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Encyclopedia > James Watt
James Watt

Born January 19, 1736(1736-01-19)
Greenock, Firth of Clyde, Scotland
Died August 25, 1819 [1]
Handsworth, Staffordshire, England

James Watt (19 January 173625 August 1819[1]) was a Scottish inventor and engineer whose improvements to the steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution. James Watt may refer to the following people James Watt (1736–1819), Scottish inventor of a revolutionary new steam engine James G. Watt (1938–), former US Secretary of the Interior Jim Watt (1948–), Scottish boxer Jim Watt (1950–), American ice hockey player James Wilfrid Watt (1951-), British diplomat See also... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Mechanical engineering is the application of physical principles to the creation of useful devices, objects and machines. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... For other uses, see Greenock (disambiguation). ... Map of the Firth of Clyde and area The Seamill beach looks south down the outer firth towards southern Arran and Ailsa Craig. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... Handsworth is the name of more than one place. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...

Contents

Biography

James Watt was born on 19 January, 1736 in Greenock, a seaport on the Firth of Clyde. His father was a shipwright, ship owner and contractor, while his mother, Agnes Muirhead, came from a distinguished family and was well educated. Both were Presbyterians and strong Covenanters. For other uses, see Greenock (disambiguation). ... Map of the Firth of Clyde and area The Seamill beach looks south down the outer firth towards southern Arran and Ailsa Craig. ... Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... James VI of Scotland (James I of England) was opposed by the Covenanters in his attempt to bring the Anglican Church into Scotland The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century. ...


Watt attended school irregularly but instead he was mostly schooled at home by his mother. He exhibited great manual dexterity and an aptitude for mathematics, while Latin and Greek left him cold, and he absorbed the legends and lore of the Scottish people. Thomas Edison attended compulsory school for only three months. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Scottish mythology consists of the myths and legends historically told by the people of Scotland. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ...


When he was 18, his mother died and his father's health had begun to fail. Watt travelled to London to study instrument-making for a year, then returned to Scotland – to Glasgow – intent on setting up his own instrument-making business. However, because he had not served at least seven years as an apprentice, the Glasgow Guild of Hammermen (any artisans using hammers) blocked his application, despite there being no other mathematical instrument makers in Scotland. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Captain Nemo and Professor Aronnax contemplating measuring instruments in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea In physics and engineering, measurement is the activity of comparing physical quantities of real-world objects and events. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... For other uses, see Hammer (disambiguation). ...


Watt was saved from this impasse by three professors of the University of Glasgow, who offered him the opportunity to set up a small workshop within the university. It was established in 1758 and one of the professors, the physicist and chemist Joseph Black, became Watt's friend. Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Joseph Black Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. ...


In 1764, Watt married his cousin Margaret Miller, with whom he had five children, two of whom lived to adulthood. She died in childbirth in 1772. In 1777 he married again, to Ann MacGregor, daughter of a Glasgow dye-maker, who survived him. She died in 1832.


Watt had a brother by the name of John. He was shipwrecked when James was 17.


Four years after opening his shop, Watt began to experiment with steam after his friend, Professor John Robison, called his attention to it. At this point Watt had still never seen an operating steam engine, but he tried constructing a model. It failed to work satisfactorily, but he continued his experiments and began to read everything about it he could. He independently discovered the importance of latent heat in understanding the engine, which, unknown to him, Black had famously discovered some years before. He learned that the University owned a model Newcomen engine, but it was in London for repairs. Watt got the university to have it returned, and he made the repairs in 1763. It too just barely worked, and after much experimentation he showed that about 80% of the heat of the steam was consumed in heating the cylinder, because the steam in it was condensed by an injected stream of cold water. His critical insight, to cause the steam to condense in a separate chamber apart from the piston, and to maintain the temperature of the cylinder at the same temperature as the injected steam, came finally in 1765 and he soon had a working model. John Robison (February 4, 1739 - January 30, 1805) was a Scottish physicist and inventor. ... In thermochemistry, latent heat is the amount of energy in the form of heat released or absorbed by a substance during a change of phase (i. ... Diagram of the Newcomen steam engine Thomas Newcomens atmospheric engine, today referred to as a Newcomen steam engine, was the first practical device to harness the power of steam to produce mechanical work. ... Cylinder with piston in a steam engine A cylinder in the central working part of a reciprocating engine, the space in which a piston travels. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ...


Now came a long struggle to produce a full-scale engine. This required more capital, some of which came from Black. More substantial backing came from John Roebuck, the founder of the celebrated Carron Iron Works, near Falkirk, with whom he now formed a partnership. But the principal difficulty was in machining the piston and cylinder. Iron workers of the day were more like blacksmiths than machinists, so the results left much to be desired. Much capital was spent in pursuing the ground-breaking patent, which in those days required an act of parliament. Strapped for resources, Watt was forced to take up employment as a surveyor for eight years. Roebuck went bankrupt, and Matthew Boulton, who owned the Soho foundry works near Birmingham, acquired his patent rights. Watt and Boulton formed a hugely successful partnership (Boulton & Watt), which lasted for the next twenty-five years. This article is about the English inventor. ... The Carron Company was an ironworks established in 1759 on the banks of the River Carron near Falkirk, in Stirlingshire, Scotland. ... Falkirk (An Eaglais Bhreac, the Variagated [or Speckled] Church [presumably referring to a church building built of many-coloured stones]) in Scottish Gaelic, La Chapelle de Fayerie in French) is a town in central Scotland lying to the north west and north east of the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Blacksmith (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ... Matthew Boulton. ... This article is about the area of Birmingham. ... A foundry is a factory which produces castings of metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. ... This article is about the British city. ... The firm of Boulton and Watt, a partnership between Matthew Boulton and James Watt, made steam engines at their Soho Foundry in Smethwick, near Birmingham, England. ...


Watt finally had access to some of the best iron workers in the world. The difficulty of the manufacture of a large cylinder with a tightly fitting piston was solved by John Wilkinson who had developed precision boring techniques for cannon making at Bersham, near Wrexham, North Wales. Finally, in 1776, the first engines were installed and working in commercial enterprises. These first engines were used for pumps and produced only reciprocating motion. Orders began to pour in and for the next five years Watt was very busy installing more engines, mostly in Cornwall for pumping water out of mines. John Iron-Mad Wilkinson (1728 – 1808) was a British industrialist who suggested the use of iron for many roles where other materials had previously been used. ... Bersham Ironworks were large ironworks at Bersham, near Wrexham, North Wales. ... This article is about Wrexham the settlement. ... Approximate extent of North Wales North Wales (known in some archaic texts as Northgalis) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales, bordered to the south by Mid Wales. ...

Steam engine designed by Boulton & Watt. Drawing from 1784.
Steam engine designed by Boulton & Watt. Drawing from 1784.

The field of application of the invention was greatly widened only after Boulton urged Watt to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston to produce rotational power for grinding, weaving and milling. Although a crank seemed the logical and obvious solution to the conversion Watt and Boulton were stymied by a patent for this, whose holder, James Pickard, and associates proposed to cross-license the external condensor. Watt adamantly opposed this and they circumvented the patent by their sun and planet gear in 1781. Look up crank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... James Pickard was an English inventor. ... The sun and planet gear was a method of converting vertical motion to rotary motion and utilised a reciprocating steam engine. ...


Over the next six years, he made a number of other improvements and modifications to the steam engine. A double acting engine, in which the steam acted alternately on the two sides of the piston was one. A throttle valve to control the power of the engine, and a centrifugal governor to keep it from "running away" were very important. He described methods for working the steam expansively. A compound engine, which connected two or more engines was described. Two more patents were granted for these in 1781 and 1782. Numerous other improvements that made for easier manufacture and installation were continually implemented. One of these included the use of the steam indicator which produced an informative plot of the pressure in the cylinder against its volume, which he kept as a trade secret. Another important invention, one of which Watt was most proud of, was the Parallel motion / three-bar linkage which was especially important in double-acting engines as it produced the straight line motion required for the cylinder rod and pump, from the connected rocking beam, whose end moves in a circular arc. This was patented in 1784. These improvements taken together produced an engine which was up to five times as efficient in its use of fuel as the Newcomen engine. A centrifugal governor is a specific type of governor that controls the speed of an engine by regulating the amount of fuel admitted, so as to maintain a near constant speed whatever the load or fuel supply conditions. ... In the technology of the steam engine, the indicator diagram was a device developed by James Watt and his employee John Southern to improve the efficiency of engines. ... A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers. ... The parallel motion was a mechanical linkage invented by James Watt in 1784 for his double-acting steam engine. ... The locking pliers is an example of a four-bar, one degree of freedom mechanical linkage; or a five-bar, two DOF linkage when the adjustment screw is considered. ... In Euclidean geometry, an arc is a closed segment of a differentiable curve in the two-dimensional plane; for example, a circular arc is a segment of a circle. ...


Because of the danger of exploding boilers and the ongoing issues with leaks, Watt was opposed from the first to the use of high pressure steam--all of his engines used steam at very low pressure.


In 1794 the partners established Boulton and Watt to exclusively manufacture steam engines, and this became a large enterprise. By 1824 it had produced 1164 steam engines having a total nominal horsepower of about 26,000.[2] Boulton proved to be an excellent businessman, and both men eventually made fortunes. The firm of Boulton and Watt, a partnership between Matthew Boulton and James Watt, made steam engines at their Soho Foundry in Smethwick, near Birmingham, England. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ...


Method and personality

Watt was an enthusiastic inventor, with a fertile imagination that sometimes got in the way of finishing his works, because he could always see "just one more improvement." He was skilled with his hands, and was also able to perform systematic scientific measurements that could quantify the improvements he made and produce a greater understanding of the phenomenon he was working with.


Watt was a gentleman, greatly respected by other prominent men of the Industrial Revolution. He was an important member of the Lunar Society, and was a much sought after conversationalist and companion, always interested in expanding his horizons. He was a rather poor businessman, and especially hated bargaining and negotiating terms with those who sought to utilize the steam engine. Until he retired, he was always much concerned about his financial affairs, and was something of a worrier. His personal relationships with his friends and partners were always congenial and long-lasting. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The Lunar Society was a discussion club of prominent industrialists, natural philosophers and intellectuals who met regularly between 1765 and 1813 in Birmingham, England. ...


Later years

Watt retired in 1800, the same year that his fundamental patent and partnership with Boulton expired. The famous partnership was transferred to the men's sons, Matthew Boulton and James Watt Jr. Longtime firm engineer William Murdoch was made a partner and the firm prospered. The name Boulton can refer to: Boulton and Watt - Partnership between Matthew Boulton and James Watt Boulton Paul Aircraft Ltd - Aircraft manufacturer. ...


Watt continued to invent other things before and during his semi-retirement. He invented a new method of measuring distances by telescope, a device for copying letters, improvements in the oil lamp, a steam mangle and a machine for copying sculptures. A Norahammars Bruk model 3005-2 mangle from 1934 A mangle is a mechanical laundry aid consisting of two rollers in a sturdy frame, connected by cogs and, in its home version, powered by a hand crank or electrically. ...


He and his second wife travelled to France and Germany, and he purchased an estate in Wales at Doldowlod House, one mile south of Llanwrthwl, which he much improved.


He died on 25 August 1819 at his home "Heathfield" in Handsworth, Staffordshire, England at the age of 83. He was buried on 2 September. Handsworth is an inner city suburb of Birmingham in the West Midlands, England. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Controversy

As with many major inventions, there is some dispute as to whether Watt was the original sole inventor of some of the numerous inventions he patented. There is no dispute, however, that he was the sole inventor of his most important invention, the separate condenser. It was his practice (from around the 1780s) to pre-empt others' ideas which were known to him by filing patents with the intention of securing credit for the invention for himself, and ensuring that no one else was able to practice it. As he states in a letter to Boulton of 17 August 1784: is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

"I have given such descriptions of engines for wheel carriages as I could do in the time and space I could allow myself; but it is very defective and can only serve to keep other people from similar patents".

Some argue that his prohibitions on his employee William Murdoch from working with high pressure steam on his steam road locomotive experiments delayed its development. Watt, with his partner Matthew Boulton, battled against rival engineers such as Jonathan Hornblower who tried to develop engines which did not fall foul of his patents. William Murdoch. ... Jonathan Carter Hornblower (July 5, 1753 - February 23, 1815) was an English pioneer of steam power, the son of Jonathan Hornblower (sic) and brother of Jabez Carter Hornblower, two fellow pioneers. ...


Watt patented the application of the sun and planet gear to steam in 1781 and a steam locomotive in 1784, both of which have strong claims to have been invented by his employee, William Murdoch. Watt himself described the provenance of the invention of the sun and planet gear in a letter to Boulton from Watt dated January 5, 1782: The sun and planet gear was a method of converting vertical motion to rotary motion and utilised a reciprocating steam engine. ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

"I have tried a model of one of my old plans of rotative engines revived and executed by W. M[urdock] and which merits being included in the specification as a fifth method..."

The patent was never contested by Murdoch, who remained an employee of Boulton and Watt for most of his life, and Boulton and Watt's firm continued to use the sun and planet gear in their rotative engines, even long after the patent for the crank expired in 1794.


Legacy

Watt celebrated as a statue in Chamberlain Square, outside Birmingham Central Library
Watt celebrated as a statue in Chamberlain Square, outside Birmingham Central Library

James Watt's improvements to the steam engine transformed the Newcomen engine, which had hardly changed for fifty years, and initiated a series of improvements in generating and applying power, which transformed the world of work, and was a key innovation of the Industrial Revolution. The importance of the invention can hardly be overstated--it gave us the modern world. A key feature of it was that it brought the engine out of the remote coal fields into factories where many mechanics, engineers, and even tinkerers were exposed to its virtues and limitations. It was a platform for generations of inventors to improve. It was clear to many that higher pressures produced in improved boilers would produce engines having even higher efficiency, and would lead to the revolution in transportation that was soon embodied in the locomotive and steamboat. It made possible the construction of new factories that, since they were not dependent on water power, could work the year round, and could be placed almost anywhere. Work was moved out of the cottages, resulting in economies of scale. Capital could work more efficiently, and manufacturing productivity greatly improved. It made possible the cascade of new sorts of machine tools that could be used to produce better machines, including that most remarkable of all of them, the Watt steam engine. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (519x835, 322 KB) Summary James Watt statue, in Chamberlain Square, outside Birmingham Central Library, Birmingham Photo by and copyright Tagishsimon Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: James Watt User:Tagishsimon/Gallery - 2005 photos 1 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (519x835, 322 KB) Summary James Watt statue, in Chamberlain Square, outside Birmingham Central Library, Birmingham Photo by and copyright Tagishsimon Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: James Watt User:Tagishsimon/Gallery - 2005 photos 1 ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Great Western Railway No. ... For other uses, see Steamboat (disambiguation). ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ... The major components of a Watt pumping engine. ...


Of Watt, the English Novelist Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) wrote; "To us, the moment 8:17 A.M. means something - something very important, if it happens to be the starting time of our daily train. To our ancestors, such an odd eccentric instant was without significance - did not even exist. In inventing the locomotive, Watt and Stephenson were part inventors of time." Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ...


Honours

See also: Watt

Watt was a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and the Royal Society of London. He was a member of the Batavian Society, and one of only eight Foreign Associates of the French Academy of Sciences. For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... The Royal Society of Edinburghs Building on the corner of George St. ... ... Louis XIV visiting the Académie in 1671 The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ...


The watt is named after James Watt for his contributions to the development of the steam engine, and was adopted by the Second Congress of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1889 and by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1960 as the unit of power incorporated in the International System of Units (or "SI"). For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... The General Conference on Weights and Measures is the English name of the Conférence générale des poids et mesures (CGPM, never GCWM). ... “SI” redirects here. ...

This SI unit is named after James Watt. As with all SI units whose names are derived from the proper name of a person, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase (W). When an SI unit is spelled out in English, it should always begin with a lowercase letter (watt), except for at the beginning of a sentence or in capitalized material such as a title. Note that "degree Celsius" conforms to this rule because of the "d".
— Based on The International System of Units, section 5.2.

Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ...

Memorials

Watt was buried in the grounds of St. Mary's Church, Handsworth, in Birmingham. Later expansion of the church, over his grave, means that his tomb is now buried inside the church. A statue of him, Boulton and Murdoch is in Birmingham, as are two other statues of him alone, one in Chamberlain Square, the other outside the Law Courts. He is also remembered by the Moonstones and a school is named in his honour, both in Birmingham. An extensive archive of his papers is held at Birmingham Central Library. Matthew Boulton's home, Soho House, is now a museum, commemorating the work of both men. The University of Glasgow's Faculty of Engineering, the oldest in the United Kingdom, (where Watt was a professor) has its headquarters in the James Watt Building, which also houses the department of Mechanical Engineering and the department of Aerospace Engineering. St. ... A gilded bronze statue of Boulton, Watt and Murdoch by William Bloye stood until recently on a plinth of Portland stone, outside the Register Office, in Birmingham, England. ... Chamberlain Square is a public open space in central Birmingham, England, named after Joseph Chamberlain. ... The Moonstones are a set of eight carved memorials to various members of the Lunar Society. ... Birmingham Central Library is the main library in Birmingham, England. ... Soho House, Matthew Boultons home in Handsworth, Birmingham, England, is now a museum (opened in 1995), managed by Birmingham City Council, celebrating his life, his partnership with James Watt and his membership of the Lunar Society. ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ...


The location of James Watt's birth in Greenock is commemorated by a statue, close to his birthplace. Several locations and street names in Greenock recall him, most notably the Watt Memorial Library, which was begun in 1816 with Watt's donation of scientific books, and developed as part of the Watt Institution by his son (which ultimately became the James Watt College). Taken over by the local authority in 1974, the library now also houses the local history collection and archives of Inverclyde, and is dominated by a large seated statue in the vestibule. Watt is additionally commemorated by statuary in George Square, Glasgow and Princes Street, Edinburgh. James Watt College, taken from above Greenock West Railway Station. ... For other uses, see Inverclyde (disambiguation). ... George Square and Glasgow City Chambers George Square is the central square in the Scottish city of Glasgow. ... Princes Street, as viewed facing west from the Scott Monument Princes Street and the Castle at twilight Princes Street is the main shopping street in Edinburgh city centre, although it was originally designed to be a residential street. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


The James Watt College has expanded from its original location to include campuses in Kilwinning (North Ayrshire), Finnart Street and The Waterfront in Greenock, and the Sports campus in Largs. The Heriot-Watt University near Edinburgh was at one time the "Watt Institution and School of Arts" named in his memory, then merged with George Heriot's Hospital for needy orphans and the name was changed to Heriot-Watt College. Dozens of university and college buildings (chiefly of science and technology) are named after him. Kilwinning (Gaelic: Cill Dingeain) is a historic town situated in North Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Largs (grid reference NS203592) is a burgh on the Firth of Clyde in North Ayrshire, Scotland, about 33 miles (53 km) from Glasgow. ... The entrance to main reception at the Edinburgh campus. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... George Heriots School is an independent primary and secondary school on Lauriston Place in Edinburgh, Scotland, with around 1600 pupils. ...


The huge painting James Watt contemplating the steam engine by James Eckford Lauder is now owned by the National Gallery of Scotland. James Eckford Lauder (August 15, 1811 - March 27, 1869), was a notable mid-Victorian Scottish artist, famous for both portraits and historical pictures. ... The National Gallery of Scotland viewed from the south in front of the Royal Scottish Academy and Princes Street The National Gallery of Scotland, viewed from the north The Entrance of National Gallery of Scotland Montagne Sainte-Victoire by Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) Mrs Robert Scott Moncrieff by Sir...


Watt was ranked first, tying with Edison, among 229 significant figures in the history of technology by Charles Murray's survey of historiometry presented in his book Human Accomplishments. Watt was ranked 22nd in Michael H. Hart's list of the most influential figures in history. Edison redirects here. ... Charles Murray Charles Alan Murray (born 1943) is a controversial libertarian American political scientist. ... Historiometry measures the number of references to great people and discoveries in relatively neutral texts in an attempt to quantify human progress. ... Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ...


The SI unit of power, the watt, is named after him, as are over 50 roads or streets in the UK. Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted, or the amount of energy required or expended for a given unit of time. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ...


A colossal statue of Watt by Chantrey was placed in Westminster Abbey, and later was moved to St. Paul's Cathedral. On the cenotaph the inscription reads: Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey (April 7, 1782–November 25, 1841), was an English sculptor of the Georgian era. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ... The Cenotaph, London. ...

Chantrey's statue of James Watt
Chantrey's statue of James Watt
NOT TO PERPETUATE A NAME,
WHICH MUST ENDURE WHILE THE PEACEFUL ARTS FLOURISH,
BUT TO SHOW
THAT MANKIND HAVE LEARNED TO HONOUR THOSE
WHO BEST DESERVE THEIR GRATITUDE,
THE KING,
HIS MINISTERS, AND MANY OF THE NOBLES
AND COMMONERS OF THE REALM
RAISED THIS MONUMENT TO
JAMES WATT
WHO DIRECTING THE FORCE OF AN ORIGINAL GENIUS
EARLY EXERCISED IN PHILOSOPHIC RESEARCH
TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF
THE STEAM-ENGINE
ENLARGED THE RESOURCES OF HIS COUNTRY
INCREASED THE POWER OF MAN
AND ROSE TO AN EMINENT PLACE
AMONG THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS FOLLOWERS OF SCIENCE
AND THE REAL BENEFACTORS OF THE WORLD
BORN AT GREENOCK MDCCXXXVI
DIED AT HEATHFIELD IN STAFFORDSHIRE MDCCCXIX

A lecture theatre in the Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering building at the University of Birmingham is named 'G31 - The James Watt Lecture Theatre' Website http://www. ...


See also

Watt's inventions:

The major components of a Watt pumping engine. ... A centrifugal governor is a specific type of governor that controls the speed of an engine by regulating the amount of fuel admitted, so as to maintain a near constant speed whatever the load or fuel supply conditions. ... In the technology of the steam engine, the indicator diagram was a device developed by James Watt and his employee John Southern to improve the efficiency of engines. ... Watts Linkage The Watts linkage was invented by James Watt (1736--1819) to constrain the movement of a piston in a steam engine to move in a straight line. ... The parallel motion was a mechanical linkage invented by James Watt in 1784 for his double-acting steam engine. ... The sun and planet gear was a method of converting vertical motion to rotary motion and utilised a reciprocating steam engine. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Although a number of otherwise reputable sources give his date of death as 19 August 1819, all contemporary accounts report him dying on 25 August and being buried on 2 September. The earliest known instance of the 19 August date appearing in the literature is in a book published in 1901.
  2. ^ Carnegie, p 195

Further reading

  • Jennifer Tann, Watt, James (1736–1819), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, May 2007, accessed 5 April 2008
  • Dickenson, H. W., James Watt: Craftsman and Engineer Cambridge University Press (1935).
  • H.W. Dickinson and Hugh Pembroke Vowles James Watt and the Industrial Revolution (published in 1943, new edition 1948 and reprinted in 1949. Also published in Spanish and Portuguese (1944) by the British Council)
  • J. P. Muirhead, Origin and Progress of the Mechanical Inventions of James Watt (London, 1854).
  • J. P. Muirhead, Life of Watt (London, 1858).
  • Samuel Smiles, Lives of the Engineers, (London, 1861-62, new edition, five volumes, 1905).
  • "Some Unpublished Letters of James Watt" in Journal of Institution of Mechanical Engineers (London, 1915).
  • Carnegie, Andrew, James Watt University Press of the Pacific (2001) (Reprinted from the 1913 ed.), ISBN 0-89875-578-6.
  • Hills, Rev. Dr. Richard L., James Watt, Vol 1, His time in Scotland, 1736-1774 (2002); Vol 2, The years of toil, 1775-1785; Vol 3 Triumph through adversity 1785-1819. Landmark Publishing Ltd, ISBN 1-84306-045-0.
  • Marsden, Ben. Watt's Perfect Engine Columbia University Press (New York, 2002) ISBN 0-231-13172-0.
  • Hulse David K (1999): "The early development of the steam engine"; TEE Publishing, Leamington Spa, UK, ISBN, 85761 107 1; pp.127 - 152
  • Hulse, David K., The development of rotary motion by steam power by steam power (TEE Publishing Ltd., Leamington, UK., 2001) ISBN 1 85761 119 5
Related topics
  • Schofield, Robert E., (1963) The Lunar Society, A Social History of Provincial Science and Industry in Eighteenth Century England, Clarendon Press

Hugh Pembroke Vowles Hugh Pembroke Vowles (born 1885 in Pembroke, Wales - died 1951 in Oxlynch, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire, England) was a British engineer, socialist and author. ... Logo of the British Council British Council building in London British Council, Hong Kong The British Council is one of the United Kingdoms cultural relations organisations and which specialises in educational opportunities. ... Samuel Smiles (December 23, 1812 – April 16, 1904), was a Scottish author and reformer. ... Logo The Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) is the British engineering society concerned with mechanical engineering. ... Andrew Carnegie (properly pronounced , but commonly or )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which was later merged with Elbert H. Garys Federal Steel Company and several smaller companies to create U...

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Persondata
NAME Watt, James
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Industrial Revolution engineer of the steam engine
DATE OF BIRTH 19 January 1736(1736-01-19)
PLACE OF BIRTH Greenock, Scotland
DATE OF DEATH 25 August 1819
PLACE OF DEATH Handsworth, Staffordshire, England
A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... For other uses, see Greenock (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... Handsworth is an inner city suburb of Birmingham in the West Midlands, England. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Inventor James Watt Biography (1427 words)
Watt determined the properties of steam, especially the relation of its density to its temperature and pressure, and designed a separate condensing chamber for the steam engine that prevented enormous losses of steam in the cylinder and enhanced the vacuum conditions.
Watt continued his research and patented several other important inventions, including the rotary engine for driving various types of machinery; the double-action engine, in which steam is admitted alternately into both ends of the cylinder; and the steam indicator, which records the steam pressure in the engine.
James Watt College of Further and Higher Education is the largest college in Scotland and one of the most progressive and dynamic colleges in the country.
James Watt - MSN Encarta (400 words)
Watt was born on January 19, 1736, in Greenock, Scotland.
Watt determined the properties of steam, especially the relation of its density to its temperature and pressure, and designed a separate condensing chamber for the steam engine that prevented enormous losses of steam in the cylinder and enhanced the vacuum conditions.
Watt continued his research and patented several other important inventions, including the rotary engine for driving various types of machinery; the double-action engine, in which steam is admitted alternately into both ends of the cylinder; and the steam indicator, which records the steam pressure in the engine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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