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Encyclopedia > Jammu and Kashmir
  ?Jammu and Kashmir
India
Coordinates: 33°27′N 76°14′E / 33.45, 76.24
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 222,236 km² (85,806 sq mi)
Capital Jammu (winter)
Srinagar (summer)
Largest city Jammu
District(s) 22
Population
Density
10,069,917 (18th)
• 45.31 /km² (117 /sq mi)
Language(s) Urdu, Dogri, Kashmiri
Governor S.K. Sinha
Chief Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad
Established 1947-10-26
Legislature (seats) Bicameral (89 + 36)
ISO abbreviation IN-JK
Website: jammukashmir.nic.in
Seal of Jammu and Kashmir
Seal of Jammu and Kashmir

Coordinates: 33°27′N 76°14′E / 33.45, 76.24 Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links India_Jammu_and_Kashmir_locator_map. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... For other uses, see Srinagar (disambiguation). ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... The divisions of a district. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... -1... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Dogri is an Indic language spoken by some two million people in South Asia, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir but also in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir and elsewhere. ... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation) Kashmiri is a Dardic language spoken primarily in Kashmir, an Asian region now split between India, Pakistan and China. ... Governors of Jammu and Kashmir See Also Jammu and Kashmir Governors of India Links Categories: India-related stubs | Jammu and Kashmir | Indian politicians | Office-holders | Government of India ... S.K Sinha (born 1926) is the Governer of Jammu and Kashmir state in India. ... Chief Ministers of Jammu and Kashmir See Also Jammu and Kashmir Chief Ministers of India Links Categories: India-related stubs | Jammu and Kashmir | Indian politicians | Office-holders | Government of India ... Ghulam Nabi Azad (born March 7, 1949 in Jammu and Kashmir, India) is an Indian politician from the Indian National Congress. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... ISO 3166-2 for India (ISO 3166-1 : IN) The purpose of this family of standards is to establish a worldwide series of short abbreviations for places, for use on package labels, containers and such. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Jammu and Kashmir   (Dogri: जम्मू और कश्मीर; Urdu: جموں و کشمیر) is the northernmost state of India. Situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains, Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south, Pakistan-administered Kashmir to the west and the People's Republic of China to the north and east. The territory of Jammu and Kashmir is disputed between India and Pakistan and it is referred to by Pakistan as Indian-occupied Kashmir. Conversely, India refers to Pakistan-administered Kashmir as Pakistan-occupied Kashmir. Image File history File links JammuKashmir. ... Areas in India and Pakistan where Dogri and related dialects are spoken Dogri (डोगरी or ڈوگرى) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about two million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir, but also in northern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir, and... Urdu ( , , trans. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... India is subdivided into 28 states, 6 union territories and a National Capital Territory. ... , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... This article is about the area administered by Pakistan. ... For main article about Kashmir see Kashmir // Partition, dispute and war Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ...


Jammu and Kashmir consists of three divisions: Jammu, the Kashmir valley and Ladakh. Srinagar is the summer capital, and Jammu its winter capital. While the Kashmir valley, often known as paradise on Earth,[1] is famous for its beautiful mountainous landscape, Jammu's numerous shrines attracts tens of thousands of Hindu and Muslim pilgrims every year. Ladakh, also known as "Little Tibet", is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and Buddhist culture. Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... For other uses, see Srinagar (disambiguation). ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Kashmir

The Valley of Kashmir was once the great lake Satisar. According to Hindu texts, the Hindu sage Kashyapa drained a lake lying north of the Pir Panjal range by cutting the mountain near Varamulla. The sage then encouraged people from India to settle in the valley that was formed after the lake was drained. The locals named the valley Kashyap-Mar and Kashyap-Pura in honour of the sage. The name Kashmir is derived from ka (the water) and shimeera (to desiccate).[citation needed] In other words, the word Kashmir implies land desiccated from water. And also the lake was very holy to the people until drained This article relates to the history of Jammu and Kashmir prior to the partition of Pakistan and India in 1947; its history since then is covered in the main article. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... This article is about the Hindu god Kasyapa. ... The Pir Panjal Range is a range of mountains that form a part of the Middle Himalayas or the Himachal in India. ...


Kashmir was one of the major centres of Sanskrit scholars in ancient times. According to Mahabharata evidence,[2] Kambojas had ruled over Kashmir during epic times and it was a Republican system of government under the Kamboj.[3] The capital city of Kashmir (Kamboj) during epic times was Rajapura[4] e.g. Karna-Rajapuram-gatva-Kambojah-nirjitastava.[5] Epic Rajapura is the same as Ho-lo-she-pu-lo of Yuan Chawang and has been identified with modern Rajauri.[6] Later, the Panchalas are stated to have established their sway. The name Peer Panjal, which is a part of modern Kashmir, is a witness to this fact. Panjal is simply a distorted form of the Sanskritic tribal term Panchala. The Muslims had prefixed the word " peer " to it in memory of one Siddha Faqir and the name thence-after is said to have changed into Peer Panjal.[7] For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Kamboj in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ... Rajauri is a town and a notified area committee in Rajauri district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Panchala Kingdom. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


The Kashmir valley was first incorporated into the Maurya Empire and then into the Kushan Empire. In the early 8th century, Kashmir became the center of Hindu warrior Lalitaditya Muktapida's empire spanning much of northern India and Central Asia. Kashmir was invaded in mid 12th century by the Muslim Turkish army but it was completely occupied by Turkish Zulkadur Khan in 1322. Later in 1394, another Turkish occupation took place by Sikandar who made Islam the state religion allegedly resulting in forced mass conversions. Udayan Dev was the last free Kashmiri ruler but after his death in 1338, Kashmir was completely occupied by the Muslims Turks. Turkish rule ended when the Mughal Emperor Akbar invaded Kashmir in 1586, led by Hindu King Bhagawant Das and his aide Ramchandra I. The Mughal army easily defeated Yusuf Khan of Kashmir. After the battle, Akbar appointed Ramchandra I as the governor of the Himalayan kingdom. Ramchandra I founded the city of Jammu (named after Hindu goddess Jamwa Mata) south of the Pir Panjal range. Ramchandra was the ancestor of the last Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir Hari Singh whose kingdom was invaded by Pakistan on 20 October 1947. A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Lalitaditya Muktapida was the emperor of Kashmir from 724 to 760. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hari Singh was the last maharaja of the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of different regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.
1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of different regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.
Portrait of Maharaja Gulab Singh, former Governor of Jammu of the Sikh Empire of Ranjit Singh, in 1847, after signing the Treaty of Amritsar with the British, when he became Maharaja for the territories of Kashmir east of the Indus and west of the Ravi. (Artist: James Duffield Harding).
Portrait of Maharaja Gulab Singh, former Governor of Jammu of the Sikh Empire of Ranjit Singh, in 1847, after signing the Treaty of Amritsar with the British, when he became Maharaja for the territories of Kashmir east of the Indus and west of the Ravi. (Artist: James Duffield Harding).

In 1780, after the death of Ranjit Deo, a descendant of Ramchandra I, Jammu and Kashmir was captured by the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh of Lahore and afterwards, until 1846, became a tributary to the Sikh power.[8] Ranjit Deo's grand-nephew, Gulab Singh, subsequently sought service at the court of Ranjit Singh, distinguished himself in later wars, and was appointed as the Governor or Raja of Jammu in 1820. With the help of his able officer, Zorawar Singh, Gulab Singh soon captured Ladakh and Baltistan, regions to the east and north-east of Kashmir.[8] In 1845, the First Anglo-Sikh War broke out, and Gulab Singh "contrived to hold himself aloof till the battle of Sobraon (1846), when he appeared as a useful mediator and the trusted advisor of Sir Henry Lawrence. Two treaties were concluded. By the first the State of Lahore (i.e. West Punjab) was handed over to the British, as equivalent for (rupees) one crore of indemnity, the hill countries between Beas and Indus; by the second the British made over to Gulab Singh for (Rupees) 75 lakhs all the hilly or mountainous country situated to the east of Indus and west of Ravi" (i.e. the Vale of Kashmir).[8] Soon after Gulab Singh's death in 1857, his son, Ranbir Singh, added the emirates of Hunza, Gilgit and Nagar to the kingdom. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 513 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1110 × 1296 pixel, file size: 457 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is the image of the map North West Frontier Province and Kashmir from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, Oxford University Press... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 513 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1110 × 1296 pixel, file size: 457 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is the image of the map North West Frontier Province and Kashmir from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, Oxford University Press... This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 454 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (539 × 712 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Plate 1 from Recollections of India. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 454 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (539 × 712 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Plate 1 from Recollections of India. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... The Sikh Empire could be defined as early as beginning as early as 1707 starting from the death of Aurangzeb and the downfall of the Mughal Empire. ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Portrait of Gulab Singh Gulab Singh (1792-1857) was the founder and first Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir during the British Raj in India. ... Zorawar Singh Kahluria was born in 1786 in a village of Kahlur State (also called Bilaspur from its capital) in modern Himachal Pradesh. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... Baltistan (Urdu: بلتستان) , also known as بلتیول (Baltiyul) in the Balti language, is a region to the north of Kashmir, bordering Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. ... The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846), resulted in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom by the British East India Company. ... The Battle of Sobraon was fought on February 10, 1846 between British forces and the Sikhs. ... Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence (June 28, 1806 - July 4, 1857) was a British soldier and statesman in British India, who died defending Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... The Rupee (₨ or Rs. ... A crore is a unit in the Indian numbering system, still widely used in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. ... Beas is a small town in the Punjab state of India, located between the cities of Amritsar and Jalandhar along the banks of the river Beas. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... The Rupee (₨ or Rs. ... A lakh (also spelled lac) is a unit in a traditional number system, still widely used in India, equal to a hundred thousand. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... Ravi may refer to: Ravi, a Hindu solar deity. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Rambir Singh(Aug 1830-12 Sept 1885)GCSI, CIE was the son of Gulab Singh, Maharaja of Kashmir. ... This page is about the town of Hunza in northern areas of Pakistan. ... An afternoon scene in Gilgit Gilgit (Urdu: گلگت) is the capital city of Northern Areas, Pakistan. ... The ancient pre-Akkadian and Akkadian city of Nagar on the Khabur River in northeastern Syria, is now represented by the mound named Tell Brak, 40m high, one of the tallest archaeological mounds in the Middle East, and about a kilometer long, the remains of one of the largest urban...


Ranbir Singh's grandson Hari Singh, who had ascended the throne of Kashmir in 1925, was the reigning monarch in 1947 at the conclusion of British rule in the subcontinent. As a part of the partition process, both countries had agreed that the rulers of princely states would be given the right to opt for either Pakistan or India or—in special cases—to remain independent. In 1947, Kashmir's population "was 77 per cent Muslim and it shared a boundary with Pakistan. On 20 October Pakistan violating the Stand-Still agreement invaded Jammu & Kashmir. Initially the Maharaja fought back but on 27 October appealed to Mountbatten[9] for assistance, and the Governor-General agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India."[10] Once the papers of accession to India were signed, "Indian soldiers entered Kashmir but they got the order just to stop any further occupation but they were not allowed to drive out the invaders from the state. India took the matter to the United Nations. The UN resolution asked Pakistan to vacate the areas it has occupied and asked India to assist the U.N. Plebiscite Commission to organize a plebiscite to determine the will of the people. Pakistan has refused to vacate the occupied areas. In course of time relations between India and Pakistan soured for many other reasons,[10] and eventually led to three more wars in Kashmir in 1965, Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 and 1999. India has control of 60 percent of the area of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir; Pakistan controls 30 percent of the region, the Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir and China has occupied 10 percent of the state in 1962. According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Although there was a clear Muslim majority in Kashmir before the 1947 partition and its economic, cultural, and geographic contiguity with the Muslim-majority area of the Punjab (in Pakistan) could be convincingly demonstrated, the political developments during and after the partition resulted in a division of the region. Pakistan was left with territory that, although basically Muslim in character, was thinly populated, relatively inaccessible, and economically underdeveloped. The largest Muslim group, situated in the Vale of Kashmir and estimated to number more than half the population of the entire region, lay in Indian-administered territory, with its former outlets via the Jhelum valley route blocked."[11] Hari Singh was the last maharaja of the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir. ... This article is under construction. ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas George Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900–27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India beneath the Imperial Crown of India on a Union Flag. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War... The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. ... Combatants  India  Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357-500 killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POW.[7] The Kargil War, also known... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... This article is about the area administered by Pakistan. ...


The eastern region of the erstwhile princely state of Kashmir has also been beset with a boundary dispute. In the late 19th- and early 20th centuries, although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Tibet, Afghanistan and Russia over the northern borders of Kashmir, China never accepted these agreements, and the official Chinese position did not change with the communist takeover in 1949. By the mid-1950s the Chinese army had entered the north-east portion of Ladakh:[11] "By 1956–57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang and western Tibet. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962."[11] China has occupied Aksai Chin since 1962 and, in addition, an adjoining region, the Trans-Karakoram Tract was ceded by Pakistan to China in 1963. China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Political division of Kashmir The Trans-Karakoram Tract is an area of nearly 5,800 sq. ...


For intermittent periods between 1957, when the state approved its own Constitution [12] to the death of Sheikh Abdullah in 1982, the state had alternating spells of stability and discontent. In the late 1980s however, simmering discontent over the high-handed policies of the Union Government[13] and allegations of the rigging of the 1987 assembly elections[14] triggered a violent uprising which was backed by Pakistan[15] . Since then, the region has seen has a prolonged, bloody conflict between militants and the Indian army. Both the militants and the army have been accused of widespread human rights abuses [16][17], including abductions, massacres[18][19], rape [20]and looting. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ...


Politics and government

Main article: Politics of Jammu and Kashmir
Flag of the State of Jammu and Kashmir
Flag of the State of Jammu and Kashmir

The state of Jammu and Kashmir has historically consisted of four political regions. Ladakh towards the east bordering China, Jammu towards the south bordering India and Pakistan, Kashmir Valley towards the east bordering Pakistan and Baltistan areas towards the North bordering China and Pakistan. Baltistan and a part of Kashmir Valley are under Pakistan control. Aksai Chin, claimed by India to be a part of Ladakh, is under Chinese control. While the rest is under Indian control. Pakistan and Indian controlled parts are separated by Line of Control (LOC). Image File history File links Jammu-Kashmir-flag. ... Image File history File links Jammu-Kashmir-flag. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Baltistan (Urdu: بلتستان) , also known as بلتیول (Baltiyul) in the Balti language, is a region to the north of Kashmir, bordering Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. ... China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ...


Like all the states of India, Indian controlled parts of Jammu and Kashmir have a multi-party democratic system of governance. Main political parties include the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference, the Indian National Congress and the Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party (PDP). Presently, the Indian National Congress and its ally PDP hold the maximum number of seats in the Jammu and Kashmir state assembly. Congress leader Ghulam Nabi Azad replaced PDP's Mufti Mohammed Sayeed as the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir in late 2005. Executive President Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories Elections General Elections State Assembly... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... € The Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party is a political party in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Ghulam Nabi Azad (born March 7, 1949 in Jammu and Kashmir, India) is an Indian politician from the Indian National Congress. ... Mufti Mohammad Sayeed (born January 12, 1936) is the chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir since November 2002. ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ...


The Constitution of India grants Jammu and Kashmir special autonomous status as a temporary provision through Article 370. However, some Muslim Kashmiris demand greater autonomy and sovereignty and some even demand independence from India, while some non-Muslims would like to see the state fully integrated into India. A part of Kashmiri Muslims also have inclination towards Pakistan since a large part of Kashmir is under Pakistan Control. There has also been a number of separatist movements, both political and militant, mostly led by hardline Muslim leaders. However, in recent years Kashmiri Muslims have been leaning towards being in India due to economic reasons.[21] The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... Article 370 of the Indian constitution, which is of a temporary nature grants special status to Jammu and Kashmir. ... Languages Kashmiri Religion Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism [4] Related ethnic groups Other Dardic peoples For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation). ... Languages Kashmiri Religion Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism [4] Related ethnic groups Other Dardic peoples For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation). ...


Jammu and Kashmir is the only Indian state that has its own flag. Designed by the Government of India, the state flag of Jammu and Kashmir is the native plough on a red background which is a symbol of labour. The three stripes represent the three administrative divisions of the state, namely Jammu, Vale of Kashmir, and Ladakh.[22] The traditional way: a German farmer works the land with horses and plough. ... The workforce is the labour pool in employment. ...


Geography and climate

Landscape in Ladakh
Landscape in Ladakh

Jammu and Kashmir is home to several valleys such as the Kashmir Valley, Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley, Poonch Valley, Sind Valley and Lidder Valley. The main Kashmir valley is 100 km wide and 15,520.3 km² in area. The Himalayas divide the Kashmir valley from Ladakh while the Pir Panjal range, which encloses the Valley from the west and the south, separates it from the Great Plains of northern India. Along the northeastern flank of the Valley runs the main range of the Himalayas. This densely settled and beautiful valley has an average height of 1,850 meters above sea-level but the surrounding Pir Panjal range has an average elevation of 5,000 meters.


The Jhelum River is the only major Himalayan river which flows through the Kashmir valley. The Indus, Tawi, Ravi and Chenab are the major rivers flowing through the state. Jammu and Kashmir is home to several Himalayan glaciers. With an average altitude of 5753 meters above sea-level, the Siachen Glacier is 70 km long making it the longest Himalayan glacier. The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Tawi is a river that flows through the city of Jammu. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... The Chenab River rises in the Himalayan ranges of Kashmir and flows through the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and the Jech Doabs. ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains along the disputed India-Pakistan border at approximately . ...

Manasbal Lake in Kashmir.
Manasbal Lake in Kashmir.

The climate of Jammu and Kashmir varies greatly owing to its rugged topography. In the south around Jammu, the climate is typically monsoonal, though the region is sufficiently far west to average 40 to 50 mm (1.6 to 2 inches) of rain per months between January and March. In the hot season, Jammu city is very hot and can reach up to 40°C (104°F) whilst in July and August, very heavy though erratic rainfall occurs with monthly extremes of up to 650 millimetres (25.5 inches). In September, rainfall declines, and by October conditions are hot but extremely dry, with minimal rainfall and temperatures of around 29°C (84°F). Image File history File links Manasbal. ... Image File history File links Manasbal. ...


Across from the Pir Panjal range, the South Asian monsoon is no longer a factor and most precipitation falls in the spring from southwest cloudbands. Because of its closeness to the Arabian Sea, Srinagar receives as much as 25 inches (635 millimetres) of rain from this source, with the wettest months being March to May with around 85 millimetres (3.3 inches) per month. Across from the main Himalaya Range, even the southwest cloudbands break up and the climate of Ladakh and Zanskar is extremely dry and cold. Annual precipitation is only around 100 mm (4 inches) per year and humidity is very low. This region, almost all above 3,000 metres (9,750 feet) above sea level and winters are extremely cold. In Zanskar, the average January temperature is -20°C (-4°F) with extremes as low as -40°C (-40°F). All the rivers freeze over and locals actually do river crossings during this period because their high levels from glacier melt in summer inhibits crossing. In summer in Ladakh and Zanskar, days are typically a warm 20°C (68°F) but with the low humidity and thin air nights can still be cold. The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia...


Economy

Jammu and Kashmir's mountainous landscape and extreme weather conditions have made construction of highways across the state extremely difficult.
Jammu and Kashmir's mountainous landscape and extreme weather conditions have made construction of highways across the state extremely difficult.
Road-side truck stop in Ladakh.
Tourism forms an integral part of the state's economy. Shown here is the Shalimar Gardens. In a famous incident, a Persian Emperor claimed it to be a paradise on Earth.
Tourism forms an integral part of the state's economy. Shown here is the Shalimar Gardens. In a famous incident, a Persian Emperor claimed it to be a paradise on Earth.

Jammu and Kashmir's economy is mostly dependent on farming, animal husbandry and tourism.[23] The Kashmir valley is known for its sericulture, cold water fisheries as well as agricultural produce like apples, pears and many temperate fruits as well as nuts. Wood from Kashmir is used to make high-quality cricket bats, popularly known as Kashmir Willow. Kashmiri saffron is also very famous and brings the state a handsome amount of foreign exchange. Every year, thousands of Hindu pilgrims visit holy shrines of Vaishno Devi and Amarnath which has had significant impact on the state's economy.[24] Though small, the manufacturing and services sector is growing rapidly, especially in the Jammu division. In recent years, several consumer goods companies have opened manufacturing units in the region. The union and state government have planned several industrial parks and special economic zones in Jammu and Kashmir.[25][26] However, industrial development in the state faces several major constraints including extreme mountainous landscape and power shortage.[27] In an attempt to improve the infrastructure in the state, the Indian government has commenced work on the ambitious Kashmir Railway project which is expected to cost more than US$4 billion. The Jammu & Kashmir Bank, which is listed as a S&P CNX 500 conglomerate, is based in the state. It reported a gross income of INR 18,394 million for 2005. Before insurgency intensified in 1989, tourism formed an important part of the Kashmiri economy. The tourism economy in the Kashmir valley was worst hit. However, the holy shrines of Jammu and the Buddhist monasteries of Ladakh continue to remain popular pilgrimage and tourism destinations. Tourism in the Kashmir valley has rebounded somewhat in recent years, with Gulmarg emerging as one of the most popular ski resort destinations in India. Gulmarg is also home to the world's highest green golf course.[28] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1080 × 720 pixel, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: Babasteve File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1080 × 720 pixel, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: Babasteve File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1093x720, 92 KB) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1093x720, 92 KB) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The gardens were the inspiration for other gardens of the same name, notably the Shalimar Gardens (Lahore). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Sericulture is the rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Saffron (disambiguation). ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... Vaishno Devi Mandir (Hindi: ) is one of the holiest Hindu temples dedicated to Shakti, located in the hill of Vaishno Devi, Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Amarnath is one of the most famous of Hindu temples, dedicated to Lord Shiva, located in Jammu and Kashmir, Republic of India. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic laws different from a countrys typical economic laws. ... India is undertaking one of its most challenging railway projects ever by building a line to connect Kashmir with the Himalayan foothills. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Jammu & Kashmir Bank was founded on October 1,1938 and it commenced business from July 4, 1939. ... The S&P CNX 500 is India’s first broad-based benchmark of the Indian capital market for comparing portfolio returns vis-a-vis market returns. ... INR may stand for: International normalized ratio, a laboratory test of blood coagulation the currency code for the Indian Rupee the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences the US Department of States Bureau of Intelligence and Research This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Tourist redirects here. ... , Gulmarg (or Meadow of Flowers) is a town and a notified area committee in Baramula district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... St. ... This article is about the sport of golf. ...

Year Gross State Domestic Product (in million INR)
1980 11,860
1985 22,560
1990 36,140
1995 80,970
2000 147,500
2006 539,850
Brief Facts About Jammu and Kashmir
Agricultural Exports apples, barley, cherries, corn, millet, oranges, rice, peaches, pears, saffrom, sorghum, vegetables, and wheat.
Manufactured Exports handicrafts, rugs, and shawls.

INR may stand for: International normalized ratio, a laboratory test of blood coagulation the currency code for the Indian Rupee the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences the US Department of States Bureau of Intelligence and Research This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid...

Demographics

Muslims praying in a mosque in Srinagar.
Muslims praying in a mosque in Srinagar.

Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India that has a Muslim majority population. Though Islam is practiced by about 67% of the population of the state and by 95% of the population of the Kashmir valley,[29] the state has large and vibrant communities of Buddhists, Hindus and Sikhs. In Jammu, Hindus constitute 67% of the population and Muslims 27% and Sikhs, 5%; In Ladakh, Buddhists constitute about 51% of the population, the remaining being Muslims. The people of Ladakh are of Indo-Tibetan origin, while the southern area of Jammu includes many communities tracing their ancestry to the nearby Indian states of Haryana and Punjab, as well as the city of Delhi. In totality, the Muslims constitute 65% of the population, the Hindus, about 30%, the Buddhists, 3% and the Sikhs, 2% of the population.[30] A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For other uses, see Srinagar (disambiguation). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... The Tibetan people are a people living in Tibet and some surrounding areas. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ...


In the 1901 Census of the British Indian Empire, the population of the princely state of Kashmir was 2,905,578. Of these 2,154,695 were Muslims, 689,073 Hindus, 25,828 Sikhs, and 35,047 Buddhists. The Hindus were found mainly in Jammu, where they constituted a little less than 50% of the population.[31] In the Kashmir Valley, the Hindus represented "only 524 in every 10,000 of the population (i.e. 5.24%), and in the frontier wazarats of Ladhakh and Gilgit only 94 out of every 10,000 persons (0.94%)."[31] In the same Census of 1901, in the Kashmir Valley, the total population was recorded to be 1,157,394, of which the Muslim population was 1,083,766, or 93.6% of the population.[31] These percentages have remained fairly stable for the last 100 years.[32] In the 1941 Census of British India, Muslims accounted for 93.6% of the population of the Kashmir Valley and the Hindus constituted 4%.[32] In 2003, the percentage of Muslims in the Kashmir Valley was 95%[29] and those of Hindus 4%; the same year, in Jammu, the percentage of Hindus was 67% and those of Muslims 27%.[29]

Sacred Buddhist festival (Tsechu) at Lamayuru monastery
Sacred Buddhist festival (Tsechu) at Lamayuru monastery

In the same Census of 1901, four divisions were recorded among the Muslims of the princely state: Shaikhs, Saiyids, Mughals, and Pathans. The Shaikhs were the most numerous, with clan names (known as krams) including "Tantre," "Shaikh," "Mantu," "Ganai," "Dar," "Damar," "Lon" etc.[31] The Saiyids, it was recorded "could be divided into those who follow the profession of religion and those who have taken to agriculture and other pursuits. Their kram name is "Mir." While a Saiyid retains his saintly profession Mir is a prefix; if he has taken to agriculture, Mir is an affix to his name."[31] The Mughals who were not numerous were recorded to have kram names like "Mir" (a corruption of "Mirza"), "Beg," "Bandi," "Bach," and "Ashaye." Finally, it was recorded that the Pathans "who are more numerous than the Mughals, ... are found chiefly in the south-west of the valley, where Pathan colonies have from time to time been founded. The most interesting of these colonies is that of Kuki-Khel Afridis at Dranghaihama, who retain all the old customs and speak Pashtu."[31] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (870x1024, 681 KB) http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (870x1024, 681 KB) http://www. ... Shaikh (Arabic: شيخ ),(also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning elder of tribe, lord or a revered old man. ... For the Lost character, please see Sayid Jarrah Sayyid () (plural Saadah) is an honorific title that is given to males accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, who were the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun (Persian: پختون) (Urdu: پشتون ), or Pathan) or ethnic Afghans[4] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...


The Hindu population of Kashmir Valley in 1901 was recorded to be 60,641.[31] Among the Hindus of Jammu province, who numbered 626,177 (or 90.87% of the Hindu population of the princely state), the most important castes recorded in the census were "Brahmans (186,000), the Rajputs (167,000), the Khattris (48,000) and the Thakkars (93,000)."[31] According to political scientist Alexander Evans, approximately 95% of the total population of 160,000-170,000 of Kashmiri Brahmins, also called Kashmiri Pandits, (i.e. approximately 150,000 to 160,000) left the Kashmir Valley in 1990 as militancy engulfed the state.[33] According to an estimate by the Central Intelligence Agency, about 300,000 Kashmiri Pandits from the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir have been internally displaced due to the ongoing violence.[34] Note that the word Brahmin is also known as Brahman in English due to some translation issues between the Upanishads (Hindu Holy Texts) and modern English* Brahmin, in Hinduism, traditionally refers to the priestly caste or a member of this caste in the Hindu caste system. ... A Rajput (possibly from Sanskrit rāja-putra, son of a king) is a member of a prominent caste who live throughout northern and central India, primarily in the northwestern state of Rajasthan. ... A Khatri is not a Kshatriya and never was one. ... ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... The Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus) are the original inhabitants of the Valley of Kashmir. ... CIA redirects here. ...


In Jammu and Kashmir, the principal spoken languages are Kashmiri, Urdu, Dogri, Pahari, Balti, Ladakhi, Punjabi, Gojri and Dadri, Kishtwari. However, Kashmiri written in the Sharada script is the official language of the state. Many speakers of these languages use Hindi or English as a second language.[35] Kashmiri (कॉशुर, کٲشُر Koshur) is a Dardic language spoken primarily in the valley of Kashmir, a region situated in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Dogri is an Indic language spoken by some two million people in South Asia, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir but also in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir and elsewhere. ... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang Pahari (or Pahaari) is a general terms for a range of dialects spoken across the Himalayan range, not limited to a single country in the subcontinent. ... Balti can refer to: BălÅ£i - a city and county in Moldavia Balti dynasty - a branch of the ancient Visigoths Balti language - a language spoken in Baltistan in Kashmir Balti - Muslims of Tibetan origin from Baltistan Balti - a style of food devised in Birmingham in England Balti - an eating... The Ladakhi language is the predominant language in the Ladakh region of the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Gojri also known as Gujari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Gujjars of Northern Pakistan and India. ... Dadri is a city and a municipal board in Gautam Buddha Nagar District in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Kashmiri Shaivaite manuscript (17th or 18th century) The Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts, developed from ca. ... -1... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Culture

Chorten in Ladakh
Chorten in Ladakh

Ladakh is famous for its unique Indo-Tibetan culture. Chanting in Sanskrit and Tibetan language forms an integral part of Ladakh's Buddhist lifestyle. Annual masked dance festivals, weaving and archery are an important part of traditional life in Ladakh. Ladakhi food has much in common with Tibetan food, the most prominent foods being thukpa, noodle soup; and tsampa, known in Ladakhi as Ngampe, roasted barley flour. Typical garb includes gonchas of velvet, elaborately embroidered waistcoats and boots, and gonads or hats. People, adorned with gold and silver ornaments and turquoise headgears throng the streets during various Ladakhi festivals. Image File history File links Stupa_Chorten_Ladakh. ... Image File history File links Stupa_Chorten_Ladakh. ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Tibetan Monk churning butter tea Tibetan civilization boasts a rich culture. ... A chant is the rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, either on a single pitch or with a simple notes and often including a great deal of repetition or statis. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... Some Tibetan foods include: Tsampa - a staple bread made from roasted barley flour and butter tea. ... Thukpa (Tibetan: ཐུག་པ་; Wylie: thug pa) is a Tibetan noodle soup, usually served with meat. ... Tsampa (Tibetan: rtsam pa) is a Tibetan staple foodstuff, particularly prominent in the central part of the country. ...

Shikaras are a common feature in lakes and rivers across the Kashmir valley.
Shikaras are a common feature in lakes and rivers across the Kashmir valley.

The Dumhal is a famous dance in the Kashmir valley, performed by men of the Wattal region. The women perform the Rouff, another traditional folk dance. Kashmir has been noted for its fine arts for centuries, including poetry and handicrafts. Shikaras, traditional small wooden boats, and houseboats are a common feature in various lakes and rivers across the Valley. The Indian Constitution does not allow people from regions other than Jammu and Kashmir to purchase land in the state. As a consequence, houseboats became popular among those who were unable to purchase land in the Valley and has now become an integral part of the Kashmiri lifestyle. Kawa, traditional green tea with spices and almond, is consumed all through the day in the chilled winter climate of Kashmir. Most of the buildings in the Valley and Ladakh are made from softwood and is influenced by Indian, Tibetan, and Islamic architecture. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 579 pixelsFull resolution (878 × 636 pixel, file size: 201 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Shikhara on Dal Lake, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 579 pixelsFull resolution (878 × 636 pixel, file size: 201 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Shikhara on Dal Lake, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India. ... Shikhara on Dal Lake, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India. ... Shikhara on Dal Lake, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India. ... A houseboat in Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... Tibetan Monk churning butter tea Young monks woodblock printing, Sera Monastery, Tibet Dragon, Tibet can be seen at the Field Museum Tibetan civilization boasts a rich culture. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ...


Jammu's Dogra culture and tradition is much similar to that of neighbouring Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. Traditional Punjabi festivals such as Lohri and Vaisakhi are celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm throughout the region. After Dogras, Gujjars form the second-largest ethnic group in Jammu. Known for their semi-nomadic lifestyle, Gujjars are also found in large numbers in the Kashmir valley. Similar to Gujjars, Gaddis are primarily herdsmen who hail from the Chamba region in Himachal Pradesh. Gaddis are generally associated with emotive music played on the flute. The Bakkarwalas found both in Jammu and the Vale of Kashmir are wholly nomadic pastoral people who move along the Himalayan slopes in search for pastures for their huge flocks of goats and sheep. This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... Pongal (பொங்கல் in Tamil) is an Indian festival to give thanks for the harvest. ... Vaisakhi (Punjabi: , , also known as Baisakhi) is an ancient harvest festival in Punjab, which also marks beginning of a new solar year, and new harvest season. ... The Gujjar or Gurjar are an ethnic group and caste of the Indian subcontinent. ... For other uses, see Flute (disambiguation). ...


Divisions

River rafting in the Zanskar subdistrict of Kargil.
River rafting in the Zanskar subdistrict of Kargil.
Tso Moriri
Tso Moriri
Indian Army convoy near Poonch.

Jammu and Kashmir consists of three divisions: Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh, and is further divided into 22 districts:[36] Rafting in Brazil. ... Zanskar is a subdistrict or tahsil of the Kargil district, which lies in the eastern half of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... link titleTso Moriri is a pearl-shaped saltwater lake situated at an altitude of 4,510 m about 240 km from Leh in southeast Ladakh. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ...


Jammu region
Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ...

Kashmir Valley region Kathua district is one of 14 administrative districts that comprise the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India. ... Jammu District is a district in Jammu and Kashmir. ... See Samba (disambiguation) for other meanings , Samba is a town and a notified area committee in Jammu district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Udhampur is a district in Jammu and Kashmir. ... Reasi is one of the oldest towns of the J&K State. ... Rajouri town, in Rajouri District, Jammu & Kashmir, India Rajouri is a District in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... District Poonch or Punch popularly known as mini Kashmir, is the smallest in area and the remotest district of Azad Kashmir. ... Doda is a district of Jammu and Kashmir. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Ladakh region Anantnag is a district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in north-western India. ... Pulwama is a district in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Badgam is a town and a notified area committee in Badgam district in the state of Jammu & Kashmir, India. ... Situated at the center of the Kashmir valley, Srinagar is the most populous district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India and is home to the summer capital (Srinagar) of Jammu and Kashmir (The capital moves to Jammu city in the winter). ... Baramulla is a district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in north India. ... Kupwara District is located in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people...

The Siachen Glacier, although under Indian military control, does not lie under the administration of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The town and district of Kargil was a part of Baltistan District before 1947, but is now administratively part of Ladakh in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Leh is one of the two districts located in Ladakh, the other being the Kargil District to the west, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains along the disputed India-Pakistan border at approximately . ...


Education

Pupils of The Druk White Lotus School near Shey.

In 1970, the State Government of Jammu and Kashmir established its own education board and university. Education in the state is divided into primary, middle, high secondary, college and university level. Jammu and Kashmir follows 10+2 pattern for education of children. This is handled by Jammu and Kashmir State Board of School Education (abbreviated as JKBOSE). Various private and public schools are recognized by the board to impart education to students. Board examinations are conducted for students in class VIII, X and XII. In addition there are various Kendriya Vidyalayas (run by the Government of India) and Indian Army schools that also impart secondary school education. These schools follow the Central Board of Secondary Education pattern. Notable higher education or research institutes in Jammu and Kashmir include National Institute of Technology Srinagar, Govt. College of Engineering and Technology of Jammu, and the Government Medical College of Jammu. University-level education is provided by University of Jammu, University of Kashmir, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Islamic University of Science & Technology, and Baba Ghulam Shah Badhshah University. Image File history File links Druk_white_lotus_school. ... Image File history File links Druk_white_lotus_school. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ... Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... CBSE redirects here. ... NIT may stand for any of the following: National Invitation Tournament is a college basketball tournament operated by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. ... University of Jammu was estabilished in 1969 besides the Tawi river. ... Awarded grade A by the NAAC, the University of Kashmir is located on the western side of the beautiful Dal Lake in the city of Srinagar which lies in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India. ... // Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University (SMVDU) is a public university near the town of Karta in the Udhampur District of Jammu and Kashmir in India. ... The Islamic University of Science & Technology is a public university located at Pulwama, Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... // Named after the grate saint Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah, the Baba Ghulam Shah Badhshah University came into existance by the Act of the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly in 2002. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Paradise on Earth - October 4, 2007 - The New York Sun
  2. ^ Mahabharata 7.4.5.
  3. ^ Mahabharata 7/91/39-40.
  4. ^ Asoka, 2001, p 31, R. G. Bhandarkar - Biography & Autobiography; Ancient Indian History , 1988, p 149, Madhavan Arjunan Pillai - History; Ancient Indian Republics: From the Earliest Times to the 6th century A.D, 1976, p 92, Misra, Shivenandan; Purana Index, 1992, p 79, A. B. L. Awasthi.
  5. ^ Mahabharata 7.4.5
  6. ^ Watters, Yuan Chawang, Vol I, p 284.
  7. ^ Kashmir: The Fountainhead of Indian Culture
  8. ^ a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. "Kashmir: History." page 94-95.
  9. ^ Viscount Louis Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of British India, stayed on to serve as the first Governor-General of the Union of India from 1947 to 1948.
  10. ^ a b Stein, Burton. 1998. A History of India. Oxford University Press. 432 pages. ISBN 0195654463. Page 368.
  11. ^ a b c Kashmir. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 27, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  12. ^ Victoria Schofield, "Kashmir in Conflict", I.B. Tauris, 2000;Pg 94 ISBN 1 86064 545 3
  13. ^ Victoria Schofield, "Kashmir in Conflict", I.B. Tauris, 2000;Pg 137 ISBN 1 86064 545 3
  14. ^ Victoria Schofield, "Kashmir in Conflict", I.B. Tauris, 2000;Pg 137 ISBN 1 86064 545 3
  15. ^ Victoria Schofield, "Kashmir in Conflict", I.B. Tauris, 2000;Pg 210 ISBN 1 86064 545 3
  16. ^ India: "Everyone Lives in Fear": Patterns of Impunity in Jammu and Kashmir: I. Summary. Retrieved on 2008-06-02.
  17. ^ India and Human Rights in Kashmir - The Myth - India Together. Retrieved on 2008-06-02.
  18. ^ Victoria Schofield, "Kashmir in Conflict", I.B. Tauris, 2000;Pg 148, 158 ISBN 1 86064 545 3
  19. ^ India: "Everyone Lives in Fear": Patterns of Impunity in Jammu and Kashmir: VI. Militant Abuses. Retrieved on 2008-06-02.
  20. ^ Kashmir troops held after rape. Retrieved on 2008-06-02.
  21. ^ The Hindu: Article 370 - Law and politics
  22. ^ http://jkgad.nic.in/statutory/Rules-Costitution-of-J&K.pdf
  23. ^ Farooq dreams of taking golf in Kashmir higher @ NewKerala.Com News Channel
  24. ^ Expert panel to study Amarnath yatra impact on Kashmir economy, Kashmir news Kashmir Discussion Forum, Kashmir Tour, Srinagar,Book hotel in Kashmir, Kashmir Bazaar, kashmir SMS, All about kashmir, Kashmir Gifts, Kashmir Websites, Great Kashmiris, kashmir travel forum, forum post, websites on kashmir, kashmiri websites, best website of Kashmir
  25. ^ Jammu & Kashmir Government : Industrial Scenario
  26. ^ Two marketing plazas to be set up in Jammu and Kashmir @ NewKerala.Com News Channel
  27. ^ Daily Times - Leading News Resource of Pakistan
  28. ^ Fairway to Heaven - WSJ.com
  29. ^ a b c BBC. 2003. The Future of Kashmir? In Depth.
  30. ^ Bharat Rakshat: Ethnic identities and political deadlock in Jammu and Kashmir
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. Oxford University Press, Oxford and London. pages 99-102.
  32. ^ a b Rai, Mridu. 2004. Hindu Ruler, Muslim Subjects: Islam and the History of Kashmir. Princeton University Press. 320 pages. ISBN 0691116881. page 37.
  33. ^ Evans, Alexander. 2002. "A departure from history: Kashmiri Pandits, 1990-2001" Contemporary South Asia, 11(1):19-37.
  34. ^ CIA - The World Factbook
  35. ^ Kashmiri: A language of India. Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2007-09-16.
  36. ^ Official website of the state: District Profile

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article relates to the history of Jammu and Kashmir prior to the partition of Pakistan and India in 1947; its history since then is covered in the main article. ... This article is about the Hindu god Kasyapa. ... Rajatarangini of Kalhana is a rare chronicle that gives us a fairly direct insight into how things happened in pre-Islamic India. ... The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Lalitaditya Muktapida was the emperor of Kashmir from 724 to 760. ... Didda was ruler of Kashmir from 980 AD. to 1003 AD., first as a Regent for her son Abhimanyu, and thereafter as sole ruler in her own right. ... Some Muslims believe that connection between Islam and India was established right from the very beginning. ... Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin (King of Kashmir 1423-1474 A.D.) fondly named Badshah, the great king, by his loving subjects and remembered with love and reverence by the posterity even to this day. ... rulers of Indias Delhi sultanate (c. ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ... The Dogras are a Northern Indo-Aryan ethnic group in South Asia. ... The Sikh Empire (from 1801-1849) was formed on the foundations of the Sikh Confederacy by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Portrait of Gulab Singh Gulab Singh (1792-1857) was the founder and first Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir during the British Raj in India. ... Zorawar Singh may refer to: General Zorawar Singh, a general in the army of Maharaja Gulab Singh Sahibzada Zorawar Singh, the third son of Guru Gobind Singh Category: ... Jamwals are Dogra rajputs from J&K. Maharaja Ranjit Singh handed over the reigns of J&K to Gulab Singh Jamwal. ... Belligerents Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi Some Indian civilians. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... All India Kashmir Committee was set up by prominent muslim leaders of India on July 25,1931. ... This article is under construction. ... Hari Singh was the last maharaja of the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir. ... The disputed areas of the region of Kashmir. ... Since both nations achieved independence in August 1947, there have been three major wars and one minor war between India and Pakistan. ... Kashmir : Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Executive President Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories Elections General Elections State Assembly... € The Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party is a political party in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharajah Hari Singh, ruler of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, on October 26, 1947. ... Article 370 of the Indian constitution, which is of a temporary nature grants special status to Jammu and Kashmir. ... The All Parties Hurriyat Conference(APHC) (formed March 10, 1993) is a political front formed as an alliance of 26 political, social and religious organizations in Kashmir. ... 1974 Indira-Sheikh accord was signed by on behalf of Sheikh Abdullah and then Prime Minister ofIndia Indira Gandhi whereby Sheikh became the chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir again after 11 years. ... Shimla Accord (named after Shimla) is a treaty signed between India (Prime Minister Indira Gandhi) and Pakistan (Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto) after their 1971 war. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Karan Singh (1931- ) is an Indian politician, author and diplomat. ... Kashmiriyat (Kashmiri-ness) is the ethno-national and social consciousness and cultural values of the Kashmiri people. ... The historic region of Kashmir, an area disputed by India and Pakistan, encompasses the modern regions of Kashmir, Ladakh and Jammu. ... The Cuisine of Kashmir as we know it today has eveloved over hundres of years. ... Shikhara on Dal Lake, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Basohli, a town of Kathua, is widely known for its paintings called Basohli Paintings. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The trident, symbol and yantra of Parama Shiva, representing the triadic energies of Para, Para-Apara and Apara Shakti Included within the broad umbrella of the various Hindu philosophies, KaÅ›mir Åšaivism is a school of Åšaivism categorized by various scholars as monistic[1] idealism (absolute idealism, theistic monism[2... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Vaishno Devi Mandir (Hindi: ) is one of the holiest Hindu temples dedicated to Shakti, located in the hill of Vaishno Devi, Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Amarnath is one of the most famous of Hindu temples, dedicated to Lord Shiva, located in Jammu and Kashmir, Republic of India. ... , Gulmarg (or Meadow of Flowers) is a town and a notified area committee in Baramula district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Pahalgam is a town and a notified area committee in Anantnag district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Zanskar is a subdistrict or tahsil of the Kargil district, which lies in the eastern half of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Anantnag is a district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in north-western India. ... Baramulla is a district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in north India. ... Badgam is a town and a notified area committee in Badgam district in the state of Jammu & Kashmir, India. ... Doda is a district of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Jammu District is a district in Jammu and Kashmir. ... The town and district of Kargil was a part of Baltistan District before 1947, but is now administratively part of Ladakh in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Kathua district is one of 14 administrative districts that comprise the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India. ... Kupwara District is located in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Leh is one of the two districts located in Ladakh, the other being the Kargil District to the west, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... For Poonch district administered by Pakistan, see Poonch District (AJK). ... Pulwama is a district in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Rajouri town, in Rajouri District, Jammu & Kashmir, India Rajouri is a District in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Situated at the center of the Kashmir valley, Srinagar is the most populous district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India and is home to the summer capital (Srinagar) of Jammu and Kashmir (The capital moves to Jammu city in the winter). ... Udhampur is a district in Jammu and Kashmir. ... , Anantnag (Kashmiri: अनंतनाग, اننتناگ /Anaṁtnāg/, meaning abode of springs and lakes), is a city and a municipality in Anantnag district in the state of Jammu & Kashmir, India. ... , Baramulla is a town in the Baramulla District in the Kashmir valley, about 60 km from the state capital Srinagar. ... , Doda is a town and a notified area committee in Doda district in Jammu & Kashmir. ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Kargil was a part of Gilgit-Baltistan before 1947, but now is a town in the Indian-controlled Kashmir. ... , Kathua is the largest city of the Kathua district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Kupwara is a town and a notified area committee in Kupwara District in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... District Poonch,popularly known as mini Kashmir, is the smallest in area and the remotest district of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Pulwama is a district in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Rajauri is a town and a notified area committee in Rajauri district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... For other uses, see Srinagar (disambiguation). ... Udhampur is a sleepy town used more as a transit point between Jammu and Srinagar when travelling by road (National Highway Number 1A). ... India is undertaking one of its most challenging railway projects ever by building a line to connect Kashmir with the Himalayan foothills. ... The Indian Kashmir barrier is a 550 km (330 mile) separation barrier along the 740 km disputed 1972 Line of Control (or ceasefire line) between Indian and Pakistani controlled Kashmir: Jammu and Kashmir, India and Azad Kashmir, Pakistan; the rest of the Line of Control is too inaccessible for construction... Jammu and Kashmir, India is known as heaven on earth. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... Andhra redirects here. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarhi/Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, IPA: )  , a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... This article is for the Indian state. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झाड़खण्ड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... -1... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , Manipur   (Meiteilon: মনিপুর in Eastern Nagari script, mnipur in Meitei Mayek) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ... , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखण्ड or उत्तराखंड), is a state located in the northern part of India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... , Chandigarh,  (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) also called City Beautiful, is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana, and is a union territory of India. ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Union Territory. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Jammu and Kashmir - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1167 words)
Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with Himachal Pradesh to the south, Pakistan to the west and People's Republic of China to the north and the east.
Jammu and Kashmir's economy is mostly dependent on farming and animal husbandry.
Jammu and Kashmir was a princely state with a Muslim majority ruled by a Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh until 1947.
History of Jammu and Kashmir - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2019 words)
In the Rajatarangini it is stated that the valley of Kashmir was formerly a lake, and that it was drained by the great rishi or sage, Kashyapa, son of Marichi, son of Brahma, by cutting the gap in the hills at Baramulla (Varaha-mula).
Jammu and Kashmir, was a principality lying between the two new independent nations: Republic of India and Islamic Republic of Pakistan which were formed due to the partition of the former British India colony in August 1947.
The ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh, could not decide which country to join and in addition, he nursed fond hopes of remaining the princely ruler of Kashmir, as an independent nation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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