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Encyclopedia > James Wolfe
"Major General Wolfe. Who, at the Expence of his Life, purchas'd immortal Honour for his Country, and planted,with his own Hand, the British Laurel, in the inhospitable Wilds of North America, By the Reduction of Quebec, Septr. 13th. 1759."
"Major General Wolfe.
Who, at the Expence of his Life, purchas'd immortal Honour for his Country, and planted,with his own Hand, the British Laurel, in the inhospitable Wilds of North America, By the Reduction of Quebec, Septr. 13th. 1759."

General James Wolfe (2 January 172713 September 1759) was a British military officer, remembered mainly for his victory over the French in Canada and establishing British rule there. Image File history File links General-james-wolfe. ... Image File history File links General-james-wolfe. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Contents

Birth and early military career

Wolfe was born in Westerham, Kent. In 1745, Wolfe's regiment was recalled to Britain to deal with the Jacobite rising. Wolfe served in Scotland in 1746 as aide-de-camp under General Henry Hawley in the campaign to defeat the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart. In this capacity, Wolfe participated in the Battle of Falkirk and the Battle of Culloden. At Culloden he refused to carry out an order of the Duke of Cumberland to shoot a wounded Highlander by stating that his honour was worth more than his commission. This act may have been a cause for his later popularity among the Royal Highland Fusiliers, whom he would later command. Westerham is a scenic village which is now almost a town. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in the British Isles occurring between 1688 and 1746. ... This article is about the country. ... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ... Henry Hawley (c. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Charles Edward Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788), known in Scots Gaelic as Teàrlach Eideard Stiùbhairt, was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and was commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. ... During the Second Jacobite Rising, the Battle of Falkirk was the last noteworthy Jacobite success. ... Combatants British Army Jacobites Commanders William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender Strength 8,000 ca. ... The Royal Highland Fusiliers (Princess Margarets Own Glasgow and Ayrshire Regiment) was a regular Scottish line infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Scottish Division, and abbreviated as The RHF. The regiment was formed on 20th January 1959 by the then controversial amalgamation of the Royal Scots...


Wolfe returned to Germany and the War of the Austrian Succession, serving under Sir John Mordaunt. He participated in the Battle of Lauffeld, where he was wounded and received an official commendation. In 1748, at just 21 years of age and with service in seven campaigns, Wolfe returned to Britain. There, he returned to Scotland and garrison duty, and a year later was made a major, in which rank he assumed command of the 20th Regiment, stationed at Stirling. In 1750, Wolfe - then 22 - was confirmed as lieutenant colonel of the regiment. During the eight years Wolfe remained in Scotland, he wrote military pamphlets and became proficient in French, as a result of several trips to Paris. He remained on duty in Scotland until being sent to North America in 1758 to serve in the Seven Years War, which had broken out two years earlier. General Sir John Mordaunt, KB (1697 – 23 October 1780) was an English soldier and Whig politician, the son of Lieutenant-General Harry Mordaunt and Margaret Spencer. ... The Battle of Lauffeld took place on July 2, 1747 during the French conquest of the Netherlands (part of the War of the Austrian Succession. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... The Lancashire Fusiliers was a British infantry regiment that was amalgamated with other Fusilier regiments in 1968 to form the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. ... Broad Street at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the 1756–1763 war. ...


Colonial Military Career

In 1756, with the outbreak of open hostilities with France, Wolfe was promoted to colonel and participated in the failed British amphibious assault on Rochefort, a seaport on the French Atlantic coast, a year later. Nonetheless, Wolfe was one of the few military leaders who had distinguished himself in the raid. As a result, Wolfe was brought to the notice of the prime minister, William Pitt, the Elder. Pitt had determined that the best gains in the war were to be made in North America. On 23 January, 1758, James Wolfe was appointed as a brigadier general, and sent with Major General Jeffrey Amherst to lay siege to Fortress of Louisbourg in New France (located in present-day Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia). The French capitulated in June of that year.He also captured New France in 1759 and took the power of France in North America It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ... Rochefort is a commune in western France, a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean. ... William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham PC (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British Whig statesman who achieved his greatest fame as Secretary of State during the Seven Years War (known as the French and Indian War in North America) and who was later Prime Minister of Great... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Jeffrey Amherst, painted by Joshua Reynolds in 1765 Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst (sometimes spelled Geoffrey, or Jeffrey, he himself spelled his name as Jeffery) (January 29, 1717 – August 3, 1797) served as an officer in the British Army. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Fortress of Louisbourg: Siege of 1758. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty...

Wolfe comported himself admirably at Louisbourg, and as a result, Pitt chose him to lead the British assault on Quebec City the following year, with the rank of major general. The British army laid siege to the city for three months. During that time, Wolfe issued a written document, known as Wolfe's Manifesto, to the French-Canadian (Québécois) civilians, as a part of his strategy of psychological intimidation. In March 1759, prior to arriving at Quebec, Wolfe had written to Amherst: "If, by accident in the river, by the enemy’s resistance, by sickness or slaughter in the army, or, from any other cause, we find that Quebec is not likely to fall into our hands (persevering however to the last moment), I propose to set the town on fire with shells, to destroy the harvest, houses and cattle, both above and below, to send off as many Canadians as possible to Europe and to leave famine and desolation behind me; but we must teach these scoundrels to make war in a more gentleman like manner." Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1441, 306 KB) Year 1770 Technique de: Öl auf Leinwand en: Oil on canvas Dimensions de: 151 × 213 cm Current location de: National Gallery of Canada, de: Ottawa Source The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM, 2002. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1441, 306 KB) Year 1770 Technique de: Öl auf Leinwand en: Oil on canvas Dimensions de: 151 × 213 cm Current location de: National Gallery of Canada, de: Ottawa Source The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM, 2002. ... The Death of General Wolfe is a well-known 1770 painting by artist Benjamin West depicting the final moments of General James Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham during the 1759 Battle of Quebec. ... Self Portrait of Benjamin West, ca. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... To the Citizens of Quebec The formidable sea and land armament, which the people of Canada now behold in the heart of their country, is intended by the king, my master, to check the insolence of France, to revenge the insults offered to the British colonies, and totally to deprive... This article is about the use of the term. ...


After an extensive yet unsuccessful shelling of the city, Wolfe then led 200 ships with 9000 soldiers and 18 000 sailors on a very bold and risky amphibious landing at the base of the cliffs west of Quebec along the St. Lawrence River. His army, with two small cannons, scaled the cliffs early on the morning of September 13, 1759, surprising the French under the command of the Marquis de Montcalm, who thought the cliffs would be unclimbable. The French, faced with the possibility that the British would haul more cannons up the cliffs and knock down the city's remaining walls, fought the British on the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. The French were defeated, but Wolfe was shot in the chest and died just as the battle was won. He reportedly heard cries of "They run," and thus died content that the victory had been achieved. The Battle of the Plains of Abraham is notable for causing the deaths of the top military commander on each side: Montcalm died the next day from his wounds. Wolfe's victory at Quebec enabled an assault on the French at Montreal the following year. With the fall of that city, French rule in North America, outside of Louisiana and the tiny islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, came to an end. The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Portrait of Montcalm Image of Montcalm leading his troops by Toronto printer Ralph Clark Stone. ... Combatants Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of France Commanders James Wolfe â€  Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm â€  Strength 4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars 300 militia Casualties 658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded The Battle of the Plains of Abraham was a pivotal battle in the North American theatre... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - Total 365. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Motto: A Mare Labor(Latin) From the Sea, Work[] Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Saint-Pierre Official languages French Government  - President of the General Council Stéphane Artano  - Préfet (Prefect) Yves Fauqueur Collectivité doutre-mera of France   - ceded by the UKe 30 May 1814   - Territoire d...


Wolfe's body was returned to Britain and interred in the family vault in St Alfege Church, Greenwich alongside his father (died in March 1759). St. ...


Character

Wolfe was renowned by his troops for being demanding on himself and on them. Although he was prone to illness, Wolfe was an active and restless figure. Amherst was to report that Wolfe seemed to be everywhere at once. There was a story that when someone in the English Court branded the young Brigadier mad, King George II retorted, "Mad, is he? Then I hope he will bite some of my other generals!" George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ...


Nearly half his forces at Quebec included militiamen from New York, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania. Like most British generals at the time Wolfe tended to look upon them as second-class citizens, not very good soldiers, and recorded his thoughts in his diaries.


Legacy

Statue of Wolfe in Greenwich Park

Wolfe's defeat of the French led to the British capture of the New France department of Canada, and his "hero's death" made him a legend in his homeland. The Wolfe legend led to the famous painting The Death of General Wolfe by Benjamin West, the Anglo-American folk ballad "Brave Wolfe"[1] (sometimes known as "Bold Wolfe"), and the opening line of the patriotic British-Canadian anthem, "The Maple Leaf Forever." Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x800, 180 KB) Summary The statue of General Wolfe in Greenwich Park in London. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x800, 180 KB) Summary The statue of General Wolfe in Greenwich Park in London. ... One of the Royal Parks of London, Greenwich Park is a former deer-park in Greenwich and one of the largest single green spaces in south east London. ... The Death of General Wolfe is a well-known 1770 painting by artist Benjamin West depicting the final moments of General James Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham during the 1759 Battle of Quebec. ... Self Portrait of Benjamin West, ca. ... The Maple Leaf Forever was written by Alexander Muir (1830–1906) in 1867, the year of Canadas Confederation. ...


There is a memorial to Wolfe in Westminster Abbey by Joseph Wilton and a statue of him overlooks the Royal Naval College in Greenwich. A statue also graces the green in his native Westerham, Kent, alongside one of that village's other famous resident, Sir Winston Churchill. Wolfe is buried under the Church of St Alfege, Greenwich, where there are four memorials to him: A replica of his coffin plate in the floor; The Death of Wolfe, a painting completed in 1762 by Edward Peary; a wall tablet; and a stained glass window. In addition the local primary school is named after him. The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Joseph Wilton (16 July 1722 – 1803) was an English sculptor and one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768 (and the Academys third keeper). ... The Old Royal Naval College The Royal Naval College, Greenwich, was a Royal Navy training establishment between 1873 and 1998, in the centre of the Maritime Greenwich World Heritage Site in London. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


In 1761, as a perpetual memorial to Wolfe, George Warde, a friend of Wolfe's from boyhood and the second son of John Warde Esq of Squerryes Court, Westerham, instituted the Wolfe Society, which to this day meets annually in Westerham for the Wolfe Dinner to his "Pious and Immortal Memory"hi 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... George Warde the second son of John Warde Esq of Squerryes Court, Westerham, also know as General George Warde. ... Westerham is a scenic village which is now almost a town. ...


There are several institutions, localities, thoroughfares, and landforms named for him in Canada. Significant monuments to Wolfe in Canada exist on the Plains of Abraham where he fell, and near Parliament Hill in Ottawa. For the hill in London, see Parliament Hill, London. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ...


A senior girls house at the Duke of York's Royal Military School is named for Wolfe, where all houses are named after prominent figures of the military. The Duke of York’s Royal Military School was originally founded in 1801 by Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany son of King George III and Queen Charlotte. ...


External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
General James Wolfe biography (1425 words)
According to the plan of operations for 1759, General Wolfe, whose bravery at Louisburg had gained him great favor, was to ascend the St. Lawrence with a fleet of war-vessels and an army of eight thousand men, as soon as the river should be clear of ice, and lay siege to Quebec.
Wolfe, of a delicate constitution and sensitive nature, had been deeply mortified by the severe check sustained at the Falls of Montmorency, fancying himself disgraced; and these successes of his fellow-commanders in other parts increased his self-upbraiding.
Wolfe was among the first that landed and ascended up the steep and narrow path, where not more than two could go abreast, and which had been broken up by cross-ditches.
James Wolfe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (684 words)
Wolfe was born in Westerham, Kent, England, the son of General Edward Wolfe.
Wolfe fought at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743.
Wolfe fought as a colonel under Jeffrey Amherst at the siege of Louisbourg on June 12, 1758, during the French and Indian War.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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