KB) From de:Bild:Jan-hus-gang-zum-scheiterhaufen-konstanz 1-1360x920. ... The title confessor is used in the Christian Church in two separate ways. ...


At the last moment, the imperial marshal, Von Pappenheim, in the presence of the Count Palatine, asked him to recant and thus save his life, but Hus declined with the words "God is my witness that I have never taught that of which I have by false witnesses been accused. In the truth of the Gospel which I have written, taught, and preached, I will die today with gladness." To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Dying Prophecy

Amongst Hus' last words are allegedly that, "in 100 years, God will raise up a man whose calls for reform cannot be suppressed." Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses of Contention to a church door in Wittenberg 102 years later.[1] Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The 95 Theses. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ...


On December 18, 1999, Pope John Paul II apologized for the execution of Jan Hus, but refused to pardon him despite having adopted many of his then controversial teachings. is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as...


Hus' scholarship and teachings

Image:Statue of Jan Hus by throbi.jpg
Statue of Hus, as it stands in Old Town Square

The Czechs, who in his lifetime had loved Hus as their prophet and apostle, now adore him as their saint and martyr. Nevertheless, his scholarship is open to criticism. old town This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


He left only a few reformatory writings in the proper sense of the word, most of his works being polemical treatises against Stanislav ze Znojma and Štěpán Páleč. He translated the Trialogus, and was very familiar with his works on the body of the Lord, on the Church, on the power of the pope, and especially with his sermons.


There are reasons to suppose that Wycliffe's doctrine of the Lord's Supper had spread to Prague as early as 1399, with strong evidence that students returning from England had brought the work back with them. It gained an even wider circulation after it had been prohibited in 1403, and Hus preached and taught it, although it is possible that he simply repeated it without advocating it. But the doctrine was seized eagerly by the radical party, the Taborites, who made it the central point of their system.


The book on the Church and on the power of the pope contains the essence of the doctrine of Hus. According to it, the Church is not that hierarchy which is generally designated as Church; the Church is the entire body of those who from eternity have been predestined for salvation. Christ, not the pope, is its head. It is no article of faith that one must obey the pope to be saved. Neither external membership in the Church nor churchly offices and dignities are a surety that the persons in question are members of the true Church.


But it seems clear that Hus’s efforts were predominantly designed to rid the Church of its ethical abuses, rather than a campaign of sweeping theological change. In explaining the plight of the average Christian in Bohemia, Hus wrote, “One pays for confession, for mass, for the sacrament, for indulgences, for churching a woman, for a blessing, for burials, for funeral services and prayers. The very last penny which an old woman has hidden in her bundle for fear of thieves or robbery will not be saved. The villainous priest will grab it.” (Macek, 16)


After Hus's death, his followers, then known as Hussites, split off into several groups including the Utraquists, Taborites and Orphans. The Hussites comprised a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ... The Utraquists (Both-kinders) were moderate followers of Jan Hus, who maintained that the Eucharist should be administered to the people in both kinds, i. ... The Taborites (Czech Táborité, singular Táborita) were members of a religious protestant community centered on the Bohemian city of Tábor during the Hussite Wars in the 15th century. ...


Iconography

Although Hus was a Catholic priest, he is pictured bearded, without tonsure. Although he described himself as small and fat, he is pictured tall and slender. A man with a full beard A beard is the hair that grows on a mans chin, cheeks, neck, and the area above the upper lip (the opposite is a clean-shaven face). ... Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ...


Meyers Lexikon[2] used this convention, which was echoed by Czech academic painter Václav Brožík. Václav Brožík (5 March 1851 – 15 April 1901) was the greatest Czech academic painter. ...

Monument of Jan Hus, erected in 1915
Monument of Jan Hus, erected in 1915
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Jan Hus

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 1056 KB) Prague - Jan Hus statue. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 1056 KB) Prague - Jan Hus statue. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Famous followers of Jan Hus

  • Jerome of Prague, Hus' friend and devoted follower shared his fate, although he did not suffer death till nearly a year later, on 23 May 1416 in Constance.
  • Jan Kardinál z Rejnštejna (1375–1428): (in German: Johannes Cardinalis von Bergreichenstein)[3]
  • Jan Žižka z Trocnova a Kalicha (c. 1360 - 1424), Czech general and Hussite leader
  • Matěj z Knína (died 26 March 1410) (in German: Matthäus von Knin)
  • Mikuláš Biskupec z Pelhřimova (1385 Poděbrady – 1460 Poděbrady) (in Latin: Nicolaus Pilgramensis, in German: Nikolaus von Pelgrims)

Jerome of Prague (1379-May 30, 1416) was one of the chief followers and most devoted friends of John Huss; He was born at Prague of a wealthy family; after taking his bachelors degree at the University of Prague in 1398, he secured in 1399 permission to travel. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 30 - The Catholic Church burns Jerome of Prague as a heretic. ... Jan Žižka (or John Zizka of Trocnov or Johann Ziska Czech: Jan Žižka z Trocnova) (c. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... Knin Knin is a historical town in the Šibenik-Knin county of Croatia, located near the source of the river Krka at , in the Dalmatian hinterland, on the railroad Zagreb–Split. ... Events August 14 - Battle of Aljubarrota between the Portuguese under John I of Portugal and the Castilians, under John I of Castile. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...

References

  • Count Lutzow: 'Life & Times of Master John Hus' E.P. Dutton & Co. London 1909.
  • Fra Poggius: 'Hus The Heretic' Ed. Beda von Berchem, Granville NY 1930. (First hand account by Poggius)
  • Josef Macek: The Hussite Movement in Bohemia. Orbis, Praha 1958. (Communist Interpretation of the Hussite Revolution)
  • Philip Schaff-Herzog: Encyclopedia of Religion
  • Richard Friedenthal: Jan Hus. Der Ketzer und das Jahrhundert der Revolutionskriege. 2. Auflage 1987, ISBN 3-492-10331-6

Notes

  1. ^ The Bible Museum. John Hus. Greatsite Marketing. Retrieved on 12, 2007. Retrieved on April 2007.

See also

  • Proto-Protestants

Proto-Protestants is a term used to describe Christian people and movements before the Protestant Reformation who, in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church, expressed views identical or very similar to those held by main Protestant reformers and movements. ...

External links

  • Hussitism and the heritage of Jan Hus - Official WebSite of the Czech Republic
  • Final Declaration written on July 1, 1415 - Modern History Sourcebook, Fordham Jesuit University, New York
  • Letters of John Huss Written During His Exile and Imprisonment; with Martin Luther's Preface, by Jan Hus, François Paul Émile Boisnormand de Bonnechose, tr. Campbell Mackenzie, Edinburgh, William Whyte & Co., 1846. - Google Books.
Persondata
NAME Hus, Jan
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Hus, John; Huss, Jan; Huss, John
SHORT DESCRIPTION Czech religious thinker, philosopher, reformer
DATE OF BIRTH c. 1369
PLACE OF BIRTH Bohemia
DATE OF DEATH July 6, 1415
PLACE OF DEATH Konstanz, Germany

is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... // Google offers a variety of services and tools besides its basic web search. ... Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Konstanz in 1925 seen from the lake Schnetztor, a section of the former city wall Another gate from city wall Shops in Konstanz The Konzilgebäude in Konstanz Konstanz (in English formerly known as Constance) is a university town of around 80,000 inhabitants at the western end of Lake...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Jan Hus (1021 words)
Hus was a strong partisan on the side of the Czechs, and hence of the Realists, and he was greatly influenced by the writings of Wyclif.
Hus, who had become once more rector of the university, was called to account by the archbishop for his Wycliffite tendencies and was reported to Rome with the result that Alexander V, in a Bull of 20 December 1409, directed the archbishop to forbid any preaching except in cathedral, collegiate, parish, and cloister
Hus meanwhile openly defended Wyclif, and this position he maintained especially against John Stokes, a licentiate of Cambridge, who had come to Prague and declared that in England Wyclif was regarded as a heretic.
Jan Hus - MSN Encarta (510 words)
Jan Hus or John Huss (1369?-1415), Bohemian religious reformer, whose efforts to reform the church anticipated the Protestant Reformation.
Hus was born in Husinec, in southern Bohemia (now the Czech Republic), and was educated at the University of Prague, receiving his M.A. degree in 1396.
In 1414 Hus was summoned to appear at the Council of Constance (see Constance, Council of), which had been convened to resolve the schism in the church and to suppress heresy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m