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Encyclopedia > James the Just
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James the Just

Icon of James
Martyr, Adelphotheos
Born unknown
Died 62, Jerusalem
Venerated in All Christianity
Canonized pre-congregation
Feast May 3 (Roman Catholic), May 1 (Anglican), October 23 (Lutheran)
Attributes fuller's club; man holding a book
Controversy James is sometimes identified with James, son of Alphaeus and James the Less. There is disagreement about the exact relationship to Jesus.
Saints Portal

Saint James the Just (יעקב "Holder of the heel; supplanter"; Standard Hebrew Yaʿaqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure in Early Christianity. According to tradition, he was the first bishop or Patriarch of Jerusalem, the author of the Epistle of James in the New Testament, and the first of the Seventy of Luke 10:1–20. Paul of Tarsus in Galatians 2:9 (KJV) characterized James as such: "…James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars…" He is described in the New Testament as a "brother of Jesus" and in the Liturgy of St James as "the brother of God" (Adelphotheos)[2]. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Saint_James_the_Just. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 57 58 59 60 61 - 62 - 63 64 65 66 67 Events A great earthquake damages cities in Calabria including Pompeii. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Icon of St. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... James, son of Alphaeus was one of the Twelve Apostles. ... James the Less is a figure of early Christianity. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... James the Less is a figure of early Christianity. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 57 58 59 60 61 - 62 - 63 64 65 66 67 Events A great earthquake damages cities in Calabria including Pompeii. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The history of Christianity... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about... The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Seventy of the Gospel of Luke 10:1 – 20, though not literally named apostles, were followers that Jesus appointed and sent away (the Greek verb form apostello, not the noun form apostolos). ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... It is generally accepted that Aramaic was the mother tongue of Jesus. ... John the Apostle (Hebrew: Johanan ;Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... Pillars of the Church, in the first Christian century, seems to have referred to the leaders of the Nazarenes, as the Jerusalem Jesus movement was called, principally, the Family of Jesus, later known as the Desposyni, including his bothers James, Joses or Joseph, Simon or Simeon, and Jude or Judas... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... // Overview The Liturgy of Saint James is based on the traditions of the ancient rite of the Early Christian Church at Jerusalem, as the Mystagogic Catecheses of St Cyril of Jerusalem imply. ...


According to some authors, he was son of Mary and Joseph, thus blood-brother of Jesus. Other authors oppose this thesis, since the Biblical use of the Greek word adelphos is not restricted to the literal meaning of a full brother.

Contents

Name

James was called "the Just" because of his ascetic practices, which involved taking Nazarite vows. The name also helps distinguish him from other important figures in early Christianty, such as James, son of Zebedee. A Nazarite or Nazirite, Nazir in Hebrew, was a Jew who took an ascetic vow described in the Book of Numbers at 6:1-21. ... Saint James, son of Zebedee (d. ...


He is sometimes referred to as "James Adelphos", i.e. "James the Brother of Jesus" (Greek : Iάκωβος ο Αδελφόθεος ), based on New Testament descriptions, though different interpretations of his precise relationship to Jesus developed based on Christian beliefs about Mary, the mother of Jesus. Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ...


The English name "James" comes from the same root as the name "Jacob": the Hebrew name "Ya'akov". Ya'akov was first translated into Greek as "Ιakobos" (Iάκωβος), then latinized as "Jacobus", which became Jacomus, and later James.


James' name always appears first in lists of Jesus' alleged brothers. This suggests that James was the eldest of Jesus' brothers.[citation needed] Crossan suggest that he was probably Jesus' older brother.[3] John Dominic Crossan (born Nenagh, Co. ...


Life

The canonical writings of the New Testament, as well as other written sources from the early church, provide some insights into James' life and his role in the early church. The Synoptics mention his name, but nothing else about him, whereas the Gospel of John and early chapters of the Acts of the Apostles do not even mention James. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ...


Acts of the Apostles, in later chapters, provides evidence that James was an important figure in the Christian community of Jerusalem. When Peter, having miraculously escaped from prison, must flee Jerusalem, he asks that James be informed (12:17). When the Christians of Antioch are concerned over whether Gentile Christians need be circumcised to be saved, and they send Paul and Barnabas to confer with the Jerusalem church there, James plays a prominent role in the formulation of the council's decision (15:13ff). Indeed, after Peter and Paul have made their case, it is James who finally delivers what he calls his "judgement" — the original sense is close to "my ruling" — and afterwards, all accept it. James, in other words, is shown in charge of the Jerusalem group.[4] And when Paul arrives in Jerusalem to deliver the money he raised for the faithful there, it is to James that he speaks, and it is James who insists that Paul ritually cleanse himself at Herod's Temple to prove his faith and deny rumors of teaching rebellion against the Torah (21:18ff) (a charge of antinomianism). The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ... It has been variously proposed that male circumcision began as a religious sacrifice, as a rite of passage marking a boys entrance into adulthood, as a form of sympathetic magic to ensure virility, as a means of suppressing sexual pleasure, as an aid to hygiene where regular bathing was... Barnabas was an early Christian mentioned in the New Testament. ... Model of Herods Temple - currently in the Israel Museum View from east to west of the model of Herods Temple Herods Temple in Jerusalem was a massive expansion of the Second Temple along with renovations of the entire Temple Mount. ... “Tora” redirects here. ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ...


Paul further describes James as being one of the persons the risen Christ showed himself to (1 Corinthians 15:3–8); then later in 1 Corinthians, mentions James in a way that suggests James had been married (9:5); and in Galatians, Paul lists James with Cephas (better known as Peter) and John as the three "pillars" of the Church, and who will minister to the "circumcised" (in general Jews and Jewish Proselytes) in Jerusalem, while Paul and his fellows will minister to the "uncircumcised" (in general Gentiles). (2:9, 2:12). These terms (circumcised/uncircumcised) are generally interpreted to mean Jews and Greeks, who were predominant, however it is an oversimplification as 1st century Iudaea Province also had some Jews who no longer circumcised, and some Greeks (called Proselytes or Judaizers) and others such as Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Arabs who had converted to Judaism and were thus circumcised. Paul of Tarsus (b. ... (Redirected from 1 Corinthians) See also: Second Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... Saint Peter, also known as Shimon Keipha Ben-Yonah/Bar-Yonah, Simon Peter, Cephas and Keipha — original name Shimon or Simeon (Acts 15:14) — was one of the Twelve Apostles whom Jesus chose as his original disciples. ... John the Apostle (Hebrew: Johanan ;Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... Proselyte, from the Koine Greek προσήλυτος/proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for stranger, i. ... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea was a Roman province that extended over Judaea (Palestine). ... Judaizers is a pejorative term used by Pauline Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the Law of Moses. ...


In describing James' ascetic lifestyle, Saint Jerome, De Viris Illustribus, quotes Hegesippus' account of James from the fifth book of Hegesippus' lost Commentaries: “Saint Jerome” redirects here. ...

"After the apostles, James the brother of the Lord surnamed the Just was made head of the Church at Jerusalem. Many indeed are called James. This one was holy from his mother's womb. He drank neither wine nor strong drink, ate no flesh, never shaved or anointed himself with ointment or bathed. He alone had the privilege of entering the Holy of Holies, since indeed he did not use woolen vestments but linen and went alone into the temple and prayed in behalf of the people, insomuch that his knees were reputed to have acquired the hardness of camels' knees."[5] A Holy of Holies is the most sacred place within a sacred building. ...

Since it was unlawful for any but the high priest of the temple to enter the Holy of Holies once a year on Yom Kippur, Jerome's quotation from Hegesippus indicates that James was considered a high priest. The Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions suggest this.[6] Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...


Death

According to a passage in Josephus's Jewish Antiquities, (xx.9) "the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James" met his death after the death of the procurator Porcius Festus, yet before Lucceius Albinus took office (Antiquities 20,9) — which has thus been dated to 62. The High Priest Ananus ben Ananus took advantage of this lack of imperial oversight to assemble a Sanhedrin who condemned James "on the charge of breaking the law," then had him executed by stoning. Josephus reports that Ananus' act was widely viewed as little more than judicial murder, and offended a number of "those who were considered the most fair-minded people in the City, and strict in their observance of the Law," who went as far as meeting Albinus as he entered the province to petition him about the matter. In response, King Agrippa replaced Ananus with Jesus, the son of Damneus. This article is part of the Jesus and history series of articles. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 AD/CE)[1], who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[2], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Antiquities of the Jews was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the year A.D. 93. ... Porcius Festus was procurator of Judea from about 58 to 62 AD, succeeding Antonius Felix. ... Lucceius Albinus was the Roman procurator of Judea from AD 62 till 64 and the governor of Mauretania from 64 till 69. ... This page gives the traditional list of High Priests of Israel up to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 AD. The earlier parts of the list are possibly legendary. ... A Sanhedrin (Hebrew: ; Greek: , [1] synedrion, sitting together, hence assembly or council) is an assembly of 23[2] judges Biblically required in every city. ... Stoning, or lapidation, refers to a judicial or non-judicial execution method carried out by an organized group throwing stones or rocks. ...


Though the passage in general is almost universally accepted as original to Josephus, some challenge the identification of the James whom Ananus had executed with James the Just, considering the words, "who was called Christ," a later interpolation. (See Josephus on Jesus.) This article is part of the Jesus and history series of articles. ...


Eusebius, while quoting Josephus' account, also records otherwise lost passages from Hegesippus (see links below), and Clement of Alexandria (Historia Ecclesiae, 2.23). Hegesippus' account varies somewhat from what Josephus reports, and may have been an attempt to reconcile the various accounts by combining them. According to Hegesippus, the scribes and Pharisees came to James for help in putting down Christian beliefs. The record says: Hegesippus (ca 110 A.D. - ca 180), was a Christian chronicler of the early Christian church and writer countering heresies. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew פרושים prushim from פרוש parush, meaning a detached one, that is, one who is separated for a life of purity. ...

They came, therefore, in a body to James, and said: "We entreat thee, restrain the people: for they are gone astray in their opinions about Jesus, as if he were the Christ. We entreat thee to persuade all who have come hither for the day of the passover, concerning Jesus. For we all listen to thy persuasion; since we, as well as all the people, bear thee testimony that thou art just, and showest partiality to none. Do thou, therefore, persuade the people not to entertain erroneous opinions concerning Jesus: for all the people, and we also, listen to thy persuasion. Take thy stand, then, upon the summit of the temple, that from that elevated spot thou mayest be clearly seen, and thy words may be plainly audible to all the people. For, in order to attend the passover, all the tribes have congregated hither, and some of the Gentiles also.[7]


To the scribes' and Pharisees' dismay, James boldly testified that Christ "Himself sitteth in heaven, at the right hand of the Great Power, and shall come on the clouds of heaven." The scribes and pharisees then said to themselves, "We have not done well in procuring this testimony to Jesus. But let us go up and throw him down, that they may be afraid, and not believe him."

Accordingly, the scribes and Pharisees

…threw down the just man… [and] began to stone him: for he was not killed by the fall; but he turned, and kneeled down, and said: "I beseech Thee, Lord God our Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do."


And, while they were thus stoning him to death, one of the priests, the sons of Rechab, the son of Rechabim, to whom testimony is borne by Jeremiah the prophet, began to cry aloud, saying: "Cease, what do ye? The just man is praying for us." But one among them, one of the fullers, took the staff with which he was accustomed to wring out the garments he dyed, and hurled it at the head of the just man.


And so he suffered martyrdom; and they buried him on the spot, and the pillar erected to his memory still remains, close by the temple. This man was a true witness to both Jews and Greeks that Jesus is the Christ.

Vespasian's siege and capture of Jerusalem delayed the selection of Simeon of Jerusalem to succeed James. Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Simeon of Jerusalem, son of Cleophas was the leader of the church of Jerusalem, sometimes called the Jewish Christians, and according to most Christian traditions the second Bishop of Jerusalem. ...


Josephus' account of James' death is more credible because the Acts of Apostles doesn't mention anything about James after the year 60. Josephus, however, does not mention in his writings how James was buried, which makes it hard for scholars to determine what happened to James after his death.


Robert Eisenman argues that the popularity of James and the illegality of his death may have triggered the First Jewish-Roman War from 66 to 73 C.E.[8] Dr. Robert H. Eisenman is a Professor of Middle East Religions and Archaeology and Director of the Institute for the Study of Judeo-Christian Origins at California State University, Long Beach; and Visiting Senior Member of Linacre College, Oxford University. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (years 66–73 CE), sometimes called The...


Influence

The Epistle of James has been traditionally attributed to James the Just. A number of modern Biblical scholars, such as Raymond E. Brown, while admitting the Greek of this epistle is too fluent for someone whose mother tongue is Aramaic, argue that it expresses a number of his ideas, as rewritten either by a scribe or by a follower of James the Just. Other scholars, such as Luke Timothy Johnson and James Adamson, argue that the historical James could have had such fluency in Greek, and could conceivably have authored the Epistle himself. The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


Modern historians of the early Christian churches tend to place James in the tradition of Jewish Christianity; where Paul emphasized faith over observance of Mosaic Law, which he considered a burden, James is thought to have espoused the opposite position which is derogatively called Judaizing. One corpus commonly cited as proof of this are the Recognitions and Homilies of Clement (also known as the Clementine literature), versions of a novel that has been dated to as early as the 2nd century, where James appears as a saintly figure who is assaulted by an unnamed enemy some modern critics think may be Paul. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... Judaize, from the Greek Ioudaizo (ιουδαιζω), means literally to live as a Jew, however it was used primarily in a derogatory sense for Christians who chose to live more in accord with the Jesus described in the Bible, often this meant observing the... Clementine literature (also called Clementia, Pseudo-Clementine Writings, The Preaching of Peter etc. ...


Robert Eisenman has set forth a thesis that James and the observant Christian Jews were marginalized by Paul and the Gentile Christians who followed him, a thesis that has been widely criticized for his recreation of the hostile skirmishes between Jewish and Pauline Christianity, relating his reconstruction to "proto-Christian" elements of the Essenes, as represented in the Dead Sea scrolls. Some of the criticism deconstructs as Pauline apologetics, but Eisenman is equally harsh on the Christians at Jerusalem, whom he portrays as a nationalistic, priestly and xenophobic sect of ultra-legal pietists.[8] Dr. Robert H. Eisenman is a Professor of Middle East Religions and Archaeology and Director of the Institute for the Study of Judeo-Christian Origins at California State University, Long Beach; and Visiting Senior Member of Linacre College, Oxford University. ... The Essenes (sg. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls (Hebrew: מגילות ים המלח) comprise roughly 825-872 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet...


Some scholars, such as Ben Witherington, believe that the conflict between these two positions has been overemphasized and that the two actually held quite similar beliefs. Ben Witherington III is a prominent evangelical Biblical scholar, and popular lecturer on New Testament Studies. ...


Some apocryphal gospels testify to the reverence Jewish followers of Jesus (like the Ebionites) had for James. The Gospel of the Hebrews fragment 21 relates the risen Jesus' appearance to James. The Gospel of Thomas (one of the works included in the Nag Hammadi library), saying 12, relates that the disciples asked Jesus, "We are aware that you will depart from us. Who will be our leader?" Jesus said to him, "No matter where you come [from] it is to James the Just that you shall go, for whose sake heaven and earth have come to exist." In the process of determining the Biblical canon, a large number of works were excluded from the New Testament. ... The Ebionites (from Hebrew; אביונים, Ebyonim, the poor ones) were an early sect of mostly Jewish followers of Jesus, which flourished in the early centuries of the Common Era, one of several ancient Jewish Christian groups that co-existed from the 1st to the 5th century CE in and around the... The Gospel of the Hebrews (see About titles below), is a lost gospel that is only preserved in a few quotations in the Panarion of Epiphanius, a church writer who lived at the end of the 4th century AD, who goes on to say that. ... The Gospel of Thomas is a New Testament-era apocryphon completely preserved in a papyrus Coptic manuscript discovered in 1945 at Nag Hammadi, Egypt. ... The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian Gnostic texts discovered near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. ...


Fragment X of Papias refers to "James the bishop and apostle". Epiphanius' Panarion 29.4 describes James as a Nazirite. Papias (working in the 1st half of the 2nd century) was one of the early leaders of the Christian church, canonized as a saint. ... Epiphanius (clearly manifested) was the name of several early Christian scholars and ecclesiastics: Epiphanius of Salamis, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, died 410, author of Panarion Epiphanius of Constantinople, died 535, Patriarch of Constantinople 520—535 Epiphanius Scholasticus, known only as the assistant of Cassiodorus who compiled the Historiae... A Nazirite or Nazarite, (in Hebrew: נזיר,Nazir), refers to a Jew who took an ascetic vow described in Numbers 6:1-21. ...


The pseudepigraphical First Apocalypse of James associated with James's name mentions many details, some of which may reflect early traditions: he is said to have authority over the twelve Apostles and the early church; this work also adds, somewhat puzzlingly, that James left Jerusalem and fled to Pella before the Roman siege of that city in 70 CE. (Ben Witherington suggests what is meant by this was that James' bones were taken by the early Christians who had fled Jerusalem). Pseudepigrapha (Greek pseudos = false, epi = after, later and grapha = writing (or writings), latterly or falsely attributed, or down right forged works, describes texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded in actuality. ... Introduction The First Apocalypse (which means revelation or vision) of James, part of the New Testament apocrypha, was first discovered amongst 52 other Gnostic Christian texts spread over 13 Codices by an Arab peasant, Mohammad Ali al-Samman, in the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi late in December 1945. ... Location of Pella Pella (Greek Πέλλα) is a city in Greece founded by the ancient Macedonians. ...


The Protevangelion of James (or "Infancy Gospel of James"), a work of the 2nd century, also presents itself as written by James — a sign that his authorship would lend authority — and so do several tractates in the codices found at Nag Hammadi. The Gospel of James is an apocryphal gospel also sometimes known as the Infancy Gospel of James or the Protevangelium of James probably written about 150 AD. The document presents itself as written by James: I, James, wrote this history in Jerusalem. ... Several surviving infancy gospels give an idea of the miracle literature that was created in the early Christian church to satisfy the hunger of early Christians for more detail about the early life of their Savior. ... The town of Nag Hammadi in Egypt Nag Hammâdi (Arabic نجع حمادي; transliterated: Naj Hammādi) (26°03′N 32°15′E), is a town in the middle of Egypt, called Chenoboskion in classical antiquity, about 80 kilometres north-west of Luxor with some 30,000 citizens. ...


Relationship to Jesus

Jesus' "brothers" — James as well as Jude, Simon and Joses — are mentioned in Matthew 13:55, Mark 6:3 and by Paul in Galatians 1:19. Even in the passage in Josephus' Jewish Antiquities (20.9.1) the Jewish historian describes James as "the brother of Jesus who is called Christ," though this passage has been suggested as an interpolation.[citation needed] Jude (alternatively Judas or Judah) is the third of the brothers of Jesus appearing in the New Testament. ... Simon is a common name, from Hebrew שִׁמְעוֹן (Shimon), meaning hearkening or listening.[1]. Simon can refer to: // Simeon II of Bulgaria Simon of Bet-Titta, a Christian martyr Simon of Bet-Parsaje, a martyr of Iran with Mana of Bet-Parsaje Simon of Sudbury Simon, Metropolitan of Moscow Simon... Joses, in Hebrew, means He that forgives. Joses is one of the brothers of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Mark 6:3 and its parallel passage in Matthew 13:54 - 57. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 AD/CE)[1], who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[2], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and...


Paul refers to James, at that time the only prominent Christian James in Jerusalem, as an Apostle. In Galatians 1:18–19, Paul, recounting his conversion, recalls "Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to visit Cephas, and tarried with him fifteen days. But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother." The Twelve Apostles (in Koine Greek απόστολος apostolos [1], someone sent forth/sent out, an emissary) were probably Galilean Jewish men (10 names are Aramaic, 4 names are Greek) chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth by Jesus of Nazareth to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles... It is generally accepted that Aramaic was the mother tongue of Jesus. ...


The relationship of James to Jesus has been rendered problematic to many Christians due to the belief that Jesus Christ was the Son of God, born of a Virgin.


For Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians, the problem was compounded by the developing dogma of the Perpetual Virginity of Mary, the belief that Mary's virginity continued even after the Virgin Birth (not directly stated in the canonic New Testament, but can be interpreted as implying it). “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... The perpetual virginity of Mary is a doctrine of faith of Roman and Eastern Orthodox Catholic Christianity, as well of Islam, stating that Mary, the mother of Jesus, remained an actual virgin, implying both virginal disposition and physical integrity, before, during, and after the birth of Jesus, and thus is... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Full brother

The Mosaic Law advised married couples to be fruitful and have many children, as long as they were not deformed in any way. Assuming Mary and Joseph were devout Jews, one would then prima facie assume that they would have had more children after Mary gave birth to Jesus, thus making James a blood brother of Jesus. This assumes Jesus was the biological son of Joseph, and not miraculously conceived. Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... Look up prima facie in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Half-brother

For proponents of the doctrine of Jesus' virgin birth, the claim that James may have been a full brother of Jesus is unacceptable; at most James and the other brethren of Jesus would have been co-uterine half-brothers. This is the view of most Protestants, who believe Mary and Joseph lived as a normal married couple after the birth of Jesus, as they believe is stated in Matthew 1:25. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Stepbrother

James could also have been the stepbrother of Jesus. If Mary was a lifelong virgin, this would mean that James and and the other "brethren of Jesus" could not have been born of Mary. Joseph would then have had a previous marriage before Mary and already had children (and indeed there is an abiding tradition of portraying Joseph as significantly older than his young wife Mary).


According to this reasoning, James is an older stepbrother of Jesus; indeed all of Jesus' supposed brothers and sisters would have been stepbrothers and sisters rather than full siblings. Indeed, Eusebius of Caesarea reports the tradition that James the Just was the son of Joseph's brother Clopas, and therefore was of the "brethren" (which he interprets as "cousin") of Jesus described in the New Testament. James and his brethren are not called "sons and daughters of Mary the mother of Jesus"; it is argued that they would have been if she was their mother, following Aramaic customs.[9] Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... For other uses, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). ... In the New Testament, Cleophas is the single English rendering of two men, who are in the Greek originalsCleopas, an abbreviated form of Cleopatros, a commonplace Hellenistic name meaning son of a renowned father, and the other Clopas. Cleopas was one of the two disciples to whom the risen...


This belief is endorsed by the Roman Catholic and especially the Eastern Orthodox Churches. It appears in the apocryphal Gospel of James. “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... The Gospel of James, also sometimes known as the Infancy Gospel of James or the Protevangelium of James, is an apocryphal Gospel probably written about AD 150. ...


However, the belief that Joseph was a lifelong virgin alongside Mary is also a Roman Catholic tradition (found in Jerome and Augustine), but this is not dogma; Roman Catholics are not required to believe this, as they are in the case of Mary. Saint-Jérôme, Quebec is a town in Quebec, near Mirabel, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northwest of Montreal along Autoroute des Laurentides. ... St. ... For the film Dogma, see Dogma (film) Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek , plural ) is the established belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization, thought to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ...


Cousin

James could also have been cousin to Jesus, along with the other named "brethren". This is justified by the claim that cousins were also called "brothers" and "sisters" in Jesus' postulated native language, Aramaic; it and Hebrew do not contain a word for "cousin". Also, the Greek words adelphos and adelphe were not restricted to their literal meaning of a full brother or sister in the Bible; nor were their plurals.[9][10] This use is still common in Greece and other Balkan cultures. This assumes that the Middle Eastern authors' usage of Greek reflects their way of speaking.


Being his close blood relatives, James and his kin could have been treated as brothers to Jesus anyway. The tradition of considering cousins as brothers or sisters is still evident in most Eastern cultures; in some languages the term "cousin" does not even exist.


Jerome (died 420) argued vehemently (De Viris Illustribus, "On Illustrious Men") that James was merely a cousin to Jesus, the son of another Mary, the wife of Clopas and "sister" of Mary, the mother of Jesus, in the following manner: For other uses, see 420 (disambiguation). ... Mary of Clopas (Greek: Maria he tou Klopa) was one of various Marys named in the New Testament. ... In the New Testament, Cleophas is the single English rendering of two men, who are in the Greek originalsCleopas, an abbreviated form of Cleopatros, a commonplace Hellenistic name meaning son of a renowned father, and the other Clopas. Cleopas was one of the two disciples to whom the risen... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ...

"James, who is called the brother of the Lord, surnamed the Just, the son of Joseph by another wife, as some think, but, as appears to me, the son of Mary, sister of the mother of our Lord of whom John makes mention in his book..."

Jerome's reference is to the scene of the Crucifixion in John 19:25, where three Marys - the mother of Jesus, the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene - are said to be witnesses. John also mentions the "sister" of the mother of Jesus, often identified with Mary of Clopas due to grammar. Mary of Nazareth and Mary of Clopas also need not be literally sisters, in light of the usage of the said words in Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic.[9]


Mary of Clopas is suggested to be the same as "Mary, the mother of James and Joses" (or "James and Joseph") and the "other Mary" in Jesus' crucifixion and post-resurrection accounts in the Synoptic Gospels. James happens to be the brother of one Joses (in Mark) or Joseph (Matthew).[9][10] In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ...


Jerome's opinion suggests an identification of James the Just with the Apostle James the Less, James son of Alphaeus. This is because Clopas and Alphaeus are thought to be different Greek renderings of the name Halpai.[10] Despite this, some biblical scholars tend to distinguish them. Among the men named James (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew Yaʿaqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ), in the New Testament, whose number may be increased by the variety of epithets and euphemisms applied to them, James son of Alphaeus (or Clopas), is called James the Less or the...


According to this interpretation, James, then, was the son of one Clopas and another Mary. Since this Clopas is according to tradition Joseph of Nazareth's brother (see above) and this Mary is said to be Mary of Nazareth's sister, James could be both Jesus' cousin and stepbrother.[9]


This view of James-as-cousin gained prominence in the Roman Catholic Church, displacing the "stepbrother" view to an extent. Roman Catholics may choose for themselves[9] whether James was a stepbrother or cousin of Jesus, since either or even both could be true. “Catholic Church” redirects here. ...


Vague, but related

Also, Jesus and James could be related in some other way, following the non-literal application of the term adelphos and the Aramaic term for "brother".


Unrelated

Finally, for the sake of completeness, James and Jesus could not have been related at all. Here "brother" merely meant that James and Jesus were close friends and simply called each other "brother".


The ossuary

Main article: James Ossuary The James Ossuary is a sepulchral urn for containing bones, which was found in Israel in 2002 and was claimed to have been the ossuary of James, the brother of Jesus. ...


In the November 2002 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, André Lemaire of the Sorbonne University in Paris, published the report that an ossuary bearing the inscription Ya`aqov bar Yosef akhui Yeshua` ("James son of Joseph brother of Jesus") had been identified belonging to a collector, who quickly turned out to be Oded Golan, a forger posing as a collector. If authentic it would have been the first archaeological proof that Jesus existed aside from the manuscript tradition. The inscription appears to support the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic belief of a stepbrother relationship; but since Mary is not mentioned, James could have been her son anyway. The ossuary was exhibited at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, Canada, late that year; however, on June 18, 2003, the Israeli Antiquities Authority published a report concluding that the inscription is a modern forgery based on their analysis of the patina. Specifically, it appears that the inscription was added recently and made to look old by addition of a chalk solution. Oded Golan has since been arrested and his forgery equipment and partially completed forgeries have been recovered. On December 29, 2004, Golan was indicted in an Israeli court along with three other men — Robert Deutsch, an inscriptions expert who teaches at Haifa University; collector Shlomo Cohen; and antiquities dealer Faiz al-Amaleh. They are accused of being part of a forgery ring that had been operating for more than 20 years. Golan denies the charges against him. The Biblical Archaeology Review (illuminating archaeology and the Bible) is the organ of the non-denominational Bible Archaeology Society which has been combining the excitement of archaeology and the latest in Bible scholarship since 1974 [1]. The Societys founder and editor-in-chief is Hershel Shanks. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Ossuary in Hallstatt (see the article for details). ... Oded Golan (b. ... The existence of Jesus, known by Christians as Jesus Christ (Jesus the Messiah) and by Muslims as Isa, is accepted by the followers of two world religions, Christianity and Islam, on the basis of their respective scriptures - the Bible and the Koran. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... The Royal Ontario Museum, commonly known as the ROM (rhyming with Tom), is a major museum for world culture and natural history in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) (before 1990, the Israel Department of Antiquities) is an independent Israeli governmental authority responsible for enforcing the 1978 Law of Antiquities by regulating excavation and conservation, and by promoting research. ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Recent comparisons[citation needed] of the James Ossuary to the finds of the Jesus Tomb seem to disprove the premise of the IAA’s arguments for the James Ossuary for being a forgery, as an analysis of the chemical compositions of the patinas of both the ossuaries found in the Jesus Tomb and the James Ossuary are found to “match.”


This chemical analysis will be presented as evidence by Oded Golan's defense team in support of his innocence and the authenticity of the James Ossuary.


Notes

  1. ^ James as well as Jude, Simon and Joses — are mentioned in Matthew 13:55, Mark 6:3, and probably Acts 12:17. James alone is mentioned as a brother of Jesus by Paul in Epistle to the Galatians 1:19.
  2. ^ Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, chapter 4, section 29.
  3. ^ John Dominic Crossan. Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography, 1994, ISBN 0-06-061662-8
  4. ^ Though James and not Peter was the first bishop of Jerusalem, Roman Catholics believe the bishop of Jerusalem was not by that fact the head of the Christian church, since the leadership rested in Peter as the "Rock" and "Chief Shepherd". - Mckenzie, John L. The Dictionary of the Bible. "Peter". (Roman Catholic)
  5. ^ Jerome, Letters.
  6. ^ James Priest, Wheaton.
  7. ^ a b Fragments from the Acts of the Church; Concerning the Martyrdom of James, the Brother of the Lord, from Book 5.
  8. ^ a b Eisenman, Robert (1997). James the Brother of Jesus: The Key to Unlocking the Secrets of Early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Viking. ISBN 1842930265. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f Brethren of the Lord, Catholic.
  10. ^ a b c - Catholic Encyclopedia, "The Brethren of the Lord"

Jude (alternatively Judas or Judah) is the third of the brothers of Jesus appearing in the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... Philip Schaff (January 1, 1819-1893), was a Swiss-born, German-educated theologian and a historian of the Christian church, who, after his education, lived and taught in the United States. ... John Dominic Crossan (born Nenagh, Co. ...

External links

Hegesippus (ca 110 A.D. - ca 180), was a Christian chronicler of the early Christian church and writer countering heresies. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

Bibliography

  • Raymond E. Brown. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Doubleday, 1997. ISBN 0-385-24767-2
  • Robert Eisenman. James the Brother of Jesus: The Key to Unlocking the Secrets of Early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls. New York: VikingPenguin, 1997. ISBN 0-670-86932-5
  • John Painter. Just James. Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1997 ISBN 1-57003-174-6
  • Hershel Shanks and Ben Witherington, The Brother of Jesus. New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 2003. ISBN 0-06-055660-9
  • Francis Watson. Paul, Judaism and the Gentiles. Cultural background.
  • Biblical Archaeology Review Articles in various issues in 2004 and 2005 concerning the ossuary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
James and the Expectation of an Eschatological Priest (4299 words)
The final feature of the James material from outside the NT of concern to this study is the position he is said to have held in the leadership of the early Church.
James the son of Alphaeus was another member of the twelve (Matt 10:3; Acts 1:13) who is usually identified with the man called "James the Little" (or "the Less" or "the Younger") in Mark 15:40.
James the relative of Jesus is traditionally identified as the author of the canonical epistle of James.
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