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Encyclopedia > James Madison
James Madison


In office
March 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817
Vice President George Clinton (1809-1812),
None (1812-1813),
Elbridge Gerry (1813-1814)
None (1814-1817)
Preceded by Thomas Jefferson
Succeeded by James Monroe

In office
May 2, 1801 – March 3, 1809
President Thomas Jefferson
Preceded by John Marshall
Succeeded by Robert Smith

Born March 16, 1751(1751-03-16)
Port Conway, Virginia
Died June 28, 1836 (aged 85)
Montpelier, Virginia
Nationality American
Political party Democratic-Republican
Spouse Dolley Todd Madison
Alma mater Princeton University
Occupation Lawyer
Religion Episcopal
Signature James Madison's signature

James Madison, Jr.[1] (March 16, 1751June 28, 1836) was an American politician and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Madison was the last founding father to die.[2] Considered to be the "Father of the Constitution", he was the principal author of the document. In 1788, he wrote over a third of the Federalist Papers, still the most influential commentary on the Constitution. As a leader in the first Congresses, he drafted many basic laws and was responsible for the first ten amendments to the Constitution (said to be based on the Virginia Declaration of Rights), and thus is also known as the "Father of the Bill of Rights".[3] As a political theorist, Madison's most distinctive belief was that the new republic needed checks and balances to limit the powers of special interests, which Madison called factions.[4] He believed very strongly that the new nation should fight against aristocracy and corruption and was deeply committed to creating mechanisms that would ensure republicanism in the United States.[5] James Madison This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... Elbridge Thomas Gerry (pronounced ) (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other persons named John Marshall, see John Marshall (disambiguation). ... Robert Smith (November 3, 1757 – November 26, 1842) was the second United States Secretary of the Navy from 1801 to 1809 and the sixth United States Secretary of State from 1809 to 1811. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Famous Births 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Montpelier was the estate of James Madison, fourth President of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Democratic-Republican Party was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1792. ... This article is about a U.S. First Lady (the wife of James Madison). ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... An advertisement for The Federalist The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. ... The Virginia Declaration of Rights is a declaration by the Virginia Convention of Delegates of rights of individuals and a call for independence from Britain. ... Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ...


As leader in the House of Representatives, Madison worked closely with President George Washington to organize the new federal government. Breaking with Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton in 1791, Madison and Thomas Jefferson organized what they called the republican party (later called the Democratic-Republican Party)[6] in opposition to key policies of the Federalists, especially the national bank and the Jay Treaty. He secretly co-authored, along with Thomas Jefferson, the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798 to protest the Alien and Sedition Acts. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The Democratic-Republican Party was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1792. ... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1830s. ... The Treaty The Jay Treaty between the United States and Great Britain averted war, solved many issues left over from the Revolution, and opened ten years of peaceful trade in the midst of a large war. ... Thomas Jefferson. ... Text of the act. ...


As Jefferson's Secretary of State (1801-1809), Madison supervised the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the nation's size, and sponsored the ill-fated Embargo Act of 1807. As president, he led the nation into the War of 1812 against Great Britain in order to protect the United States' economic rights. That conflict began poorly as Americans suffered defeat after defeat by smaller forces, but ended on a high note in 1815, after which a new spirit of nationalism swept the country. During and after the war, Madison reversed many of his positions. By 1815, he supported the creation of the second National Bank, a strong military, and a high tariff to protect the new factories opened during the war. The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane) was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km²) of French territory (Louisiana) in 1803. ... The Embargo Act was a series of laws passed by the Congress of the United States between the years 1806-1808, during the second term of President Thomas Jefferson. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ...

Contents

Personal life

Presidential Dollar of James Madison
Presidential Dollar of James Madison

Madison was born in Port Conway, Virginia, on March 16, 1751 (March 5 according to the Old Style or Julian calendar). He was the oldest of twelve children, seven of whom reached adulthood.[7] His parents, Colonel James Madison, Sr. (March 27, 1723February 27, 1801) and Eleanor Rose "Nellie" Conway (January 9, 1731February 11, 1829), were slave owners and the prosperous owners of a tobacco plantation in Orange County, Virginia, where Madison spent most of his childhood years. He was raised in the Church of England, the state religion of Virginia at the time. Madison's plantation life was made possible by his paternal grandfather, Ambrose Madison, who utilized Virginia's headright system to import many indentured servants, thereby allowing him to accumulate a large tract of land.[citation needed] Madison, like his forebears, owned slaves. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 2000 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 2000 pixel, file size: 6. ... Famous Births 1. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... This article is about the day. ... Old Style redirects here. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... James Madison (1723-1801). ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... This article is about crop plantations. ... Location in the state of Virginia Formed 1734 Seat Orange Area  - Total  - Water 889 km² (343 mi²) 4 km² (2 mi²) 0. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... A headright is a legal grant of land, usually to settlers moving into an area uninhabited by settlers. ...


Madison is noted for being the shortest president ever, at 5' 4" tall.[8] He is also the lightest president ever, weighing only about 100 Lbs. It should be noted that the average American was shorter than today, and most presidents were of above average height.


Madison attended the College of New Jersey, (later to become Princeton University) with roommate poet/satirist Phillip Freneau, finishing its four-year course in two years, 1769-1771; and continued to study with John Witherspoon, the College's president at that time, for a year after graduating. Madison has been called America's first graduate student, perhaps more accurately "Princeton's first graduate student."[9][10] Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Philip Morin Freneau ( January 2, 1752 – December 18, 1832 ) was a United States poet and one of the most important writers/poets of The Age of Reason. He is often considered the first American poet, in a popular sense. ... John Witherspoon Dr. John Witherspoon (February 5, 1723 – November 15, 1794), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Jersey. ...


Marriage and family life

On September 14, 1794, Madison married Dolley Payne Todd, almost seventeen years his junior, who cut as attractive and vivacious a figure as he did a sickly and asocial one. Dolley is largely credited with inventing the role of First Lady as political ally and adviser to the president. Dolley and James did not have any children of their own. is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about a U.S. First Lady (the wife of James Madison). ... First Lady Laura Bush and former first ladies (from left to right) Rosalynn Carter, Sen. ...


Political career

Madison served in the Virginia state legislature (1776-79) and became known as a protégé of Thomas Jefferson, attaining prominence in Virginia politics, helping to draft the Declaration of Religious Freedom. It disestablished the Church of England, and disclaimed any power of state compulsion in religious matters (including Patrick Henry's plan to compel citizens to pay for a congregation of their own choice). This article is about the U.S. state. ... Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. ... Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his stirring oratory. ...


His cousin, Reverend James Madison (1749-1812), became president of the College of William and Mary in 1777. Working closely with Madison and Jefferson, Reverend James Madison helped lead the College through the difficult changes involving separation from both England and the Church of England, as well as those which resulted in the formation of the Episcopal Diocese of Virginia after the War. Reverend Madison became the first Episcopal Bishop of Virginia in 1790, and although becoming known henceforth as Bishop Madison, also served in a distinctively separate capacity as President of the College of William and Mary until his death in 1812. The Right Reverend James Madison (August 27, 1749 – March 6, 1812) was the first bishop of the Diocese of Virginia of the Episcopal Church, USA, and served as president of the College of William and Mary. ... The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... The Episcopal Diocese of Virginia is a diocese of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America encompassing 38 counties in the northern and central parts of the state of Virginia. ...


James Madison also persuaded Virginia to give up its claims to northwestern territories (consisting of most of modern-day Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois) to the Continental Congress, forming the Northwest Territory in 1783. As delegate to the Continental Congress (1780-83), Madison was considered a legislative workhorse and a master of parliamentary detail. This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. ...


Father of the Constitution

Back in the Virginia state legislature, Madison welcomed peace, but soon grew alarmed at the fragility of the Articles of Confederation, and especially at the divisiveness of state governments. He strongly advocated a new constitution to overcome this divisiveness. At the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, Madison's draft of the Virginia Plan and his revolutionary three-branch federal system became the basis for the American Constitution of today. Though Madison was a shy man, he was one of the more outspoken members of the Continental Congress. He envisioned a strong federal government that could overrule actions of the states when they were deemed mistaken; later in life he came to admire the Supreme Court as it started filling that role.[11] The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... A proposal by Virginia delegates during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787, the Virginia Plan (also known as the Large State Plan) was notable for its role in setting the overall agenda for debate in the convention and, in particular, for setting forth the idea of population-weighted representation in the...


The Federalist Papers

To aid the push for ratification in 1787 and 1788, Madison joined Alexander Hamilton and John Jay to write the The Federalist Papers.[12] Among other contributions, Madison wrote paper #10, in which he explained how a large country with many different interests and factions could support republican values better than a small country dominated by a few special interests. His interpretation was largely ignored at the time, but in the 20th century became a central part of the pluralist interpretation of American politics.[13] John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, and jurist. ... An advertisement for The Federalist The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. ... The political theory of pluralism holds that political power in society does not lie with the electorate but is distributed between a wide number of groups. ...


In Virginia in 1788, after the Revolutionary War, Madison led the fight for ratification of the Constitution at the state's convention, oratorically dueling with Patrick Henry and others who sought revisions (such as the United States Bill of Rights) before its ratification. Madison is often referred to as the "Father of the Constitution" for his role in its drafting and ratification. However, he protested the title as being "a credit to which I have no claim... [The Constitution] was not, like the fabled Goddess of Wisdom, the offspring of a single brain. It ought to be regarded as the work of many heads and many hands".[14] This article is about military actions only. ... The Virginia ratifying convention was held in 1788 to ratify the Constitution. ... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ...


He wrote Hamilton, at the New York ratifying convention, observing that his opinion was that "ratification was in toto and for ever". The Virginia convention had considered conditional ratification worse than a rejection.[15]


Author of Bill of Rights

Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia legislature not to elect Madison as one of their first Senators; but Madison was directly elected to the new United States House of Representatives and became an important leader from the First Congress (1789) through the Fourth Congress (1797). Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Federal Hall (1790) // The First United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, comprised of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. ... Dates of Sessions 1795-1797 The first session of this Congress took place in Philadelphia from December 7, 1795 to June 1, 1796. ...


Initially Madison "adamantly maintained ... that a specific bill of rights remained unnecessary because the Constitution itself was a bill of rights."[16] Madison had three main objections to a specific bill of rights: (a) it was unnecessary, since it purported to protect against powers that the federal government had not been granted; (b) it was dangerous, since enumeration of some rights might be taken to imply the absence of other rights; and (c) at the state level, bills of rights had proven to be useless paper barriers against government powers.[17] But the anti-Federalists demanded a bill of rights in exchange for their support for ratification. Over two hundred proposals were submitted from throughout the country. Madison ignored the proposals for structural change of the government, and synthesized the others into a list of proposals for the protection of civil rights, such as free speech, right of the people to bear arms, and habeas corpus. Still ambiguous as late as 1788 in his support for a bill of rights,[18] in June 1789 Madison offered a package of twelve proposed amendments to the Constitution.[19] Madison eventually completed the reversal of his original opposition and "hounded his colleagues relentlessly" to accept his proposed amendments.[20] For other uses, see Habeas corpus (disambiguation). ...


By 1791, the last ten of Madison's proposed amendments were ratified and became the Bill of Rights. Contrary to his wishes, the Bill of Rights was not integrated into the main body of the Constitution, and it did not apply to the states until the passages of Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments restricted the powers of the states. The second of the proposed twelve was ratified in 1992 as the Constitution's Twenty-seventh Amendment. The remaining proposal was intended to accommodate future increase in members of the House of Representatives. Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... Page 1 of the certification of Amendment XXVII in the National Archives Page 2 of the amendments certification Page 3 of the amendments certification Amendment XXVII (the Twenty-seventh Amendment) is the most recent amendment to be incorporated into the United States Constitution, having been ratified in 1992... Article The First (also referred to as The Congressional Apportionment Amendment) was and is the very first proposed amendment to the United States Constitution though it has not yet been ratified. ...


Opposition to Hamilton

The chief characteristic of Madison's time in Congress was his work to limit the power of the federal government. Wood (2006a) argued that Madison never wanted a national government that took an active role. He was horrified to discover that Hamilton and Washington were creating "a real modern European type of government with a bureaucracy, a standing army, and a powerful independent executive".[21] This article is about the federal government of the United States. ...


When Britain and France went to war in 1793 the U.S. was caught in the middle. The 1778 treaty of alliance with France was still in effect, yet most of the new country's trade was with Britain. War with Britain seemed imminent in 1794, as the British seized hundreds of American ships that were trading with French colonies. Madison (in collaboration with Jefferson, who had returned to private life), believed that Britain was weak and America strong, and that a trade war with Britain, although it threatened retaliation by Britain, probably would succeed, and would allow Americans to assert their independence fully. Great Britain, he charged, "has bound us in commercial manacles, and very nearly defeated the object of our independence". As Varg explains, Madison had no fear of British recriminations for "her interests can be wounded almost mortally, while ours are invulnerable." The British West Indies, he maintained, could not live without American foodstuffs, but Americans could easily do without British manufactures. This same faith led him to the conclusion "that it is in our power, in a very short time, to supply all the tonnage necessary for our own commerce".[22] However, George Washington avoided a trade war and instead secured friendly trade relations with Britain through the Jay Treaty of 1794, a treaty that Madison tried but failed to defeat. All across the country, voters divided for and against the Treaty and other key issues, and thus became Federalists or Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican Party was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1792. ...


Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton built a nationwide network of supporters that became the Federalist Party and promoted a strong central government with a national bank. To oppose the Federalists, Madison and Jefferson organized the Democratic-Republican Party. Madison led the unsuccessful attempt to block Hamilton's proposed Bank of the United States, arguing the new Constitution did not explicitly allow the federal government to form a bank.[23] The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1830s. ... The First Bank of the United States was a bank chartered by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791. ...


Most historians argue that Madison changed radically from a nationally-oriented ally of Hamilton in 1787-88 to a states'-rights-oriented opponent of a strong national government by 1795. Madison started with opposing Hamilton;[24] by 1793 he was opposing Washington as well.[citation needed] Madison usually lost and Hamilton usually achieved passage of his legislation, including the National Bank, funding of state and national debts, and support of the Jay Treaty. (Madison did block the proposal for high tariffs.) Madison's politics remained closely aligned with Jefferson's until the experience of a weak national government during the War of 1812 caused Madison to appreciate the need for a strong central government to aid national defense. He then began to support a national bank, a stronger navy, and a standing army. However, other historians, led by Lance Banning and Gordon S. Wood, see more continuity in Madison's views and do not see a sharp break in 1792. Gordon S. Wood (born 1933) is Alva O. Way University Professor and Professor of History at Brown University and the recipient of the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for History for The Radicalism of the American Revolution. ...


United States Secretary of State

The main challenge which faced the Jefferson Administration was navigating between the two great empires of Britain and France, which were almost constantly at war. The first great triumph was the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, made possible when Napoleon realized he could not defend that vast territory, and it was to France's advantage that Britain not seize it. Madison and President Jefferson reversed party policy to negotiate for the Purchase and then win Congressional approval. Madison tried to maintain neutrality between Britain and France, but at the same time insisted on the legal rights of the U.S. under international law. Neither London nor Paris showed much respect, however. Madison and Jefferson decided on an embargo to punish Britain and France, forbidding Americans to trade with any foreign nation. The embargo failed as foreign policy, and instead caused massive hardships in the southern seaboard, which depended on foreign trade. Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


During his term as Secretary of State he was a party to the Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison, in which the doctrine of judicial review was asserted by the high Court. Holding Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789 is unconstitutional to the extent it purports to enlarge the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court beyond that permitted by the Constitution. ... Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ...


The party's Congressional Caucus chose presidential candidates, and Madison was selected in the election of 1808, easily defeating Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, riding on the coattails of Jefferson's popularity. Congress repealed the failed embargo as Madison took office. A caucus is most generally defined as being a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Charles Cotesworth (C.C.) Pinckney (February 5, 1746 – August 16, 1825), was an early American statesman and a signer of the U.S. Constitution. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ...


Presidency 1809–1817

James Madison
James Madison

Image File history File links Gilbert Stuart American, 1755 - 1828 James Madison, c. ... Image File history File links Gilbert Stuart American, 1755 - 1828 James Madison, c. ...

The Bank of the United States

The twenty year charter of the first Bank of the United States was scheduled to expire in 1811, the second year of Madison's administration. Madison failed to block the Bank in 1791, and waited for its charter to expire. Secretary of the Treasury Gallatin wanted the bank rechartered, and when the War of 1812 broke out discovered how difficult it was to finance the war without the Bank. Gallatin's successor as Treasury Secretary Alexander J. Dallas proposed a replacement in 1814, but Madison vetoed the bill in 1815. By late 1815, however, Madison asked Congress for a new bank, which had strong support from the younger, nationalistic republicans such as John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay, as well as Federalist Daniel Webster. Madison signed it into law in 1816 and appointed William Jones as its president. The First Bank of the United States was a bank chartered by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791. ... Dallas, as portrayed in an 1881 copy of a Gilbert Stuart painting Alexander James Dallas (June 21, 1759 – January 16, 1817) was an American statesman who served as the U.S. Treasury Secretary under President James Madison. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. ... For his namesake son, see Henry Clay, Jr. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... Navy collection image of Jones William Jones (1760–September 6, 1831) was an American politician. ...


War of 1812

Main article: War of 1812

British insults continued, especially the practice of using the Royal Navy to intercept unarmed American merchant ships and "impress" (conscript) all sailors who might be British subjects for service in the British navy[citation needed]. Madison's protests were ignored, so he helped stir up public opinion in the west and south for war. One argument was that an American invasion of Canada would be easy and would provide a good bargaining chip. (After long debates historians now agree that Americans did not desire to acquire Canadian lands, but to stop British aid to the hostile Indians.[citation needed]) Madison carefully prepared public opinion for what everyone at the time called "Mr. Madison's War", but much less time and money was spent building up the army, navy, forts, and state militias. After he convinced Congress to declare war, Madison was re-elected President over DeWitt Clinton but by a smaller margin than in 1808 (see U.S. presidential election, 1812). Some historians in 2006 ranked Madison's failure to avoid war as the sixth worst presidential mistake ever made.[25] This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Look up Impressment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... DeWitt Clinton. ... Summary Taking place in the shadow of the War of 1812, the election of 1812 featured an intriguing competition between incumbent President James Madison and the nephew of his former Vice President, DeWitt Clinton (uncle George Clinton had died in office). ...


In the ensuing War of 1812, the British, Canadians, and First Nations[citation needed] allies won numerous victories, including the capture of Detroit after the American general there surrendered to a smaller force without a fight, and the occupation of Washington, D.C. which forced Madison to flee the city and watch as the White House was set on fire by British troops. The attack was in retaliation for a U.S. invasion of York, Upper Canada (now Toronto, Ontario), in which U.S. forces twice occupied the city, burning the Parliament Buildings of Upper Canada. The British also armed American Indians in the West, most notably followers of Tecumseh. Finally the Indians were defeated and a standoff was reached on the Canadian border. The Americans built warships on the Great Lakes faster than the British and defeated the British fleet to avert a major invasion of New York in 1814. At sea, the British blockaded the entire coastline, cutting off both foreign trade and domestic trade between ports. Economic hardship was severe in New England, but entrepreneurs built factories that soon became the basis of the industrial revolution in America. First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Robert Ross George Cockburn Unknown Strength 4,250 Unknown The Burning of Washington is the name given to the burning of Washington, D.C., by British forces in 1814, during the War of 1812. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... York was the name of Toronto, Ontario, between 1793 and 1834 and second captial of Upper Canada. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... An Ontario historical plaque marking the site of Upper Canadas first Parliament Buildings. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... For other uses, see Tecumseh (disambiguation). ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ...


Madison faced formidable obstacles--a divided cabinet, a factious party, a recalcitrant Congress, obstructionist governors, and amazingly incompetent generals, together with militia who refused to fight outside their states. Most serious was lack of unified popular support. There were serious threats of disunion from New England, which engaged in massive smuggling to Canada and refused to provide financial support or soldiers.[26] However Andrew Jackson in the South and William Henry Harrison in the West destroyed the main Indian threats by 1813. For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ...


After the apparent defeat of Napoleon in 1814, both the British and Americans were exhausted, the causes of the war had been forgotten, the Indian issue was resolved, and it was time for peace. New England Federalists, however, set up a defeatist Hartford Convention that discussed secession. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war in 1815. There were no territorial gains on either side as both sides returned to status quo ante bellum, that is, the previous boundaries. The Battle of New Orleans, in which Andrew Jackson defeated the British regulars, was fought fifteen days after the treaty was signed but before the news of the signing reached New Orleans. The Secret Journal of the Hartford Convention, published 1823. ... Signing of the Treaty of Ghent. ... The term status quo ante bellum comes from Latin meaning literally, as things were before the war. ... For other uses of the name, see Battle of New Orleans (disambiguation). ...


With peace finally established, the U.S. was swept by a sense of euphoria and national achievement in finally securing solid independence from Britain. In Canada, the war and its conclusion represented a successful defense of the country, and a defining era in the formation of an independent national identity. This, coupled with ongoing suspicion of a U.S. desire to again invade the country, would culminate in creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. In the U.S., the Federalist Party collapsed and eventually disappeared from politics, as an Era of Good Feeling emerged with a much lower level of political fear and vituperation, although political contention certainly continued. Canada is the second largest and the northern-most country in the world, occupying most of the North American land mass. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Era of Good Feelings is a phrase first used in the Boston Columbian Centinel newspaper on July 12, 1817 following the good-will visit to Boston of the new President James Monroe, is generally applied to describe the national mood of the United States from about 1815 to 1825. ...


Postwar

Although Madison had accepted the necessity of a Hamiltonian national bank, an effective taxation system based on tariffs, a standing professional army and a strong navy, he drew the line at internal improvements as advocated by his Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin. In his last act before leaving office, Madison vetoed on states' rights grounds a bill for "internal improvements", including roads, bridges, and canals: Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, Congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. ...

Having considered the bill ... I am constrained by the insuperable difficulty I feel in reconciling this bill with the Constitution of the United States.... The legislative powers vested in Congress are specified ... in the ... Constitution, and it does not appear that the power proposed to be exercised by the bill is among the enumerated powers.[27]

Madison rejected the view of Congress that the General Welfare provision of the Taxing and Spending Clause justified the bill, stating: Article I, Section 8, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution, known as the Taxing and Spending Clause states: The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States...

Such a view of the Constitution would have the effect of giving to Congress a general power of legislation instead of the defined and limited one hitherto understood to belong to them, the terms "common defense and general welfare" embracing every object and act within the purview of a legislative trust.

Madison urged a variety of measures that he felt were "best executed under the national authority", including federal support for roads and canals that would "bind more closely together the various parts of our extended confederacy".


Administration and Cabinet

The Madison Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President James Madison 1809 – 1817
Vice President George Clinton 1809 – 1812
None 1812 – 1813
Elbridge Gerry 1813 – 1814
None 1814 – 1817
Secretary of State Robert Smith 1809 – 1811
James Monroe 1811 – 1814
1815 – 1817
Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallatin 1809 – 1814
George W. Campbell 1814
Alexander J. Dallas 1814 – 1816
William H. Crawford 1816 – 1817
Secretary of War William Eustis 1809 – 1813
John Armstrong, Jr. 1813 – 1814
James Monroe 1814 – 1815
William H. Crawford 1815 – 1816
Attorney General Caesar A. Rodney 1809 – 1811
William Pinkney 1811 – 1814
Richard Rush 1814 – 1817
Postmaster General Gideon Granger 1809 – 1814
Return J. Meigs, Jr. 1814 – 1817
Secretary of the Navy Paul Hamilton 1809 – 1813
William Jones 1813 – 1814
Benjamin W. Crowninshield 1814 – 1817


Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... Elbridge Thomas Gerry (pronounced ) (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Robert Smith (November 3, 1757 – November 26, 1842) was the second United States Secretary of the Navy from 1801 to 1809 and the sixth United States Secretary of State from 1809 to 1811. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, Congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... George W. Campbell George Washington Campbell (February 9, 1769–February 17, 1848) was an American statesman. ... Dallas, as portrayed in an 1881 copy of a Gilbert Stuart painting Alexander James Dallas (June 21, 1759 – January 16, 1817) was an American statesman who served as the U.S. Treasury Secretary under President James Madison. ... William Harris Crawfordlalalalalalala (February 24, 1772 – September 15, 1834) was an important American politician, as well as a judge, during the early 19th century. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... William Eustis (June 10, 1753–February 6, 1825) was an early American statesman. ... John Armstrong, Jr. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... William Harris Crawfordlalalalalalala (February 24, 1772 – September 15, 1834) was an important American politician, as well as a judge, during the early 19th century. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Caesar Augustus Rodney (January 4, 1772 _ June 10, 1824) was the United States Attorney General from 1807 to 1811, a U.S. Senator from Delaware from 1822 to 1823, and the U.S. Minister to Argentina from 1823 until his death in Buenos Aires in 1824. ... William Pinkney William Pinkney (March 17, 1764–February 25, 1822) was an American statesman and diplomat, and the seventh U.S. Attorney General. ... Wikipedia also has an entry for Richard Rush (director) Richard Rush Richard Rush (August 29, 1780–July 30, 1859) was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Gideon Granger (July 19, 1767–December 31, 1822) was an American political leader. ... Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... U.S. Navy collection portrait of Paul Hamilton. ... Navy collection image of Jones William Jones (1760–September 6, 1831) was an American politician. ... Benjamin Williams Crowninshield (December 27, 1772 – February 3, 1851) served as the United States Secretary of the Navy between 1815 and 1818, during the administrations of Presidents James Madison and James Monroe. ...

Supreme Court appointments

Madison appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...

Gabriel Duval (1752 - 1844) was a U.S. jurist. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... American jurist Joseph Story Joseph Story (September 18, 1779 - September 10, 1845), American jurist, was born at Marblehead, Massachusetts. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting...

States admitted to the Union

This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Later life

When Madison left office in 1817, he retired to Montpelier, his tobacco plantation in Virginia; not far from Jefferson's Monticello. Madison was then 65 years old. Dolley, who thought they would finally have a chance to travel to Paris, was 49. But as with both Washington and Jefferson, Madison left the presidency a poorer man than when he entered, due to the steady financial collapse of his plantation. Some historians speculate that his mounting debt was one of the chief reasons why he refused to allow his notes on the Constitution Convention, or its official records which he possessed, to be published in his lifetime "He knew the value of his notes, and wanted them to bring money to his estate for Dolley's use as his plantation failed -- he was hoping for one hundred thousand dollars from the sale of his papers, of which the notes were the gem."[28] Madison's financial troubles and deteriorating mental and physical health would continue to consume him. Montpelier was the estate of James Madison, fourth President of the United States. ... This is about the Jefferson residence. ...


In his later years Madison also became extremely concerned about his legacy. He took to modifying letters and other documents in his possessions: changing days and dates, adding and deleting words and sentences, and shifting characters. By the time he had reached his late seventies, this "straightening out" had become almost an obsession. This can be seen by his editing of a letter he had written to Jefferson criticizing Lafayette: Madison not only inked out original passages, but went so far as to imitate Jefferson's handwriting as well.[29] In Madison's mind, this may have represented an effort to make himself clear, to justify his actions both to history and to himself.

During the final six years of his life, amid a sea of personal [financial] troubles that were threatening to engulf him...At times mental agitation issued in physical collapse. For the better part of a year in 1831 and 1832 he was bedridden, if not silenced...Literally sick with anxiety, he began to despair of his ability to make himself understood by his fellow citizens.[30]

In 1829, at the age of seventy-eight, Madison was chosen as a representative to the constitutional convention in Richmond for the revising of the Virginia state constitution; this was to be Madison's last appearance as a legislator and constitutional draftsman.


The issue of greatest importance at this convention was apportionment. The western districts of Virginia complained that they were under-represented because the state constitution apportioned voting districts by population, and the count included slaves even though slaves could not vote. Westerners had few slaves, while the Eastern planters had many, and thus the vote of a white easterner outweighed the vote of a white westerner. The membership of the United States House of Representatives changes each decade following the decennial United States Census. ...


Madison, who in his prime was known as "the Great Legislator", tried to effect a compromise, such as the 3/5 ratio for a slave then used by the U.S. Constitution, but to no avail. Eventually, the eastern planters prevailed. Slaves would continue to be counted toward their masters' districts. Madison was crushed at the failure of Virginians to resolve the issue more equably. "The Convention of 1829, we might say, pushed Madison steadily to the brink of self-delusion, if not despair. The dilemma of slavery undid him."[31]


Although his health had now almost failed, he managed to produce several memoranda on political subjects, including an essay against the appointment of chaplains for Congress and the armed forces, on the grounds that this produced religious exclusion, but not political harmony.[32] A chaplain in the 45th Infantry Division leads a Christmas Day service in Italy, 1943. ...


Madison lived on until 1836, increasingly ignored by the new leaders of the American polity. He died at Montpellier on June 28, the last remaining signatory of the United States Constitution. is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


As historian Garry Wills wrote:

Madison's claim on our admiration does not rest on a perfect consistency, any more than it rests on his presidency. He has other virtues.... As a framer and defender of the Constitution he had no peer.... The finest part of Madison's performance as president was his concern for the preserving of the Constitution.... No man could do everything for the country – not even Washington. Madison did more than most, and did some things better than any. That was quite enough.[33]

Legacy

  • Madison is the only president to have had two vice-presidents die on him while in office.
  • The James Madison Institute was named after the namesake in honor of his contributions to the Constitution.

Madison County is a county located in the state of Ohio, United States. ... Madison is a city in Jefferson County, Indiana, along the Ohio River. ... For other uses, see Madison (disambiguation). ... Madison is a city in Morgan County, Georgia, United States. ... James Madison College (often abbreviated to JMC or simply Madison) is a college of public affairs and international relations within Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan. ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a co-educational public research university in East Lansing, Michigan USA. Founded in 1855, it was the pioneer land-grant institution and served as a model for future land-grant colleges in the United States under the 1862 Morrill Act. ... JMU redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in Virginia Coordinates: , County Independent City Founded 1737 Government  - Mayor Rodney Eagle[1] Area  - City 45. ... The Madison River The Madison River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 183 mi (295 km) long, in the U.S. states of Wyoming and Montana. ... Madison County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Several ships of United States Navy were named USS James Madison: USS James Madison (1807) USS James Madison (SSBN-627) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Today, the currency of the United States, the U.S. dollar, is printed in bills in denominations of $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. ...

See also

This is a list of the religious affiliations of Presidents of the United States. ... JMU redirects here. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The James Madison University Dukes are the athletics teams of James Madison University. ... James Madison College (often abbreviated to JMC or simply Madison) is a college of public affairs and international relations within Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan. ... Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 was James Madisons record of the daily debates held by delegates at the Philadelphia Convention, which resulted in the drafting of the current United States Constitution. ... The cover of a book containing the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions along with the Report of 1800 and other supporting documents. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000043 http://teachingamericanhistory.org/convention/delegates/madison.html http://etcweb.princeton.edu/CampusWWW/Companion/madison_james.html http://www.adherents.com/people/pm/James_Madison.html http://www.dkrause.com/americana/presidents/madison-james/
  2. ^ The Founding Fathers: A Brief Overview. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved on 2008-02-12.
  3. ^ Wood, 2006b.
  4. ^ Robert Alan Dahl, "Madisonian Democracy," in Dahl, et al., eds. The Democracy Sourcebook (MIT Press, 2003), pp. 207-16.
  5. ^ Banning, 1995; Kernell, 2003; Riemer, 1954.
  6. ^ James Madison to Thomas Jefferson, March 2, 1794.) "I see by a paper of last evening that even in New York a meeting of the people has taken place, at the instance of the Republican Party, and that a committee is appointed for the like purpose."
    *Thomas Jefferson to President Washington, May 23, 1792 "The republican party, who wish to preserve the government in its present form, are fewer in number. They are fewer even when joined by the two, three, or half dozen anti-federalists,..."
    *Thomas Jefferson to John Melish, January 13, 1813. "The party called republican is steadily for the support of the present constitution"
  7. ^ . According to the Library of Congress, [1]
  8. ^ Shepard, Timothy (2007). PresidentialHeights - Every US president by height.
  9. ^ Adair, Douglass G. (2000), The Intellectual Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy, Lexington Books, pp. 25, ISBN 0739101250, <http://books.google.com/books?id=XYCQ7NrjK1kC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=%22america's+first+graduate+student%22&source=web&ots=5U4wbI27rU&sig=S9ZrJFV01xNfnIXrQSFAbz5BVII>. Retrieved on 21 December 2007
  10. ^ Dennis F. Thompson, "The Education of a Founding Father: The Reading List for John Witherspoon's Course in Political Theory, as Taken by James Madison," Political Theory 4(1976), 523-29; Alexander Leitch: Princeton Companion, "Graduate School". Even Leitch distinguishes that Madison was doing the first non-theological post-graduate work.
  11. ^ Wood, 2006, pp. 163-64.
  12. ^ Selected summaries of The Federalist Papers
  13. ^ Larry D. Kramer, "Madison's Audience," Harvard Law Review 112,3 (1999), pp. 611+ online version.
  14. ^ Lance Banning, "James Madison: Federalist," note 1, [2].
  15. ^ Letter of July 20, 1788.
  16. ^ Matthews, 1995, p. 130.
  17. ^ Wood, 2006b.
  18. ^ Matthews, 1995, p. 142.
  19. ^ http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=105_cong_documents&docid=f:sd011.105
  20. ^ Wood, 2006b.
  21. ^ Wood, 2006a, p. 165.
  22. ^ Paul A. Varg, Foreign Policies of the Founding Fathers (Michigan State Univ. Press, 1963), p. 74.
  23. ^ As early as May 26, 1792, Hamilton complained, "Mr. Madison cooperating with Mr. Jefferson is at the head of a faction decidedly hostile to me and my administration." Hamilton, Writings (Library of America, 2001), p. 738. On May 5, 1792, Madison told Washington, "with respect to the spirit of party that was taking place ...I was sensible of its existence". Madison Letters 1 (1865), p. 554.
  24. ^ definition of Madison, James. Free Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2008-02-03.
  25. ^ U.S. historians pick top 10 presidential errors. Associated Press article in CTV (February 18, 2006). Retrieved on 2008-02-03.
  26. ^ Stagg, 1983.
  27. ^ Tax Foundation
  28. ^ Garry Wills, James Madison (Times Books, 2002), p. 163.
  29. ^ Ibid., p. 162.
  30. ^ Drew R. McCoy, The Last of the Fathers: James Madison and the Republican Legacy (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989), p.151.
  31. ^ Ibid., p. 252.
  32. ^ He was tempted to admit chaplains for the navy, which might well have no other opportunity for worship.The text of the memoranda
  33. ^ Wills, James Madison (Times Books, 2002), p. 164.
  34. ^ Madison County of Ohio – Community Information. Madison County Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved on 2008-02-03.
  35. ^ Allan H. Keith, Historical Stories: About Greenville and Bond County, IL. Consulted on August 15, 2007.
  36. ^ Five Thousand Green Seal. The United States Treasury Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Secondary sources

Biographies

  • Brant, Irving. "James Madison and His Times," American Historical Review. 57,4(July, 1952), 853-870.
  • Brant, Irving. James Madison, 6 vols., (Bobbs-Merrill, 1941-1961). most detailed scholarly biography.
  • Brant, Irving. The Fourth President; a Life of James Madison (Bobbs-Merrill, 1970). one-volume condensation of his series.
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography (Macmillan, 1971). standard scholarly biography.
  • Rakove, Jack. James Madison and the Creation of the American Republic, 2nd ed., (Longman, 2002).
  • Riemer, Neal. James Madison (Washington Square Press, 1968).
  • Wills, Garry. James Madison (Times Books, 2002). short bio.

Analytic studies

  • Adams, Henry. History of the United States during the [First and Second] Administrations of James Madison (C. Scribners's Sons, 1890-91; Library of America, 1986).
    • Wills, Garry. Henry Adams and the Making of America (Houghton Mifflin, 2005). a close reading.
  • Banning, Lance. The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic (Cornell Univ. Press, 1995). online ACLS History e-Book. Available only to subscribing institutions.
  • Brant, Irving. James Madison and American Nationalism. (Van Nostrand Co., 1968).
  • Elkins, Stanley M.; McKitrick, Eric. The Age of Federalism (Oxford Univ. Press, 1995). most detailed analysis of the politics of the 1790s.
  • Kernell, Samuel, ed. James Madison: the Theory and Practice of Republican Government (Stanford Univ. Press, 2003).
  • Matthews, Richard K., If Men Were Angels : James Madison and the Heartless Empire of Reason (Univ. Press of Kansas, 1995).
  • McCoy, Drew R. The Elusive Republic: Political Economy in Jeffersonian America (W.W. Norton, 1980). mostly economic issues.
    • McCoy, The Last of the Fathers: James Madison and the Republican Legacy (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989). JM after 1816.
  • Muñoz, Vincent Phillip. "James Madison's Principle of Religious Liberty," American Political Science Review 97,1(2003), 17-32. SSRN 512922 in JSTOR.
  • Riemer, Neal. "The Republicanism of James Madison," Political Science Quarterly, 69,1(1954), 45-64 in JSTOR.
    • Riemer, James Madison : Creating the American Constitution (Congressional Quarterly, 1986).
  • Rutland, Robert A. The Presidency of James Madison (Univ. Press of Kansas, 1990). scholarly overview of his two terms.
    • Rutland, ed. James Madison and the American Nation, 1751-1836: An Encyclopedia (Simon & Schuster, 1994).
  • Sheehan, Colleen A. "The Politics of Public Opinion: James Madison's 'Notes on Government'," William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. 49,3(1992), 609-627. in JSTOR.
    • Sheehan, "Madison and the French Enlightenment," William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. 59,4(Oct. 2002), 925-956. in JSTOR.
    • Sheehan, "Madison v. Hamilton: The Battle Over Republicanism and the Role of Public Opinion," American Political Science Review 98,3(2004), 405-424. in JSTOR.
    • Sheehan, "Madison Avenues," Claremont Review of Books (Spring 2004), online.
    • Sheehan, "Public Opinion and the Formation of Civic Character in Madison's Republican Theory," Review of Politics 67,1(Winter 2005), 37-48.
  • Stagg, John C.A., "James Madison and the 'Malcontents': The Political Origins of the War of 1812," William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. 33,4(Oct. 1976), 557-585.
    • Stagg, "James Madison and the Coercion of Great Britain: Canada, the West Indies, and the War of 1812," in William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. 38,1(Jan., 1981), 3-34.
    • Stagg, Mr. Madison's War: Politics, Diplomacy, and Warfare in the Early American republic, 1783-1830 (Princeton, 1983).
  • Wood, Gordon S., "Is There a 'James Madison Problem'?" in Wood, Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different (Penguin Press, 2006a), 141-72.
    • Wood, "Without Him, No Bill of Rights : James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights by Richard Labunski", The New York Review of Books (November 30 2006b).

The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a website devoted to the promotion of scholarship in the fields of economics, finance, accounting, management and law. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Primary sources

  • Rakove, Jack N., ed. James Madison, Writings (Library of America, 1999) ISBN 978-1-88301166-6. Over 900 pages of letters, speeches and reports.
  • James Madison, Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 Reported by James Madison (W.W. Norton, 1987); [pb: ISBN 0393304051] ([3]
  • James Madison, Letters & Other Writings Of James Madison Fourth President Of The United States, 4 vols., (J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1865); called the Congress edition. online edition
  • William T. Hutchinson et al., eds., The Papers of James Madison (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1962-). the definitive multivolume edition. 29 volumes have been published, with 16+ more volumes planned.
  • Gaillard Hunt, ed. The Writings of James Madison, 9 vols., (G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1900-1910). online edition
  • Marvin Myers, ed. Mind of the Founder: Sources of the Political Thought of James Madison (Univ. Press of New England, 1981;1973) [ISBN 0-87451-201-8].
  • James M. Smith, ed. The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776-1826. 3 vols., (W.W. Norton, 1995).
  • Jacob E. Cooke, ed. The Federalist (Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1961).

Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ...

External links

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James Madison
United States House of Representatives
New district Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 5th congressional district

March 4, 1789March 3, 1793
Succeeded by
George Hancock
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 15th congressional district

March 4, 1793March 3, 1797
Succeeded by
John Dawson
Political offices
Preceded by
John Marshall
United States Secretary of State
May 2, 1801March 4, 1809
Succeeded by
Robert Smith
Preceded by
Thomas Jefferson
President of the United States
March 4, 1809March 4, 1817
Succeeded by
James Monroe
Party political offices
Preceded by
Thomas Jefferson
Democratic-Republican Party presidential candidate
1808, 1812
Succeeded by
James Monroe
Honorary titles
Preceded by
John Adams
Oldest U.S. President still living
July 4, 1826June 28, 1836
Succeeded by
Andrew Jackson
Persondata
NAME Madison, James
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817)
DATE OF BIRTH March 16, 1751(1751-03-16)
PLACE OF BIRTH Port Conway, Virginia
DATE OF DEATH 1836-06-28
PLACE OF DEATH Montpelier, Virginia
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Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... These are tables of congressional delegations from Virginia to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Virginias fifth congressional district is a United States congressional district in the state of Virginia. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... George Hancock (June 13, 1754– July 18, 1820) was an American planter and lawyer from Virginia. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Virginia to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Categories: | ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other persons named John Dawson, see John Dawson (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Marshall, see John Marshall (disambiguation). ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Robert Smith (November 3, 1757 – November 26, 1842) was the second United States Secretary of the Navy from 1801 to 1809 and the sixth United States Secretary of State from 1809 to 1811. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The election of 1808 was the first of only two cases where a new President would be elected, but the Vice Presidency remained in the same hands. ... Summary Taking place in the shadow of the War of 1812, the election of 1812 featured an intriguing competition between incumbent President James Madison and the nephew of his former Vice President, DeWitt Clinton (uncle George Clinton had died in office). ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... This is a chronology of who was the oldest living President of the United States, former or current, at any given time. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... 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Joseph Habersham Joseph Habersham (July 28, 1751–November 17, 1815) was an American businessman, Continental Congressman, soldier in the Continental Army and Postmaster General of the United States. ... Gideon Granger (July 19, 1767–December 31, 1822) was an American political leader. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Benjamin Stoddert (1751-1813) was the first United States Secretary of the Navy from May 1, 1798 to March 31, 1801. ... Robert Smith (November 3, 1757 – November 26, 1842) was the second United States Secretary of the Navy from 1801 to 1809 and the sixth United States Secretary of State from 1809 to 1811. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... Elbridge Thomas Gerry (pronounced ) (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. ... James Madison This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Robert Smith (November 3, 1757 – November 26, 1842) was the second United States Secretary of the Navy from 1801 to 1809 and the sixth United States Secretary of State from 1809 to 1811. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, Congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... George W. Campbell George Washington Campbell (February 9, 1769–February 17, 1848) was an American statesman. ... Dallas, as portrayed in an 1881 copy of a Gilbert Stuart painting Alexander James Dallas (June 21, 1759 – January 16, 1817) was an American statesman who served as the U.S. Treasury Secretary under President James Madison. ... William Harris Crawfordlalalalalalala (February 24, 1772 – September 15, 1834) was an important American politician, as well as a judge, during the early 19th century. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... William Eustis (June 10, 1753–February 6, 1825) was an early American statesman. ... John Armstrong, Jr. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... William Harris Crawfordlalalalalalala (February 24, 1772 – September 15, 1834) was an important American politician, as well as a judge, during the early 19th century. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Caesar Augustus Rodney (January 4, 1772 _ June 10, 1824) was the United States Attorney General from 1807 to 1811, a U.S. Senator from Delaware from 1822 to 1823, and the U.S. Minister to Argentina from 1823 until his death in Buenos Aires in 1824. ... William Pinkney William Pinkney (March 17, 1764–February 25, 1822) was an American statesman and diplomat, and the seventh U.S. Attorney General. ... Wikipedia also has an entry for Richard Rush (director) Richard Rush Richard Rush (August 29, 1780–July 30, 1859) was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Gideon Granger (July 19, 1767–December 31, 1822) was an American political leader. ... Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... U.S. Navy collection portrait of Paul Hamilton. ... Navy collection image of Jones William Jones (1760–September 6, 1831) was an American politician. ... Benjamin Williams Crowninshield (December 27, 1772 – February 3, 1851) served as the United States Secretary of the Navy between 1815 and 1818, during the administrations of Presidents James Madison and James Monroe. ... An advertisement for The Federalist The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. ... This is a listing of the Federalist Papers. ... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, and jurist. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... To the People of the State of New York: When the people of America reflect that they are now called upon to decide a question, which, in its consequences, must prove one of the most important that ever engaged their attention, the propriety of their taking a very comprehensive, as... John Jay, author of Federalist No. ... John Jay Federalist No. ... To the People of the State of New York: QUEEN ANNE, in her letter of the 1st July, 1706, to the Scotch Parliament, makes some observations on the importance of the UNION then forming between England and Scotland, which merit our attention. ... Federalist No. ... Federalist No. ... Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... In Federalist 39, Publius attempts to describe the nature of the U.S. Government as proposed by the Constitution. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... John Jay, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... The Anti-Federalist Papers are a collection of articles, written in opposition to the ratification of the 1787 Constitution of the United States. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Famous Births 1. ... Montpelier was the estate of James Madison, fourth President of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

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James Madison - MSN Encarta (1193 words)
Madison was the eldest child of James and Eleanor Conway Madison.
In 1776 Madison was elected a delegate to the Virginia constitutional convention.
Madison wrote the article of the declaration of rights that asserted the right of all “to the free exercise of religion, according to the dictates of conscience.” However, it was not until 1786 that, through Madison’s leadership, the Virginia legislature enacted Jefferson’s monumental Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom.
James Madison: Biography and Much More From Answers.com (7071 words)
Madison said that to allow unelected federal judges to overturn legislation enacted by the popularly elected branches of government makes "the judicial department paramount in fact to the legislature, which was never intended, and can never be proper." Madison changed his mind on this issue near the end of his life.
Madison's plantation life was made possible by his paternal great-great-grandfather, James Madison, who utilized Virginia's headright system to import many indentured servants, thereby allowing him to accumulate a large tract of land.
Madison is often referred to as the "Father of the Constitution" for his role in its drafting and ratification.
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