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Encyclopedia > James I of Aragon
James I of Aragon.
James I of Aragon.

James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire; 2 February 120827 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon on all sides: into Valencia to the south, Languedoc to the north, and the Balearic Islands to the east. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia. Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Aragonese redirects here. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 31 - Inferior Swedish forces defeats the invading danes in Battle of Lena. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 21 - Pope Innocent V succeeds Pope Gregory X as the 185th pope. ... Here is a list of the rulers of Aragon, now a region of north-eastern Spain. ... The now-extinct title of Count of Barcelona was, through much of its history, merged with that of King of Aragon; see also List of Aragonese Monarchs. ... The following is a list of lords of Montpellier: William I of Montpellier (d. ... May 30 - Battle of Damme; English fleet under William Longsword destroyes a French fleet off the Belgian port in the first major victory for the fledgling Royal Navy. ... January 21 - Pope Innocent V succeeds Pope Gregory X as the 185th pope. ... Coat of arms of Aragon, 15th century The Crown of Aragon is a term used to refer to the permanent union of multiple titles and states in the hands of the King of Aragon. ... History of Spain Series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History The Aragonese Empire was the regime... For the language called Langue doc, see Occitan language. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain - Visigoths - Al-Andalus - Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Transition to Democracy Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... United arms of Castile and León which Ferdinand first used. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ...


As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a high place among the Spanish kings. James compiled the Libre del Consulat de Mar,[1] which governed maritime trade and helped establish Catalan supremacy in the western Mediterranean. He made Catalan the official language of his domains[2], sponsored Catalan literature and even wrote a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets. Consulate of the Sea, a celebrated collection of maritime customs and ordinances in the Catalan language, published at Barcelona in the latter part of the 15th century (1476). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Catalan-language writers Gabriel Alomar Vicent Andrés Estellés Pere Calders Salvador Espriu i Castelló Joan Fuster Manuel de Pedrolo i Molina J.V. Foix Maria de la Pau Janer Joan Maragall i Gorina Miquel Martí i Pol Jesús Moncada Jesús Montcada i Estruga Quim Monzó Teresa... The Llibre dels fets or Book of Deeds is an autobiographical chronicles of the reign (1213 – 1276) of James the Conqueror, King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona. ...

Contents

Early life and reign until majority

James was born at Montpellier as the only son of Peter II and Mary, heiress of William VIII of Montpellier and Eudokia Komnene. As a child, James was a pawn in the power politics of Provence, where his father was engaged in struggles helping the Cathar heretics of Albi against the Albigensian Crusaders led by Simon IV de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, who were trying to exterminate them. Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son James and Simon's daughter. He entrusted the boy to be educated in Montfort's care in 1211, but was soon forced to take up arms against him, dying at the Battle of Muret on 12 September 1213. Montfort would willingly have used James as a means of extending his own power had not the Aragonese and Catalans appealed to Pope Innocent III, who insisted that Montfort surrender him. James was handed over, at Carcassonne, in May or June 1214, to the papal legate Peter of Benevento. Montpellier (Occitan Montpelhièr) is a city in the south of France. ... Peter II of Aragon (1174 – September 12, 1213), surnamed the Catholic, was the king of Aragon (as Pedro II) and count of Barcelona (as Pere I) from 1196 to 1213. ... {{}} ... William VIII of Montpellier was the son of William VII. He married Eudoxie or Eudokia Komnene, niece of the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos. ... Eudokia Komnene or Eudocia Comnena (Greek: Ευδοκία Κομνηνή, Eudokia Komnēnē), (c. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... Albi is a town and commune in southern France. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, also Simon IV de Montfort (1160 – June 25, 1218) was a French nobleman who took part in the Fourth Crusade (1202 - 1204) and was a prominent leader of the Albigensian Crusade. ... The Earl of Leicester was created in the 12th century as a title in the Peerage of England (title now extinct), and is currently a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, created in 1837. ... // Events The oldest extant double entry bookkeeping record dates from 1211 Canons regular of the Order of the Holy Cross founded September 14 1211 Troops led by Estonian resistance fighter Lembitu of Lehola destroy a garrison of missionaries in the historical Estonian region of Sakala and raid the Russian town... <nowiki>[1]</nowiki> The Battle of Muret: illustration from the == [[ == Grandes Chroniques de France]] At the Battle of Muret == on September 12, [[1213 == ]] the Crusading army of Simon IV de Montfort defeated the Aragonese and Catalan forces of Peter II of Aragon, at Muret near Toulouse. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 30 - Battle of Damme; English fleet under William Longsword destroyes a French fleet off the Belgian port in the first major victory for the fledgling Royal Navy. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... For other uses, see Carcassonne (disambiguation). ... Events Simon Apulia becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... Peter of Benevento[1] (died c. ...


James was then sent to Monzón, where he was entrusted to the care of William of Montredon, the head of the Knights Templar in Spain and Provence; the regency meanwhile fell to his great uncle Sancho, Count of Roussillon, and his son, the king's cousin, Nuño. The kingdom was given over to confusion until, in 1217, the Templars and some of the more loyal nobles brought the young king to Zaragoza.[3] The Aragonese village of Monzón is have around 16. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... Sancho (1161 – 1223) was the count of Cerdanya from 1168, Provence from 1181 to 1185, and Roussillon from 1185. ... Seal of Nuño with the arms of Aragón and those of Lara displayed. ... April 9 - Peter of Courtenay crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III May 20 - First Barons War, royalist victory at Lincoln. ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ...


In 1221, he was married to Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. The next six years of his reign were full of rebellions on the part of the nobles. By the Peace of Alcalá of 31 March 1227, the nobles and the king came to terms.[4] // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor ChÅ«kyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... Alfonso VIII, centre, and Queen Eleanor, left. ... Queen Leonora (October 13, 1162 – October 31, 1214), was born as Princess Eleanor of England (and Aquitaine) and became Leonora, Queen of Castile as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ...


Acquisition of Urgell

In 1228, James faced the sternest opposition from a vassal yet. Guerau de Cabrera had occupied the County of Urgell in opposition to Aurembiax, the heiress of Ermengol VIII, who had died without sons in 1208. While Aurembiax' mother, Elvira, had made herself a protegée of James' father, on her death (1220), Guerao had occupied the county and displaced Aurembiax, claiming that a woman could not inherit. Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... Urgell (Spanish: Urgel) is one of the historical Catalan counties, bordering on the counties of Pallars and Cerdanya. ... Aurembiaix or Aurembiax (1196 – 1231) was the Countess of Urgell from 1208, the last of her dynasty. ... Ermengol or Armengol VIII (1158 – 1208), known as el de Sant Hilari, was the Count of Urgell from 1184 to his death. ... January 31 - Inferior Swedish forces defeats the invading danes in Battle of Lena. ... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope...


James intervened on behalf of Aurembiax, whom he owed protection. He bought Guerau off and allowed Aurembiax to reclaim her territory, which she did at Lleida, probably also becoming one of James' earliest mistresses.[5] She surrendered Lleida to James and agreed to hold Urgell in fief from him. On her death in 1231, James exchanged the Balearic Islands for Urgell with her widower, Peter of Portugal. Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Lleida (Catalan) Spanish name Lérida Founded 6th century BC Postal code 25XXX Website http://www. ... // Events Ardengus becomes bishop of Florence. ... Peter, Count of Urgell (Spanish and Port. ...


Relations with France and Navarre

James I of Aragon.

From 1230 to 1232, James negotiated with Sancho VII of Navarre, who desired his help against his nephew and closest living male relative, Theobald IV of Champagne. James and Sancho negotiated a treaty whereby James would inherit Navarre on the old Sancho's death, but when this did occur, the Navarrese nobless instead elevated Theobald to the throne (1234), and James disputed it. Pope Gregory IX was required to intervene.[6] In the end, James accepted Theobald's succession. Image File history File links JaumeI.jpg This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Events Kingdom of Leon unites with the Kingdom of Castile. ... // Canonization of Saint Anthony of Padua, patron of lost items Pope Gregory IX driven from Rome by a revolt, taking refuge at Anagni First edition of Tripitaka Koreana destroyed by Mongol invaders Battle of Agridi 15 June 1232 Arnolfo di Cambio, Florentine architect (died 1310) Manfred of Sicily (approximate date... Sancho in stained glass in the church at Roncesvalles. ... Theobald IV of Champagne (1201–1253), known as the Troubadour, the Chansonnier, and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne and the King of Navarre from 1235. ... This article is about the year 1234. ... Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino dei Conti, was pope from 1227 to August 22, 1241. ...


James endeavoured to form a state straddling the Pyrenees, to counterbalance the power of France north of the Loire. As with the much earlier Visigothic attempt, this policy was victim to physical, cultural, and political obstacles. As in the case of Navarre, he was too wise to launch into perilous adventures. By the Treaty of Corbeil, signed in May 1258, he frankly withdrew from conflict with Louis IX of France and was content with the recognition of his position, and the surrender of antiquated and illusory French claims to the overlordship of Catalonia. Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... The Loire River (pronounced in French), the longest river in France with a length of just over 1000 km, drains an area of 117,000 km², more than a fifth of France. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... The Treaty of Corbeil was an agreement signed on May 11, 1258, in Corbeil (today Corbeil-Essonnes, in the region of Île-de-France) between Louis IX of France and James I of Aragon. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ...


Reconquista

After his false start at uniting Aragon with the Kingdom of Navarre through a scheme of mutual adoption, James turned to the south and the Mediterranean Sea, where he conquered Mallorca on september 10 in 1229 and the rest of the Balearic Islands; Minorca 1232; Ibiza 1235) and where Valencia capitulated 28 September 1238. The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ... “Ebusus” redirects here. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ...


During his remaining two decades after Corbeil, James warred with the Moors in Murcia, on behalf of his son-in-law Alfonso X of Castile. On 26 March 1244, the two monarchs signed the Treaty of Almizra to determine the zones of their expansion into Andalusia so as to prevent squabbling between them. Specifically, it defined the borders of the newly-created Kingdom of Valencia. James signed it on that date, but Alfonso did not affirm it until much later. According to the treaty, all lands south of a line from Biar to Villajoyosa through Busot were reserved for Castile. For other uses, see moor. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Alfonso X and his court. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1244. ... The Treaty of Almizra or Almiçra was the third of a series of three treaties between the Crowns of Aragon and Castile meant to determine the limits of their expansion into Andalusia so as to prevent squabbling between the Christian princes. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... History of Spain Series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History The Aragonese Empire was the regime... View of Biar. ... Villajoyosa or La Vila Joiosa (in Catalan) is a coastal town in the province of Alicante, Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Carmen Starzonek, propert fraudster is still stalking potential buyers in the small Alicanti town in Spain. ...


Crusade of 1269

The "khan of Tartary" (actually the Ilkhan) Abaqa corresponded with James in early 1267, inviting him to join forces with the Mongols and go on Crusade.[7] James sent an ambassador to Abaqa in the person of Jayme Alaric de Perpignan, who returned with a Mongol embassy in 1269.[8] Pope Clement IV tried to dissuade James from Crusading, regarding his moral character as sub-par, and Alfonso X did the same. Nonetheless, James, who was then campaigning in Murcia, made peace with Mohammed I ibn Nasr, the Sultan of Granada, and set about collecting funds for a Crusade. After organising the government for his absence and assembling a fleet at Barcelona in September 1269, he was ready to sail east. The troubadour Olivier lo Templier composed a song praising the voyage and hoping for its success. A storm, however, drove him off course and he landed at Aigues-Mortes. According the the continuator of William of Tyre, he returned via Montpellier por l'amor de sa dame Berenguiere ("for the love his lady Berengaria") and abandoned any further effort at a Crusade. I The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Abaqa Khan reigned from 1265-1282, the son of Hulegu and Oroqina Khatun, a Mongol Christian, was the second Il_Khan emperor in Persia. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Pope Clement IV (Saint-Gilles-du-Gard, November 23, year uncertain – November 29, 1268 in Viterbo), born Gui Faucoi le Gros (English: Guy Foulques the Fat; Italian: Guido il Grosso), was elected Pope February 15, 1265, in a conclave held at Perugia that took four months, while cardinals argued over... This article is about the Spanish city. ... The Nasrid dynasty was the last Muslim dynasty in Spain, founded by Mohammed ben Nasar. ... Ramparts of the Town of Aigues-Mortes, one of the Municipalities of Languedoc. ... William of Tyre (c. ...


James' bastard sons Pedro Fernández and Fernán Sánchez, who had been given command of part of the fleet, did continue on their way to Acre, where they arrived in December. They found that Baibars, the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, had broken his truce with the Kingdom of Jerusalem and was making a demonstration of his military power in front of Acre. During the demonstration, Egyptian troops hidden in the bushes ambushed a returning Frankish force which had been in Galilee. James' sons, initially eager for a fight, changed their minds after this spectacle and returned home via Sicily, where Fernán Sánchez was knighted by Charles of Anjou. The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (Arabic: ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Charles I (March 1227 - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous son of King Louis VIII of France, created Count of Anjou by his elder brother King Louis IX in 1246, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. ...


Patronage of art, learning, and literature

Statue of James I at the Sabatini Gardens in Madrid (J. León, 1753).
Statue of James I at the Sabatini Gardens in Madrid (J. León, 1753).

James built and consecrated the Cathedral of Lleida, which was constructed in a style transitional between Romanesque and Gothic with little influence from Moorish styles.[9] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 332 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (568 × 1024 pixel, file size: 422 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of James I of Aragon, the Conqueror (1208–1276) at the Sabatini Gardens in Madrid (Spain). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 332 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (568 × 1024 pixel, file size: 422 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of James I of Aragon, the Conqueror (1208–1276) at the Sabatini Gardens in Madrid (Spain). ... Sabatini Gardens, ca. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... La Seu Vella. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ...


James was a patron of the University of Montpellier, which owed much of its development to his impetus.[10] He also founded a studium at Valencia in 1245 and received privileges for it from Pope Innocent IV, but it did not develop as splendidly.[11] In 1263, James presided over a debate in Barcelona between the Jewish rabbi Nahmanides and Pablo Christiani, a prominent converso. The University of Montpellier, (Université de Montpellier), is a French university in Montpellier. ... Studium Generale is the old name for a medieval university which was registered as an institution of international excellence by the Holy Roman Empire. ... Events Rebellion against king Sancho II of Portugal in favor of his brother Alphonso. ... Pope Innocent IV (Manarola, 1180/90 – Naples, December 7, 1254), born Sinibaldo de Fieschi, Pope from 1243 to 1254, belonged to the feudal nobility of Liguria, the Fieschi, counts of Lavagna. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Nahmanides (1194 - c. ... Friar Paul Christian (Pablo Christiani) was born to a pious Jewish family wih the name Saul. ... Converso (Spanish and Portuguese for a convert, from Latin conversus, converted, turned around) and its feminine form conversa referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted to Catholicism in Spain and Portugal, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ...


James was the first great sponsor and patron of vernacular Catalan literature. Indeed, he may himself be called "the first of the Catalan prose writers."[12] James wrote or dictated at various stages a chronicle of his own life, Llibre dels fets in Catalan, which is the first self-chronicle of a Christian king. As well as a fine example of autobiography the "Book of Deeds" expresses concepts of the power and purpose of monarchy; examples of loyalty and treachery in the feudal order; the growth of national sentiment based on homeland, language, and culture; and medieval military tactics. The Llibre dels fets or Book of Deeds is an autobiographical chronicles of the reign (1213 – 1276) of James the Conqueror, King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


James also wrote the Libre de la Saviesa or "Book of Wisdom." The book contains proverbs from various authors going back as far as King Solomon and as close to his own time, such as Albert the Great. It even contains maxims from the medieval Arab philosophers and from the Apophthegmata Philosophorum of Honein ben Ishak, which was probably translated at Barcelona during his reign. A Hebrew translator by the name of Jehuda was employed at James's court during this period.[13] It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ... Albertus Magnus (fresco, 1352, Treviso, Italy) Albertus Magnus (1193? - 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a Dominican friar who became famous for his universal knowledge and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


Though James was himself a prose writer and sponsored mostly prose works, he had an appreciation of verse.[14] In consequence of the Albigensian Crusade, many troubadours were forced to flee southern France and many found refuge in Aragon and Catalonia. Notwithstanding his early patronage of poetry, by the influence of his confessor Ramon de Penyafort, James brought the Inquisition into his realm in 1233 to prevent any vernacular translation of the Bible.[15] The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... For other uses, see Troubadour (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Elburg gets its city-rights. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...


Succession

The favour James showed his illegitimate offspring led to protest from the nobles, and to conflicts between his sons legitimate and illegitimate. When one of the latter, Fernán Sánchez, who had behaved with gross ingratitude and treason to his father, was slain by the legitimate son Peter, the old king recorded his grim satisfaction. Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ...


At the close of his life, James divided his states between his sons by Yolanda of Hungary: the aforementioned Peter received the Hispanic possessions on the mainland and James, the Kingdom of Majorca (including the Balearic Islands and the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya) and the Lordship of Montpellier. The division inevitably produced fratricidal conflicts. In 1276, the king fell very ill at Alzira and resigned his crown, intending to retire to the monastery of Poblet, but he died at Valencia on 27 July. Violant of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary, c. ... James I of Aragon. ... Majorca Kings Palace at Perpinyà The Kingdom of Majorca (also Kingdom of Mallorca) was created by James I of Aragon (Jaume I, The Conqueror) as a vassal kingdom of the Kingdom of Aragon. ... Coat of arms of Roussillon - see also senyera Flag of Roussillon Mount Canigó (Canigou) (2785m), a Catalan landmark Roussillon (French: Roussillon, pronounced ; Catalan: Rosselló, pronounced ) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrén... Map of Baixa Cerdanya in Catalonia Cerdanya (French Cerdagne) is one of the historical Catalan counties in the eastern Pyrenees, bordering the county of Alt Urgell. ... Location of Alzira in the comarca of Ribera Alta Alzira (its official and Valencian name; in Spanish: Alcira) is a town and municipality of 43,050 people (2006 estimate) in eastern Spain. ... The Monastery of Santa Maria de Poblet is a Cistercian monastery, founded in 1151, located in the comarca of Conca de Barberà, in Catalonia (Spain). ...


Marriages and children

Aragonese and Valencian Royalty
House of Barcelona

Alfonso II
Children include
   Peter (future Peter II of Aragon)
   Alfonso II, Count of Provence
Peter II
Children include
   James (future James I of Aragon, Valencia and Majorca)
James I
   Peter (future Peter III of Aragon and I of Valencia and Sicily)
   James II of Majorca
   Isabella, Queen of France
Peter III (I of Valencia and Sicily)
Children include
   Alfonso (future Alfonso III of Aragon and I of Valencia)
   James (future James I of Sicily and II of Aragon and Valencia)
   Frederick II of Sicily
   Elizabeth, Queen of Portugal
Alfonso III (I of Valencia)
James II (I of Sicily)
Children include
   Alfonso (future Alfonso IV of Aragon and II of Valencia)
Alfonso IV (II of Valencia)
Children include
   Peter (future Peter IV of Aragon and II of Valencia)
Peter IV (II of Valencia)
Children include
   John (future John I of Aragon and Valencia)
   Martin (future Martin II of Sicily and I of Aragon and Valencia)
   Eleanor, Queen of Castile
Grandchildren include
   Ferdinand (future Ferdinand I of Aragon, Valencia and Sicily)
John I
   Yolande, Queen of France
Martin I (II of Sicily)

James first married, in 1221, Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England. Though he later had the marriage annulled, his one son by her was declared legitimate: The House of Aragón was a medieval dynasty which ruled over various territories in the Western Mediterranean. ... Alfonso II of Aragon Template:House of Aragón Alfonso II (Aragon) or Alfons I (Provence and Barcelona) (1152 – 1196), called the Chaste or the Troubadour, was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona from 1162 until his death. ... Peter II of Aragon (1174 – September 12, 1213), surnamed the Catholic, was the king of Aragon (as Pedro II) and count of Barcelona (as Pere I) from 1196 to 1213. ... Alfonso, Count of Provence (died 1209), was the son of Alfonso II of Aragon and Sancha of Castile. ... Peter II of Aragon (1174 – September 12, 1213), surnamed the Catholic, was the king of Aragon (as Pedro II) and count of Barcelona (as Pere I) from 1196 to 1213. ... Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Majorca used only abroad James II (Catalan: Jaume II) was king of Majorca and Lord of Montpellier from 1243 until 1311. ... Isabella of Aragon Isabella of Aragon (1247 – January 28, 1271), infanta of Aragon, was, by marriage, Queen consort of France in the Middle Ages from 1270 to 1271. ... Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ... Alfons or Alfonso III of Aragon (1265 – June 18, 1291, also Alfons II of Barcelona), surnamed the Liberal, was the king of Aragon and count of Barcelona from 1285 to 1291. ... James II of Aragon James II, King of Aragon (10 August 1267 – 2 November 1327), in Spanish Jaime II, in Aragonese Chaime II, in Catalan Jaume II, also James II of Barcelona, called The Just (Aragonese: Lo Chusto, Catalan: El Just) was the second son of Peter III of Aragon... may refer to: Frederick III of Sicily who technically was Frederick II but used Frederick III Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor who technically was Frederick I of Sicily but the regnal number II was used of him throughout his various realms This human name article is a disambiguation page — a... Elizabeth of Portugal (1271–1336) was queen consort of Portugal and a Saint of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Alfons or Alfonso III of Aragon (1265 – June 18, 1291, also Alfons II of Barcelona), surnamed the Liberal, was the king of Aragon and count of Barcelona from 1285 to 1291. ... James II of Aragon James II, King of Aragon (10 August 1267 – 2 November 1327), in Spanish Jaime II, in Aragonese Chaime II, in Catalan Jaume II, also James II of Barcelona, called The Just (Aragonese: Lo Chusto, Catalan: El Just) was the second son of Peter III of Aragon... Alfonso IV of Aragon, surnamed the Kind (Catalan: Alfons el Benigne) was the king of Aragon and count of Barcelona (as Alfonso III) from 1327 to 1336. ... Alfonso IV of Aragon, surnamed the Kind (Catalan: Alfons el Benigne) was the king of Aragon and count of Barcelona (as Alfonso III) from 1327 to 1336. ... Peter IV of Aragon (1319-1387), king of Aragon (1336-1387), the Ceremonious or el del punyalet (the one of the little dagger). ... Peter IV of Aragon (1319-1387), king of Aragon (1336-1387), the Ceremonious or el del punyalet (the one of the little dagger). ... Template:House of Aragón John I (December 27, 1350 – May 19, 1396), called the Hunter (Juan el Cazador in Castilian, Chuan lo Cazataire in Aragonese and Joan el Descurat in Catalan) or the Lover of Elegance (el Amador de la gentileza in Castilian and lAmador de la Gentilesa... Martin I (1356—1410), the Elder, the Humane, the Ecclesiastic, King of Aragon (1396 - 1410), King of Sicily (1409 - 1410) was the last direct descendant in legitimate male line of Wilfred the Hairy, Count of Barcelona, to rule Aragon. ... Eleanor of Aragon (20 January 1358 – 13 August 1382) was a daughter of King Peter IV of Aragon and his wife Eleanor of Sicily. ... Ferdinand I (of Aragón and Sicily), called The Just (27 November 1380 – 2 April 1416) was King of Aragón and Sicily from 1412 to 1416. ... Template:House of Aragón John I (December 27, 1350 – May 19, 1396), called the Hunter (Juan el Cazador in Castilian, Chuan lo Cazataire in Aragonese and Joan el Descurat in Catalan) or the Lover of Elegance (el Amador de la gentileza in Castilian and lAmador de la Gentilesa... Yolande of Aragon (also known as Jolantha de Aragon and Violant dAragó) was born in Barcelona in 1383, the daughter of John I of Aragon and his wife Yolande of Bar (who was a granddaughter of John II of France (and niece of Charles V of France and Louis... Martin I (1356—1410), the Elder, the Humane, the Ecclesiastic, King of Aragon (1396 - 1410), King of Sicily (1409 - 1410) was the last direct descendant in legitimate male line of Wilfred the Hairy, Count of Barcelona, to rule Aragon. ... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor ChÅ«kyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... Alfonso VIII, centre, and Queen Eleanor, left. ... Queen Leonora (October 13, 1162 – October 31, 1214), was born as Princess Eleanor of England (and Aquitaine) and became Leonora, Queen of Castile as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. ...

  1. Alfonso (1229–1260), married Constance of Montcada, Countess of Bigorre

In 1235, James remarried to Yolanda, daughter of Andrew II of Hungary by his second wife Yolande de Courtenay. She bore him numerous children: Coat of arms of the county of Bigorre The County of Bigorre was a small feudatory of the Duchy of Aquitaine in the ninth through fifteenth centuries. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... Violant of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary, c. ... Andrew II of Hungary with queen Gertrude von Andechs-Meranien Andrew II (Hungarian: András or Endre, Slovak: Ondrej, Croatian: ) (c. ...

  1. Yolanda, also known as Violant, (1236–1301), married Alfonso X of Castile
  2. Constance (1239–1269), married Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena, son of Ferdinand III
  3. Peter (1240–1285), successor in Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia
  4. James (1243–1311), successor in Balearics and Languedoc
  5. Ferdinand (1245–1250)
  6. Sancha (1246–1251)
  7. Isabella (1247–1271), married Philip III of France
  8. Mary (1248–1267), nun
  9. Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo (1250–1279)
  10. Eleanor (born 1251, died young)

James married thirdly Teresa Gil de Vidaure, but only by a private document, and left her when she developed leprosy. Violant or Violante of Aragon, also known as Yolanda of Aragon (b. ... Alfonso X and his court. ... Juan Manuel (Carrion, 1234 - Peñafiel, December 25, 1283, sometimes called only Manuel) was the son of Ferdinand III of Castile and his wife Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen. ... Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Majorca used only abroad James II (Catalan: Jaume II) was king of Majorca and Lord of Montpellier from 1243 until 1311. ... Isabella of Aragon Isabella of Aragon (1247 – January 28, 1271), infanta of Aragon, was, by marriage, Queen consort of France in the Middle Ages from 1270 to 1271. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ...

  1. James (c.1255–1285), lord of Xèrica
  2. Peter (1259–1318), lord of Ayerbe

James also had several lovers, both during and after his marriages, and a few bore him illegitimate sons. Province Castellón Comarca Alto Palancia Demonym  â€¢ Spanish  â€¢ Catalan Jericano/a Xericà/Xericana Postcode 12450 Coordinates Area 78. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


By Blanca d'Antillón:

  1. Ferran Sanchis (or Fernando Sánchez; 1240–1275), baron of Castro

By Berenguela Fernández:

  1. Pedro Fernández, baron of Híjar

By Elvira Sarroca: Híjar is a municipality located in the province of Teruel, Aragon, Spain. ...

  1. Jaume Sarroca (born 1248), Archbishop of Huesca

Notes

  1. ^ Chaytor, 96.
  2. ^ Ibid.
  3. ^ Ibid, 82.
  4. ^ Ibid.
  5. ^ Ibid, 83.
  6. ^ Ibid, 86.
  7. ^ Chaytor, 90.
  8. ^ Runciman, History of the Crusades, pp. 330-332
  9. ^ Ibid, 96.
  10. ^ Ibid.
  11. ^ Ibid.
  12. ^ Ibid, 93.
  13. ^ Ibid.
  14. ^ Ibid, 94.
  15. ^ Ibid.

References

External links

Preceded by
Peter II
King of Aragon
1213-1276
Succeeded by
Peter III
Count of Barcelona
1213-1276
Preceded by
New Creation
King of Valencia
12381276
King of Majorca
1231-1276
Succeeded by
James II
Preceded by
Marie
Lord of Montpellier
1219-1276
Peter II of Aragon (1174 – September 12, 1213), surnamed the Catholic, was the king of Aragon (as Pedro II) and count of Barcelona (as Pere I) from 1196 to 1213. ... Here is a list of the rulers of Aragon, now a region of north-eastern Spain. ... May 30 - Battle of Damme; English fleet under William Longsword destroyes a French fleet off the Belgian port in the first major victory for the fledgling Royal Navy. ... January 21 - Pope Innocent V succeeds Pope Gregory X as the 185th pope. ... Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain - Visigoths - Al-Andalus - Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Transition to Democracy Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History... May 30 - Battle of Damme; English fleet under William Longsword destroyes a French fleet off the Belgian port in the first major victory for the fledgling Royal Navy. ... January 21 - Pope Innocent V succeeds Pope Gregory X as the 185th pope. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... January 21 - Pope Innocent V succeeds Pope Gregory X as the 185th pope. ... Majorca Kings Palace at Perpinyà The Kingdom of Majorca (also Kingdom of Mallorca) was created by James I of Aragon (Jaume I, The Conqueror) as a vassal kingdom of the Kingdom of Aragon. ... // Events Ardengus becomes bishop of Florence. ... January 21 - Pope Innocent V succeeds Pope Gregory X as the 185th pope. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Majorca used only abroad James II (Catalan: Jaume II) was king of Majorca and Lord of Montpellier from 1243 until 1311. ... {{}} ... Lords of Montpellier William I of Montpellier (d. ... // Events Saint Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade The Flag of Denmark fell from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse Ongoing events Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Births Christopher I of Denmark (died 1259) Frederick II of Austria (died 1246) Guillaume de Gisors, supposedly the... January 21 - Pope Innocent V succeeds Pope Gregory X as the 185th pope. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
James I of Aragon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (775 words)
James I of Aragon (Catalan: Jaume I, Spanish: Jaime I) (Montpellier February 2, 1208 July 27, 1276), surnamed the Conqueror, was the king of Aragon, count of Barcelona and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276.
Constanza of Aragon (1239-1269), married Juan Manuel of Castile, son of Ferdinand III of Castile
At the close of his life King James divided his states between his sons by Yolande of Hungary, Peter receiving the Hispanic possessions on the mainland and James, the Kingdom of Majorca (the Balearic Islands and the counties of Roussillon and Cerdagne) and the Lordship of Montpellier, a division which inevitably produced fratricidal conflicts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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