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Encyclopedia > James Smithson
James Smithson

An 1816 portrait of Smithson by Henri-Joseph Johns, now in the National Portrait Gallery
of the Smithsonian Institution
Born 1765
Paris, France
Died June 27, 1829 (aged 64)
Genoa, Liguria, Italy
Nationality Flag of the United Kingdom British
Field Mineralogy and chemistry
Alma mater Pembroke College, University of Oxford
Known for Proving zinc carbonates are true carbonate minerals and not zinc oxides (1802); leaving a bequest in his will to the USA which was used to initially fund the Smithsonian Institution
Notable awards Fellow of the Royal Society (1787)
For related terms, see Smithsonian (disambiguation).

James Smithson, F.R.S., M.A. (1765June 27, 1829) was a British mineralogist and chemist noted for having left a bequest in his will to the United States of America, which was used to initially fund the Smithsonian Institution. The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery in Washington, DC. It has been part of the Smithsonian Institution since 1968. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... College name Pembroke College Collegium Pembrochianum Named after The Earl of Pembroke Established 1624 Sister College Queens College Master Giles Henderson JCR President Dawn Rennie Undergraduates 408 MCR President Ross Nicolson Graduates 119 College Homepage Boat Club The lodge and the entrance to Pembroke College in Pembroke Square. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Categories: Mineral stubs | Carbonate minerals ... Ball-and-stick model of the carbonate ion, CO32− For other meanings, see Carbonate (disambiguation) In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or ester of carbonic acid. ... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... The text or formatting below is generated by a template which has been proposed for deletion. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... Smithsonian can refer to: the Smithsonian Institution, a museum in Washington, DC the Smithsonian Institution Building Smithsonian (magazine), a magazine published by the Institution Smithsonian (Washington Metro), a station of the Washington Metro approximate to the Institution The Smithsonian Institution (novel), a novel by Gore Vidal 3773 Smithsonian, an asteroid... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... In the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, the degree of Master of Arts (MA) is awarded to denote senior status within the university, not for further study or research. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... The text or formatting below is generated by a template which has been proposed for deletion. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...

Contents

Biography

Not much detail is known about the life of James Smithson, as a fire which destroyed the Smithsonian Institution Building in 1865 took with it Smithson's scientific collections, notebooks, diaries and correspondence.[1] Only the 213 volumes comprising his personal library and some personal writings survived.[2] What is known is that Smithson was an |illegitimate and unacknowledged son of the English landowner, the highly regarded and accomplished Sir Hugh Smithson, 4th Bt. of Stanwick, north Yorkshire, who later changed his name to Hugh Percy, and became the 1st Duke of Northumberland, K.G., by a mistress, Elizabeth Hungerford Keate. He was born in 1765 in Paris, France. The Castle The Smithsonian Institution Building, located on the National Mall in Washington, DC, houses the Smithsonian Institutions administrative offices and information center. ... Illegitimacy is the status that was once commonly ascribed to individuals born to parents who were not married. ... For the brush-footed butterfly species, see Euthalia nais. ... Stanwick St John is a village in Richmondshire, North Yorkshire, England. ... The Most Noble Sir Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland (c. ... A garter is one of the Orders most recognisable insignia. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

A portrait of Smithson at the University of Oxford c.1786 by an unknown artist, which now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution.
A portrait of Smithson at the University of Oxford c.1786 by an unknown artist, which now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution.

Elizabeth Keate was the daughter of John Keate, an uncle of George Keate (1729–1797), who was elected to the Royal Society in 1766. Elizabeth was the widow of John Macie of Weston, near Bath, Somerset, and so the young Smithson was originally known as "Jacques Louis Macie". His mother later married John Marshe Dickinson, a troubled son of a former Lord Mayor of the City of London and Member of Parliament. During this marriage she had another son; however, the 1st Duke of Northumberland rather than Dickinson is also thought to have been the father of this second son. The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery in Washington, DC. It has been part of the Smithsonian Institution since 1968. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... Weston is a suburb of Bath in England, located in the north west of the city. ... , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ... Michael Berry Savory is the current Lord Mayor of London. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ...


Smithson commenced undergraduate studies at Pembroke College, University of Oxford,[3] in 1782 and received a Master of Arts (M.A.) degree in 1786 (he matriculated as "Jacobus Ludovicus Macie"). French geologist Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond described him as a diligent young student, dedicated to scientific research, who had even risked drowning to gather geological observations on a tour of the Hebrides Islands.[4] College name Pembroke College Collegium Pembrochianum Named after The Earl of Pembroke Established 1624 Sister College Queens College Master Giles Henderson JCR President Dawn Rennie Undergraduates 408 MCR President Ross Nicolson Graduates 119 College Homepage Boat Club The lodge and the entrance to Pembroke College in Pembroke Square. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... In the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, the degree of Master of Arts (MA) is awarded to denote senior status within the university, not for further study or research. ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond (May 17, 1741-July 18, 1819), French geologist and traveller, was born at Montélimar. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ...


On 19 April 1787, at the age of just 22 years, he was elected (under the name "James Lewis Macie") the youngest fellow of the Royal Society.[1] When his mother died in 1800, he and his brother inherited a sizable estate. Around 1802 he changed his surname from "Macie" to his father's surname "Smithson".[5] is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...


Smithson died on 27 June 1829 in the Italian city of Genoa, and his body was interred in the English cemetery of San Benigno there.[5] In 1904, Alexander Graham Bell, at that time Regent of the Smithsonian Institution, brought Smithson's remains from Genoa to Washington, D.C., where they were reinterred in a tomb at the Smithsonian Institution Building (The Castle).[6] His sarcophagus incorrectly states his age at his death – it says 75; he was in fact only 64. is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 - 2 August 1922) was a Scottish scientist, inventor and innovator. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Scientific career

A large sample of smithsonite from Tsumeb, Namibia, displayed in the Smithsonian Institution.
A large sample of smithsonite from Tsumeb, Namibia, displayed in the Smithsonian Institution.

Smithson dedicated his life to investigating the natural world, and visited Florence, Paris, Saxony, and the mountains of Switzerland to find crystals and minerals on which he could perform experiments – including diluting, grinding, igniting, and even chewing and sniffing them – to discover and classify their elemental properties.[1] In 1802, Smithson proved that zinc carbonates were true carbonate minerals and not zinc oxides, as was previously thought.[2][7] One, zinc spar (ZnCO3), a type of zinc ore, was renamed smithsonite posthumously in Smithson's honour in 1832 by a French scientist.[1] Smithsonite was a principal source of zinc until the 1880s. Smithson also invented the term silicate.[1] Smithsonite (Zinc Carbonate) Smithsonite, or zinc spar, is zinc carbonate ZnCO3, a mineral ore of zinc. ... Tsumeb open cast pit, buildings and railway about 1931 Tsumeb is the capital city of the Oshikoto region in northern Namibia. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Categories: Mineral stubs | Carbonate minerals ... Ball-and-stick model of the carbonate ion, CO32− For other meanings, see Carbonate (disambiguation) In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or ester of carbonic acid. ... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... Smithsonite (Zinc Carbonate) Smithsonite, or zinc spar, is zinc carbonate ZnCO3, a mineral ore of zinc. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ...


Smithson published at least 27 papers on chemistry, geology, and mineralogy in scientific journals. His topics included the chemical content of a lady's teardrop, the crystalline form of ice, and an improved method of making coffee.[2] He was acquainted with leading scientists of his day, including French mathematician, physicist and astronomer François Arago; Sir Joseph Banks; Henry Cavendish; Scottish geologist James Hutton; Irish chemist Richard Kirwan; Antoine Lavoisier and Joseph Priestley.[1][8] Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ... François Arago François Jean Dominique Arago (February 26, 1786 – October 2, 1853) was a French mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and politician. ... For clothing store, see JoS. A. Bank Clothiers. ... For other persons named Henry Cavendish, see Henry Cavendish (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... James Hutton, painted by Abner Lowe. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Richard Kirwan (1733 – June 1, 1812) was an Irish scientist. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794), the father of modern chemistry [1], was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ...


The Smithsonian connection

A shrewd investor, Smithson amassed a fortune in his lifetime.[1] On his death, Smithson's will left his fortune to his nephew, Henry James Dickinson, son of his brother who had died in 1820. Smithson had had him change his name to Hungerford in the mid-1820s and in the will stipulated that if that nephew died without legitimate or illegitimate children, the money should go "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men."[9] Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


The nephew, Henry Hungerford (the soi disant Baron Eunice de la Batut), died without heirs in 1835, and Smithson's bequest was accepted in 1836 by the United States Congress. A lawsuit (in Britain) contesting the will was decided in favour of the U.S. in 1838 and 11 boxes containing 104,960 gold sovereigns[1] were shipped to Philadelphia and minted into dollar coinage worth $508,318. There was a good deal of controversy about how the purposes of the bequest could be fulfilled, and it was not until 1846 that the Smithsonian Institution was founded. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Three Gold Sovereigns with a Krugerrand A Gold Sovereign is a gold coin first issued in 1489 for Henry VII of England and still in production as of 2007. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...


Smithson had never been to the United States, and the motive for the specific bequest is unknown. There is an unsourced tradition within the (existing) Percy family that it was to found an institution that would last longer than his father's dynasty. It is also speculated that he was disinclined towards the British social system (perhaps because he was frustrated by being not only a younger but an unacknowledged son of a Duke) and liked the United States' revolutionary and, possibly to him, fresher spirit.[citation needed] He had also lived in France for a while during their revolution.[citation needed] The title of Earl of Northumberland was created several times in the Peerages of England and Great Britain. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


On 18 September 1965, in the year of the bicentenary of Smithson's birth, the Smithsonian Institution awarded to the Royal Society a 14-ct. gold medal bearing a left-facing bust of Smithson.[10] is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Carat is a measure of the purity of gold and platinum alloys. ...


Ancestors

Some of Smithson's ancestors
James Louis Macie Smithson Father:
Sir Hugh Smithson (Percy),1st Duke of Northumberland
Paternal Grandfather:
Langdale Smithson

Sir Hugh Smithson,3rd Bart., of Stanwick, (1657-1733)

Hon. Elizabeth Langdale
Paternal Grandmother:
Philadelphia Reveley

William Reveley of Newby Wiske(1662-1725)

Margery Willey
Mother:
Elizabeth Hungerford Keate (1728-1800)
Maternal Grandfather:
Lt. John Keate (1709-c1755)

John Keate

Frances Hungerford
Maternal Grandmother:
Penelope Fleming (c1711-1764)

Henry Fleming, DD, (1659-1728), Rector of Grasmere

Mary Fletcher

The Most Noble Sir Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland (c. ... Stanwick St John is a village in Richmondshire, North Yorkshire, England. ... Grasmere village and lake as seen from the fell of Stone Arthur Dove Cottage Grasmere is a village in central Cumbria in the north of England. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Colquhoun, Kate. "A Very British Pioneer (review of Heather Ewing's The Lost World of James Smithson)", The Telegraph (Review), 2007-05-26. 
  2. ^ a b c Who was James Smithson? : A Man of Science. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved on 2007-06-18.
  3. ^ A plaque commemorating Smithson's undergraduate days was erected at Broadgate Hall in Pembroke College by the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution in 1896. Its inscription reads: "JAMES SMITHSON -FRS- FOUNDER OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION – WASHINGTON. ERECTED BY THE REGENTS OF THE INSTITUTION 1896". A photograph of the plaque can be viewed on the Pembroke College website (retrieved on 19 June 2007).
  4. ^ Who was James Smithson? : The Student Years. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved on 2007-06-18.
  5. ^ a b James Smithson on the Royal Society website. Retrieved on 18 June 2007.
  6. ^ Who was James Smithson? : Smithson Leaves Bequest to the United States. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved on 2007-06-18.
  7. ^ See Smithson, James (1803), "A Chemical Analysis of Some Calamines", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, <http://www.sil.si.edu/Exhibitions/Smithson-to-Smithsonian/calamine.html>.
  8. ^ Who was James Smithson? : A World of Scientific Ideals. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved on 2007-06-18.
  9. ^ A draft version of a transcript of Smithson's 1826 will may be viewed at the Smithsonian Institution's website (retrieved on 18 June 2007).
  10. ^ Reference no. M/215 in the Royal Society's collection: see the Royal Society's website, retrieved on 18 June 2007.

This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cover of Cover the first volume of , published in 1665 The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or Phil. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

References

The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Articles

The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NPR redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Books

  • Bello, Mark; William Schulz, Madeleine Jacobs & Alvin Rosenfeld (eds.) (1993). The Smithsonian Institution, a World of Discovery : An Exploration of Behind-the-Scenes Research in the Arts, Sciences, and Humanities. Washington, D.C.: Distributed by Smithsonian Institution Press for Smithsonian Office of Public Affairs. ISBN 1560983140. 
  • Bolton, Henry Carrington (1896). The Smithsonian Institution : Its Origin, Growth, and Activities. New York, N.Y.: [s.n.]. 
  • Burleigh, Nina (2003). The Stranger and the Statesman : James Smithson, John Quincy Adams, and the Making of America's Greatest Museum, The Smithsonian. New York, N.Y.: Morrow. ISBN 0-06-000241-7 (hbk.). 
  • Ewing, Heather (2007). The Lost World of James Smithson : Science, Revolution, and the Birth of the Smithsonian. [USA]: Bloomsbury. ISBN 1596910291 (hbk.). 
  • Goode, George Brown (ed.) (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846–1896 : The History of its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: [s.n.].  Reprinted as Goode, George Brown (ed.) (1980). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846–1896. New York, N.Y.: Arno Press. ISBN 0405125844. 
  • Gurney, Gene ([1964]). The Smithsonian Institution, a Picture Story of its Buildings, Exhibits, and Activities. New York, N.Y.: Crown. 
  • Karp, Walter ([1965]). The Smithsonian Institution; an Establishment for the Increase & Diffusion of Knowledge among Men. [Washington, D.C.]: Smithsonian Institution. 
  • Rhees, William Jones (comp. & ed.) (1901). The Smithsonian Institution : Documents Relative to its Origin and History, 1835–1889. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O.  Reprinted as Rhees, William Jones (ed.) (1980). The Smithsonian Institution, 1835–1899 (2 vols.). New York, N.Y.: Arno Press. ISBN 0405125836. 

External links

Persondata
NAME James Smithson
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Jacques Louis Macie; James Lewis Macie, James Louis Macie Smithson
SHORT DESCRIPTION British mineralogist and chemist who left a bequest in his will to the USA which was used to initially fund the Smithsonian Institution
DATE OF BIRTH 1765
PLACE OF BIRTH Paris, France
DATE OF DEATH 27 June 1829
PLACE OF DEATH Genoa, Liguria, Italy
Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
James Smithson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (598 words)
James Smithson, FRS, MA (1765 – June 27, 1829) was a British mineralogist and chemist noted for having left a bequest in his will to the United States of America, which was used to fund the Smithsonian Institution.
James Smithson was the illegitimate son of Sir Hugh Smithson, later known as Sir Hugh Percy, Baronet, 1st Duke of Northumberland, K.G., and Elizabeth Hungerford Keate, and was born in 1765 in France.
Smithson died in 1829, in the Italian city of Genoa, and his body was interred in a tomb in the Protestant Cemetery there.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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