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Encyclopedia > James Paget

Sir James Paget (1814-1899) was a British surgeon and pathologist who is best remembered for Paget's disease and who is considered, together with Rudolf Virchow, as one of the founders of scientific medical pathology. His famous works included Lectures on Tumours (1851) and Lectures on Surgical Pathology (1853). While most people recall that Paget's disease refers to bone, there were actually three diseases named after him - Paget's disease of bone, Paget's disease of the nipple (an early indication of breast cancer), and Paget's disease of the penis. Also named for him is Paget's abscess. Sir James Paget, British surgeon and physician, founder of surgical pathology. ... A typical modern surgical operation For other uses, see Surgery (disambiguation). ... Pathology (in ancient Greek pathos = feeling, pain, suffering and logos = discourse or treatise, i. ... Sir James Paget, a prolific surgeon and pathologist, described several diseases, all called Pagets disease: The term is most commonly used to refer to Pagets disease of bone It can also mean Pagets disease of the breast Or: Pagets disease of the penis. ... Dr. R.L.K. Virchow Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (born October 13, 1821, in Schivelbein, Pomerania; died September 5, 1902, in Berlin) was a German doctor, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist and politician. ... Bold text X-ray of Pagets disease Pagets disease, otherwise known as osteitis deformans, is a chronic disorder that typically results in enlarged and deformed bones. ... Pagets disease of the breast is named after Sir James Paget, an English surgeon who first described this condition in 1874, this condition is also known as Pagets disease of the nipple. Pagets disease is present in 2% of all breast cancers. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ...

Contents


Life

Paget was born at Yarmouth, England on the January 11th, 1814, the son of a brewer and shipowner. He was one of a large family, and his brother Sir George Paget (1809-1892), who became Regius Professor of physics at Cambridge University in 1872, also had a distinguished career in medicine and was made a K.C.B.. He attended a day-school in Yarmouth, and afterwards was destined for the navy; but this plan was given up, and at the age of sixteen he was apprenticed to a general practitioner, whom he served for four and a half years, during which time he gave his leisure hours to botanizing, and made a great collection of the flora of East Norfolk. At the end of his apprenticeship he published with one of his brothers a very careful Sketch of the Natural History of Yarmouth and its Neighborhood. Map sources for Great Yarmouth at grid reference TG5207 Great Yarmouth is an English coastal town in the county of Norfolk. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Regius Professorships are Royal Professorships at the universities of Cambridge, Oxford, University of Glasgow and Edinburgh. ... A Superconductor demonstrating the Meissner Effect Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), nature) is the science of the natural world dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces. ... The University of Cambridge, located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining human health or restoring it through the treatment of disease and injury. ... Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... A general practitioner (GP) or family physician (FP) is a physician/medical doctor who provides primary care. ... Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ... Norfolk (pronounced IPA: ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ...


In October 1834 he entered as a student at St Bartholomew's Hospital, in London. Here he is noted to have described the first journal club. Medical students in those days were left very much to themselves; there was no close supervision of their work, but it is probable that Paget gained rather than lost by having to fight his own way. He swept the board of prizes in 1835, and again in 1836; and in his first winter session he discovered the pathogen for trichinosis, a parasitic disease caused by Trichina spiralis, a minute roundworm that infests the muscles of the human body, and which is usually acquired by eating infected pork. In May 1836 he passed his examination at the Royal College of Surgeons, and became qualified to practice. The next seven years (1836-1843) were spent in London lodgings, and were a time of poverty, for he made only 15 pounds a year by practice, and his father, having failed in business, could not give him any help. He managed to keep himself by writing for the medical journals, and preparing the catalogues of the hospital museum and of the pathological museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. In 1836 he had been made curator of the hospital museum, and in 1838 demonstrator of morbid anatomy at the hospital; but his advancement there was hindered by the privileges of the hospital apprentices, and by the fact that he had been too poor to afford a house-surgeoncy, or even a dressership. The main entrance at Barts, which was built in 1702. ... The Houses of Parliament and the clock tower containing Big Ben Part of the London skyline viewed from the South Bank London is the capital of the United Kingdom and England. ... A journal club is a group of individuals who meet regularly to evaluate critically the clinical application of recent articles in medical literature. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Trichinosis, also called trichinellosis, is a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork and wild game products infected with the larvae of a species of roundworm Trichinella spiralis, commonly called the trichina worm. ... A parasitic disease is a disease caused or transmitted by a parasite. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms (Phylum Nematoda from Gr. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle is the contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Two halves of a pig being delivered Pork is the meat taken from pigs. ... The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... A museum is typically a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment. ... Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ... Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopédie. ...


In 1841 he was made surgeon to the Finsbury Dispensary; but this appointment did not give him any experience in the graver operations of surgery. In 1843 he was appointed lecturer on general anatomy (microscopic anatomy) and physiology at the hospital, and warden of the hospital college then founded. For the next eight years he lived within the walls of the hospital, in charge of about thirty students resident in the little college. Besides his lectures and his superintendence of the resident students, he had to enter all new students, to advise them how to work, and to manage the finances and the general affairs of the school. Thus he was constantly occupied with the business of the school, and often passed a week, or more, without going outside the hospital gates. A typical modern surgical operation For other uses, see Surgery (disambiguation). ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ...


In 1844 he married Lydia, youngest daughter of the Rev. Henry North. In 1847 he was appointed an assistant-surgeon. to the hospital, and Arris and Gale professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. He held this professorship for six years and each year gave six lectures in surgical pathology. The first edition of these lectures, which were the chief scientific work of his life, was published in 1853 as Lectures on Surgical Pathology. In 1851 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In October 1851 he resigned the wardenship of the hospital. He had now become known as a great physiologist and pathologist: he had done for pathology in England what Rudolf Virchow had done in Germany; but he had hardly begun to get into practice, and he had kept himself poor that he might pay his share of his fathers debtsa task that it took him fourteen years to fulfil. The premises of the Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... Dr. R.L.K. Virchow Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (born October 13, 1821, in Schivelbein, Pomerania; died September 5, 1902, in Berlin) was a German doctor, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist and politician. ...


He was the father of Stephen Paget (1855-1926), an Engish surgeon who first proposed the "seed and soil" theory of metastasis. Stephen Paget (1855-1926) was an English surgeon known for proposing the seed and soil theory of metastasis. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ...


Works

It is probable that no famous surgeon, not even John Hunter (1728-1793), ever founded his practice deeper in science than Paget did, or waited longer for his work to come back to him. In physiology he had mastered the chief English, French, German, Dutch and Italian literature of the subject, and by incessant study and microscope work had put himself level with the most advanced knowledge of his time; so that it was said of him by Robert Owen, in 1851, that he had his choice, either to be the first physiologist in Europe, or to have the first surgical practice in London, with a baronetcy. His physiological lectures at St Bartholomew's Hospital were the chief cause of the rise in the fortunes of its school, which in 1843 had gone down to a low point. Engraving of John Hunter (1728 – 1793) taken from the original portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, which is in the Royal College of Surgeons. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... It has been suggested that microscopy be merged into this article or section. ... Robert Owen Robert Owen continues to be looked up to in this Manchester statue Robert Owen (May 14, 1771 – November 17, 1858) was a Welsh socialist and social reformer. ...


In pathology his work was even more important. He fills the place in pathology that had been left empty by Hunter's death in 1793; the time of transition from Hunter's teaching, which for all its greatness was hindered by want of the modern microscope, to the pathology and bacteriology of the present day. It is Paget's greatest achievement that he made pathology dependent, in everything, on the use of the microscope, especially the pathology of tumors. He and Virchow may truly be called the founders of modern pathology; they stand together, Paget's Lectures on Surgical Pathology and Virchow's Cellulär-Pathologie. Microbiology (in Greek micron = small and biologia = studying life) is the study of microorganisms, including unicellular (single-celled) eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fungi, and viruses. ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ...


When Paget, in 1851, began practice near Cavendish Square, he had still to wait a few years more for success in professional life. The turn of the tide came about 1854 or 1855; and in 1858 he was appointed surgeon extraordinary to Queen Victoria, and in 1863 surgeon in ordinary to the Prince of Wales. He had for many years the largest and most arduous surgical practice in London. His days work was seldom less than sixteen or seventeen hours. Cases sent to him for final judgment, with especial frequency, were those of tumours, and of all kinds of disease of the bones and joints, and all neurotic cases having symptoms of surgical disease. His supremacy lay rather in the science than in the art of surgery, but his name is associated also with certain great practical advances. He discovered the Paget's disease of the breast and the Paget's disease of the bones (osteitis deformans) which are called after his name; and he was the first to urge removal of the tumour, instead of amputation of the limb, in cases of myeloid sarcoma. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and Empress of India from 1 January 1877, until her death. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... Partial hand amputation bilateral above elbow amputee playing beach volleyball Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. ...


In 1871 he nearly died from infection at a post mortem examination, and, to lighten the weight of his work, was obliged to resign his surgeoncy to the hospital. In this same year he received the honor of a baronetcy. In 1875 he was president of the Royal College of Surgeons, and in 1877 Hunterian orator. In 1878 he gave up operating, but for eight or ten years longer he still had a very heavy consulting practice. In 1881 he was president of the International Medical Congress held in London; in 1880 he gave, at Cambridge, a memorable address on Elemental Pathology, setting forth the likeness of certain diseases of plants and trees to those of the human body. Infected (Radio Show) is also the name of an internet radio podcast hosted by Martin Sargent. ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern...


Besides shorter writings he also published Clinical Lectures and Essays (1st ed. 1875) and Studies of Old Case-books (1891). In 1883, on the death of Sir George Jessel, he was appointed vice-chancellor of the University of London. In 1889 he was appointed a member of the Royal Commission on Vaccination. Senate House, designed by Charles Holden, home to the universitys central administrative offices and its library The University of London is a federation of colleges and institutes which together constitute one of the worlds largest universities. ...


He died in London on the December 30th, 1899, in his eighty-fifth year. December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Sir James Paget had the gift of eloquence, and was one of the most careful and most delightful speakers of his time. He had a natural and unaffected pleasure in society, and he loved music. He possessed the rare gift of ability to turn swiftly from work to play; enjoying his holidays like a schoolboy, easily moved to laughter, keen to get the maximum of happiness out of very ordinary amusements, emotional in spite of incessant self-restraint, vigorous in spite of constant overwork. In him a certain light-hearted enjoyment was combined with the utmost reserve, unfailing religious faith, and the most scrupulous honor. He was all his life profoundly indifferent toward politics, both national and medical; his ideal was the unity of science and practice in the professional life. Music is an art, entertainment, or other human activity which involves organized and audible sound, though definitions vary. ... Politics is a process by which collective decisions are made within groups. ...


See also

James Paget Hospital

Located at Gorleston on the A12 road, the James Paget Healthcare NHS Trust serves a population of around 220,000 people in the Great Yarmouth, Lowestoft and Waveney areas. ...

Source

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, a publication in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
James Paget - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1323 words)
Paget was born at Yarmouth, England on the January 11th, 1814, the son of a brewer and shipowner.
It is Paget's greatest achievement that he made pathology dependent, in everything, on the use of the microscope, especially the pathology of tumors.
He discovered the Paget's disease of the breast and the Paget's disease of the bones (osteitis deformans) which are called after his name; and he was the first to urge removal of the tumour, instead of amputation of the limb, in cases of myeloid sarcoma.
PAGET, SIR JAMES, BART - Online Information article about PAGET, SIR JAMES, BART (1912 words)
It is probable that Owen did not realize that Paget had already made the discovery, and it was naturally associated with the name of the professor.
It is Paget's greatest achievement that he made pathology dependent, in everything, on the use of the microscope—especially the pathology of tumours.
He was all his life profoundly indifferent toward politics, both national and medical; his ideal was the unity of science and practice in the professional life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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