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Encyclopedia > Jameson Raid

The Jameson Raid (December 29, 1895 - January 2, 1896) was a raid on Paul Kruger's Transvaal Republic carried out by Sir Leander Starr Jameson and his Rhodesian and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend of 1895-96. It was intended to trigger an uprising by the primarily British expatriate workers (known as Uitlanders) in the Transvaal but failed to do so. The raid was ineffective and no uprising took place, but it did much to bring about the Second Boer War. December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1895 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Flag of Transvaal The Transvaal (lit. ... An 1895 cartoon of Jameson from Vanity Fair Sir Leander Starr Jameson, Bt (February 9, 1853 – November 26, 1917), also known as Doctor Jim, was a British colonial statesman who was best known for his involvement in the Jameson Raid. ... The Second Boer War, also known as the South African War, was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902. ...


With approximately 30,000 white male Boer voters and potentially 60,000 (white male) Uitlander ones, the Boer government had passed laws to restrict their enfranchisement. This had given rise to considerable discontent amongst the Uitlanders and preparations were made by some to overthrow the Boer government. The objective of the raid was to reach Johannesburg and support the uprising which would take place at the same time. The raid was planned by Cecil Rhodes in mid-1895 but it soon became mired in delays. City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... Cecil Rhodes Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902)(some sources give 3 April for his demise) was an English businessman and the effective founder of the state of Rhodesia (which was named after him). ... 1895 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


As part of the planning, a force had been placed at Pitsani, on the border of the Transvaal, by the order of Rhodes so as to be able to quickly offer support to the Uitlanders when they rose. The force was placed under the control of Leander Starr Jameson, the Administrator General for Matabeleland. The force was around 600 men, about 400 from the Matabeleland Mounted Police and the remainder other volunteers. It was equipped with rifles, six Maxim machine guns, and three light artillery pieces. An 1895 cartoon of Jameson from Vanity Fair Sir Leander Starr Jameson, Bt, KCMG (February 9, 1853 – November 26, 1917), also known as Doctor Jim, was a British colonial statesman who was best known for his involvement in the Jameson Raid. ... The Matabele are a branch of the Zulus who escaped from King Shaka under the leadership of Mzilikazi, a former general in Shakas army. ... A rifle is any long gun which has a rifled barrel. ... An early Maxim gun in operation with the Royal Navy The Maxim gun was the first self-acting machine gun. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ...


Jameson was frustrated by the delays and decided to act on his own. He sent a telegram to Rhodes warning him of his intentions. On December 29, 1895 Jameson's force crossed into the Transvaal and headed for Johannesburg. The British Colonial secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, though sympathetic to the ultimate goals of the Raid, was uncomfortable with the timing of the invasion and remarked that "if this succeeds it will ruin me. I'm going up to London to crush it". He swiftly travelled by train to the Colonial Office, ordering Sir Hercules Robinson, Governor-General of the Cape Colony, to repudiate the actions of Jameson and warned Rhodes that the Company's Charter would be in danger if it was discovered that the Cape Prime Minister was involved in the Raid. Chamberlain therefore instructed local British representatives to call on British colonists not to offer any aid to the raiders. Jameson may refer to: Derived from Old English meaning Son of James and also Celtic etymology. ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1895 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Flag of Transvaal The Transvaal (lit. ... City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... The Right Honourable Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836–2 July 1914) was a British statesman. ... Jameson may refer to: Derived from Old English meaning Son of James and also Celtic etymology. ...


Jameson's force first encountered resistance very early on January 1 when there was a very brief exchange of fire with a Boer outpost. Around noon the Jameson force was around twenty miles further on, at Krugersdorp, where a small force of Boer soldiers had blocked the road to Johannesburg and dug in. Jameson's force spent some hours exchanging fire with the Boers, losing several men and many horses in the skirmish. Towards evening the Jameson force withdrew and turned south-east attempting to flank the Boer force. The Boers tracked the move overnight and on January 2 as the light improved Jameson had reached Doornkop where a substantial Boer force with some artillery was waiting. The tired Jameson raiders exchanged fire with the Boers, losing around thirty men before Jameson realized the position was hopeless and surrendered to Commander Piet Cronjé. The raiders were taken to Pretoria and jail. January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Jameson may refer to: Derived from Old English meaning Son of James and also Celtic etymology. ... Krugersdorp is a mining city in the West Rand of Gauteng, South Africa. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Doornkop is a town which lies southwest of Johannesburg, close to Krugersdorp, in Gauteng Province, South Africa. ... Jameson may refer to: Derived from Old English meaning Son of James and also Celtic etymology. ... General Piet Arnoldus Cronje (1840?-4 February 1911) was a leader of the Zuid Afrika Republics military forces during the Anglo-Boer wars. ... City motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Province Gauteng Mayor Smangaliso Mkhatshwa Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ...


The Boer government later handed the men over to the British for trial. The prisoners were returned to London, and the Transvaal government received considerable compensation from the Company. Dr Jameson was tried in England for leading the raid; during that time he was lionized by the press and London society, where his defeat was widely interpreted as a victory. Jameson was returned to London and was sentenced to 15 months, which he served in Holloway. The Boer government was paid almost £1 million in compensation by the British South Africa Company. London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... HM Prison Holloway is a womens prison in the London Borough of Islington, London, United Kingdom. ... The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes, receiving a royal charter in 1889. ...


Later, Jameson became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony (1904-08) and one of the founders of the Union of South Africa. He was created a baronet in 1911 and returned to England in 1912. On his death in 1917, he was buried next to Rhodes in the Matopos Hills near Bulawayo. Rudyard Kipling's poem, If— , is said to be based on the life of Jameson, and the suffering he endured during the Raid. The Raid is recalled in a number of lines in the poem, including: 'If you can make a heap of all your winnings/And risk it at one turn of pitch and toss/And lose, and start again from your beginnings/ And never breathe a word about your loss...' The correct title of this article is If— . It appears incorrectly here due to technical restrictions. ...


Since Jameson was discreet about the involvement of the British Government, notably Chamberlain, in the Raid, and took the blame for the whole affair, it appears that the words of Kipling's poem, 'If you can keep your head when all about you/Are losing theirs and blaming it on you' were intended to recall the courage and dignity of Jameson's silence. Jameson may refer to: Derived from Old English meaning Son of James and also Celtic etymology. ...


The affair brought Anglo-Boer relations to a dangerous low and the ill feeling was further heated by the "Kruger telegram" from the German Emperor, Kaiser Wilhelm II. It congratulated Paul Kruger on defeating the raid, and also appeared to recognise the Boer republic and offer support. The emperor was already perceived as anti-British, and a naval arms race had started between Germany and Britain. Consequently, the telegram alarmed and angered the British. The Kruger telegram was a message sent by Germanys Kaiser Wilhelm II to Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger, president of the Transvaal on 3 January 1896. ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paul Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul), was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ...


To this day, the events surrounding Leander Starr's involvement in the Jameson Raid, being in general somewhat out of character with his prior history, the rest of his life and successful later political career, remain something of an enigma to historians. In 2002, The Van Riebeck Society published Sir Graham Bower’s Secret History of the Jameson Raid and the South African Crisis, 1895-1902 (Edited by Deryck Schreuder and Jeffrey Butler, Van Riebeeck Society, Cape Town, Second Series No.33), adding to growing historical evidence that the imprisonment and judgement upon the Raiders at the time of their trial was unjust, in view of what has appeared, in later historical analysis, to have been the calculated political manoeuvres by Joseph Chamberlain and his staff to hide his own involvement and knowledge of the Raid. The Right Honourable Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836–2 July 1914) was a British statesman. ...


In his review of Sir Graham Bower’s Secret History ..., Alan Cousins (2004) notes that, 'A number of major themes and concerns emerge' from Bower's history, '... perhaps the most poignant being Bower’s accounts of his being made a scapegoat in the aftermath of the raid: "since a scapegoat was wanted I was willing to serve my country in that capacity".'


Cousins notes of Bower that 'a very clear sense of his rigid code of honour is plain, and a conviction that not only unity, peace and happiness in South Africa, but also the peace of Europe would be endangered if he told the truth. He believed that, as he had given Rhodes his word not to divulge certain private conversations, he had to abide by that, while at the same time he was convinced that it would be very damaging to Britain if he said anything to the parliamentary committee to show the close involvement of Sir Hercules Robinson and Joseph Chamberlain in their disreputable encouragement of those plotting an uprising in Johannesburg.' Main entrance to the medieval city of Rhodes Rhodes, Greek Ρόδος (pron. ... City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ...


Finally, Cousins observes that, '...in his reflections, Bower has a particularly damning judgement on Chamberlain, whom he accuses of ‘brazen lying’ to parliament, and of what amounted to forgery in the documents made public for the inquiry. In the report of the committee, Bower was found culpable of complicity, while no blame was attached to Chamberlain or Robinson. His name was never cleared during his lifetime, and Bower was never reinstated to what he believed should be his proper position in the colonial service: he was, in effect, demoted to the post of colonial secretary in Mauritius. The bitterness and sense of betrayal he felt come through very clearly in his comments.' A Chamberlain is an officer in charge of managing the household of a sovereign. ...


Speculation on the true nature of the behind-the-scenes story of the Jameson Raid has therefore continued for more than a hundred years after the events, and carries on to this day.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jameson Raid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1161 words)
Around noon the Jameson force was around twenty miles further on, at Krugersdorp, where a small force of Boer soldiers had blocked the road to Johannesburg and dug in.
Jameson was returned to London and was sentenced to 15 months, which he served in Holloway.
Later, Jameson became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony (1904-08) and one of the founders of the Union of South Africa.
Leander Starr Jameson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1862 words)
He was born on 9th February, 1853, very early in the morning, of the Jameson family of Edinburgh, the son of R. Jameson, a writer to the signet, and Christian Pringle, daughter of Major General Pringle of Symington.
Robert William and Christian Jameson had twelve children, of whom Leander Starr was the youngest, born at Stranraer on the West Coast of Scotland, great-nephew of Professor Robert Jameson, Regius Professor of Natural History at the University of Edinburgh.
The subsequent Jameson Raid was a debacle, leading to the invading force's surrender.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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