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Encyclopedia > James Joyce
James Joyce

James Joyce, ca. 1918
Born 2 February 1882(1882-02-02)
Rathgar, Dublin, Ireland
Died 13 January 1941 (aged 58)
Zürich, Switzerland
Occupation Novelist and Poet
Literary movement Modernism, and imagism
Influences Homer, Aristotle, Dante, Aquinas, Shakespeare, Dujardin, Ibsen, Bruno, Vico, Chekhov
Influenced Beckett, Borges, O'Brien, Rushdie, Eco, Woolf, DeLillo, Burgess, Campbell, Faulkner, Edna O'Brien, Martin Amis, Jamie O'Neill, Orwell

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 188213 January 1941) was an Irish expatriate writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. He is best known for his landmark novel Ulysses (1922) and its highly controversial successor Finnegans Wake (1939), as well as the short story collection Dubliners (1914) and the semi-autobiographical novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916). James A. Joyce III (born October 3, 1955 in Toledo, Ohio) is an umpire in Major League Baseball who has worked in the American League (AL) from 1989 to 1999 and throughout both major leagues since 2000. ... James Joyce (July 2, 1870 - March 25, 1931) was a U.S. Representative from Ohio. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (570x764, 205 KB) James Joyce. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Rathgar (Irish: Rath Gharbh) is a well-to-do suburb of Dublin, Ireland, lying about 4 km south of the city centre. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Ezra Pound was one of the prime movers of Imagism. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Edouard Dujardin. ... Ibsen redirects here. ... Giordano Bruno Giordano Bruno (1548, Nola – February 17, 1600, Rome) was an Italian philosopher, priest, cosmologist, and occultist. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: , IPA: ) was a Russian short story writer and playwright. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... Borges redirects here. ... Flann OBrien (October 5, 1911, Strabane, County Tyrone Ireland – April 1, 1966 Dublin) is a pseudonym of the twentieth century Irish novelist and satirist Brian ONolan (in Irish Brian Ó Nuallain), best known for his novels An Béal Bocht, At Swim-Two-Birds and The Third Policeman. ... Ahmed Salman Rushdie (Devanagari : अख़्मद सल्मान रश्दी Nastaliq:; born 19 June 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... Don DeLillo (born November 20, 1936) is an American author best known for his novels, which paint detailed portraits of American life in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. ... Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... Edna OBrien (born December 15, 1930) is an Irish novelist and short story writer whose works often revolve around the inner feelings of women, and their problems in relating to men. ... Photo of Martin Amis by Robert Birnbaum Martin Amis (born August 25, 1949) is an English novelist. ... Jamie ONeill Jamie ONeill (born 1962 in Dun Laoghaire, Ireland) is an Irish author who lived and worked in England for two decades; he now lives in Gortachalla, in County Galway, Ireland. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... For the street ballad which the novel is named after, see Finnegans Wake. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For the Irish folk band, see The Dubliners. ... A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist from 1914 to 1915 and published in book form in 1916. ...


Although he spent most of his adult life outside Ireland, Joyce's psychological and fictional universe is firmly rooted in his native Dublin - the city which provides the settings and much of the subject matter for all his fiction. In particular, his tempestuous early relationship with the Irish Roman Catholic Church is reflected through a similar inner conflict in his recurrent alter ego Stephen Dedalus. As the result of his minute attentiveness to a personal locale and his self-imposed exile and influence throughout Europe, (notably in Paris, France), Joyce became paradoxically one of the most cosmopolitan yet one of the most regionally-focussed of all the English language writers of his time.[1] For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Stephen Dedalus was James Joyces early pen name and the name of the main character of his early novel Stephen Hero. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single moral community. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

Life and writing

Dublin, 1882–1904

In 1882, James Augustine Joyce was born into a Roman Catholic family in the Dublin suburb of Rathgar. He was the oldest of 10 surviving children; two of his siblings died of typhoid. His father's family, originally from Fermoy in Cork, had once owned a small salt and lime works. Joyce's father and paternal grandfather both married into wealthy families. In 1887, his father, John Stanislaus Joyce, was appointed rate (i.e., a local property tax) collector by Dublin Corporation; the family subsequently moved to the fashionable adjacent small town of Bray 12 miles from Dublin. Around this time Joyce was attacked by a dog; this resulted in a lifelong canine phobia. He also suffered from a fear of thunderstorms, which his deeply religious aunt had described to him as being a sign of God's wrath.[2] For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... Rathgar (Irish: Rath Gharbh) is a well-to-do suburb of Dublin, Ireland, lying about 4 km south of the city centre. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference W808987 Statistics Province: Munster County: Elevation: 72 m (236 ft) Population (2006)  - Town:  - Rural:   2,275  3,598 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... John Stanislaus Joyce (July 4, 1849-December 29, 1931) was the father of writer James Joyce, and a well known Dublin man about town. ... Dublin Corporation is the former name given to the city government and its administrative organisation in Dublin between the twelfth century and 1 January 2002. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Phobia (disambiguation). ...


In 1891, Joyce wrote a poem, "Et Tu Healy," on the death of Charles Stewart Parnell. His father was angry at the treatment of Parnell by the Catholic church and at the resulting failure to secure Home Rule for Ireland. The elder Joyce had the poem printed and even sent a copy to the Vatican Library. In November of that same year, John Joyce was entered in Stubbs Gazette (an official register of bankruptcies) and suspended from work. In 1893 John Joyce was dismissed with a pension. This was the beginning of a slide into poverty for the family, mainly due to John's drinking and general financial mismanagement.[3] Charles Stewart Parnell, the uncrowned King of Ireland Charles Stewart Parnell[1] (27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish political leader and one of the most important figures in 19th century Ireland and the United Kingdom; William Ewart Gladstone described him as the most remarkable person he had... The Vatican Library (Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana) is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City. ... Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their creditors. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...

Photograph of James Joyce taken by fellow University College student Constantine P. Curran in the summer of 1904. When asked later what he was thinking at the time, Joyce replied 'I was wondering would he lend me five shillings' (in Ellmann).

James Joyce was initially educated by the Jesuit order at Clongowes Wood College, a boarding school near Sallins in County Kildare, which he entered in 1888 but had to leave in 1892 when his father could no longer pay the fees. Joyce then studied at home and briefly at the Christian Brothers school on North Richmond Street, Dublin, before he was offered a place in the Jesuits' Dublin school, Belvedere College, in 1893. The offer was made at least partly in the hope that he would prove to have a vocation and join the Order. Joyce, however, was to reject Catholicism by the age of 16, although the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas would remain a strong influence on him throughout his life.[4] Image File history File links JamesJoyce1904. ... Image File history File links JamesJoyce1904. ... University College Dublin - National University of Ireland, Dublin - more commonly University College Dublin - is the Republic of Irelands largest university, with over 1,300 faculty and 22,000 students. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Clongowes Wood College is a private secondary boarding school for boys in County Kildare, Ireland run by the Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) since 1814, making it one of Irelands oldest Catholic schools. ... A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Naas Code: KE Area: 1,693 km² Population (2006) 186,075 Website: www. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The O’Connell School is a secondary school for boys, located on North Richmond Street in Dublin, Republic of Ireland. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Belvedere College SJ is a private secondary school for boys located on Great Denmark Street, Dublin, Ireland. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ...


He enrolled at the recently established University College Dublin in 1898. He studied modern languages, specifically English, French and Italian. He also became active in theatrical and literary circles in the city. His review of Ibsen's New Drama, his first published work, was published in 1900 and resulted in a letter of thanks from the Norwegian dramatist himself. Joyce wrote a number of other articles and at least two plays (since lost) during this period. Many of the friends he made at University College Dublin would appear as characters in Joyce's written works. He was an active member of the Literary and Historical Society, University College Dublin, and presented his paper "Drama and Life" to the L&H in 1900. University College Dublin - National University of Ireland, Dublin - more commonly University College Dublin (UCD) - is Irelands largest university, with over 20,000 students. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Ibsen redirects here. ...   The Literary and Historical Society (L&H) is University College Dublins oldest debating society, founded by John Henry Newman at the same time as the Colleges predecessor, the Catholic University of Ireland, in 1854. ...   The Literary and Historical Society (L&H) is University College Dublins oldest debating society and the official College Debating Union. ...


After graduating from UCD in 1903, Joyce left for Paris to "study medicine", but in reality he squandered money his family could ill afford. He returned to Ireland after a few months, when his mother was diagnosed with cancer.[5] Fearing for her son's "impiety", his mother tried unsuccessfully to get Joyce to make his confession and to take communion. She finally passed into a coma and died on August 13, Joyce having refused to kneel with other members of the family praying at her bedside.[6] After her death he continued to drink heavily, and conditions at home grew quite appalling. He scraped a living reviewing books, teaching and singing — he was an accomplished tenor, and won the bronze medal in the 1904 Feis Ceoil.[7] This article is about the capital of France. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... Feis Ceoil (Irish: Festival of Music) is an annual Irish cultural festival of music and dance. ...


On 7 January 1904, he attempted to publish A Portrait of the Artist, an essay-story dealing with aesthetics, only to have it rejected by the free-thinking magazine Dana. He decided, on his twenty-second birthday, to revise the story and turn it into a novel he planned to call Stephen Hero. This was the same year he met Nora Barnacle, a young woman from Galway city who was working as a chambermaid at Finn's Hotel in Dublin. On 16 June 1904, they went on their first date, an event which would be commemorated by providing the date for the action of Ulysses. is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... A chambermaid is a maid who cleans and cares for bedrooms. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Joyce remained in Dublin for some time longer, drinking heavily. After one of his alcoholic binges, he got into a fight over a misunderstanding with a man in Phoenix Park; he was picked up and dusted off by a minor acquaintance of his father, Alfred H. Hunter, who brought him into his home to tend to his injuries.[8] Hunter was rumored to be Jewish and to have an unfaithful wife, and would serve as one of the models for Leopold Bloom, the main protagonist of Ulysses.[9] He took up with medical student Oliver St John Gogarty, who formed the basis for the character Buck Mulligan in Ulysses. After staying in Gogarty's Martello Tower for 6 nights he left in the middle of the night following an altercation which involved Gogarty shooting a pistol at some pans hanging directly over Joyce's bed.[10] He walked all the way back to Dublin to stay with relatives for the night, and sent a friend to the tower the next day to pack his possessions into his trunk. Shortly thereafter he eloped to the continent with Nora. Phoenix Park (in Irish, Páirc an Fhionn-Uisce) is a large park located 3 km to the north west of Dublin city centre in Ireland. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Leopold Bloom is a fictional character in James Joyces novel Ulysses. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... Oliver St John Gogarty (August 17, 1878-September 22, 1957) was an Irish physician and surgeon, who was also a poet and writer, one of the most prominent Dublin wits, and for some time a political figure of the Irish Free State. ... Malachi Buck Mulligan is a fictional character in James Joyces novel Ulysses. ... Martello towers (or simply Martellos) are small defensive forts built in several countries of the British Empire during the 19th century, from the time of the Napoleonic Wars onwards. ...


1904–1920: Trieste and Zürich

Joyce's statue in Trieste
Joyce's statue in Trieste

Joyce and Nora went into self-imposed exile, moving first to Zürich, where he had supposedly acquired a post teaching English at the Berlitz Language School through an agent in England. It turned out that the English agent had been swindled, but the director of the school sent him on to Trieste, which was part of Austria-Hungary until World War I (today part of Italy). Once again, he found there was no position for him, but with the help of Almidano Artifoni, director of the Trieste Berlitz school, he finally secured a teaching position in Pula, then also part of Austria-Hungary (today part of Croatia). He stayed there, teaching English mainly to Austro-Hungarian naval officers stationed at the Pula base, from October 1904 until March 1905, when the Austrians — having discovered an espionage ring in the city — expelled all aliens. With Artifoni's help, he moved back to the city of Trieste and began teaching English there. He would remain in Trieste for most of the next 10 years.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1482x2048, 1966 KB) Tribute to James Joyce in Trieste(Italy) on the Ponterosso bridge. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1482x2048, 1966 KB) Tribute to James Joyce in Trieste(Italy) on the Ponterosso bridge. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... Berlitz Language Schools, now known as Berlitz International, Inc, derive from an institution founded by Maximilian Berlitz in 1878, in Providence, Rhode Island. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Pula (Latin Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola; Italian Pola (the city has an official Croatian-Italian bilingualism [1]); Istriot Pula, German Polei) is the largest city in Istria, situated at the southern tip of the peninsula, with a population of 62,080 (2006). ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... In U.S. law, an alien is a term Americans use for a person who owes political allegiance to another country or government and not a native or naturalized citizen of the land where they are found. ...


Later that year Nora gave birth to their first child, George. Joyce then managed to talk his brother, Stanislaus, into joining him in Trieste, and secured him a position teaching at the school. Ostensibly his reasons were for his company and offering his brother a much more interesting life than the simple clerking job he had back in Dublin, but in truth, he hoped to augment his family's meagre income with his brother's earnings.[11] Stanislaus and James had strained relations the entire time they lived together in Trieste, with most arguments centering on James' frivolity with money and drinking habits.[12] Stanislaus Joyce (December 17, 1884-June 16, 1955), teacher, scholar, and writer; brother of James Joyce. ...


With chronic wanderlust much of his early life, Joyce became frustrated with life in Trieste and moved to Rome in late 1906, having secured a position working in a bank in the city. He intensely disliked Rome, however, and ended up moving back to Trieste in early 1907. His daughter Lucia was born in the summer of the same year. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Lucia Anna Joyce (July 26, 1907 - December 12, 1982), daughter of Irish writer James Joyce and Nora Barnacle, was born in Trieste, speaking Italian as her first language. ...


Joyce returned to Dublin in the summer of 1909 with George, in order to visit his father and work on getting Dubliners published. He visited Nora's family in Galway, meeting them for the first time (a successful visit, to his relief). When preparing to return to Trieste he decided to bring one of his sisters, Eva, back to Trieste with him in order to help Nora look after the home. He would spend only a month back in Trieste before again heading back to Dublin, this time as a representative of some cinema owners in order to set up a regular cinema in Dublin. The venture was successful (but would quickly fall apart in his absence), and he returned to Trieste in January 1910 with another sister in tow, Eileen. While Eva became very homesick for Dublin and returned a few years later, Eileen spent the rest of her life on the continent, eventually marrying Czech bank cashier František Schaurek. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ...


Joyce returned to Dublin briefly in the summer of 1912 during his years-long fight with his Dublin publisher, George Roberts, over the publication of Dubliners. His trip was once again fruitless, and on his return he wrote the poem "Gas from a Burner" as a thinly veiled invective against Roberts. It was his last trip to Ireland, and he never again came closer to Dublin than London, despite the many pleas of his father and invitations from fellow Irish writer William Butler Yeats. William Butler Yeats, 1933. ...


Joyce came up with many money-making schemes during this period of his life, such as his attempt to become a cinema magnate back in Dublin, as well as a frequently discussed but ultimately abandoned plan to import Irish tweeds into Trieste. His expert borrowing skills saved him from indigence. His income was made up partially from his position at the Berlitz school and from taking on private students. Many of his acquaintances through meeting these private students proved invaluable allies when he faced problems getting out of Austria-Hungary and into Switzerland in 1915. “Tycoon” redirects here. ...


One of his students in Trieste was Ettore Schmitz, better known by the pseudonym Italo Svevo; they met in 1907 and became lasting friends and mutual critics. Schmitz was Jewish, and became the primary model for Leopold Bloom; most of the details about the Jewish faith included in Ulysses came from Schmitz in response to Joyce's queries.[13] Joyce would spend most of the rest of his life on the Continent. It was in Trieste that he first began to be plagued by major eye problems, which would result in over a dozen surgeries before his death. Aron Ettore Schmitz (December 19, 1861 – September 13, 1928), better known by the pseudonym Italo Svevo, was an Italian businessman and author of novels, plays, and short stories, who converted to Roman Catholicism after marrying Livia Veneziani. ... A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ... Aron Ettore Schmitz (December 19, 1861 – September 13, 1928), better known by the pseudonym Italo Svevo, was an Italian businessman and author of novels, plays, and short stories, who converted to Roman Catholicism after marrying Livia Veneziani. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 1915, when Joyce moved to Zürich in order to avoid the complexities (as a British subject) of living in Austria-Hungary during World War I, he met one of his most enduring and important friends, Frank Budgen, whose opinion Joyce constantly sought through the writing of Ulysses and Finnegans Wake. It was also here where Ezra Pound brought him to the attention of English feminist and publisher Harriet Shaw Weaver, who would become Joyce's patron, providing him thousands of pounds over the next 25 years and relieving him of the burden of teaching in order to focus on his writing. After the war he returned to Trieste briefly, but found the city had changed, and his relations with his brother (who had been interned in an Austrian prison camp for most of the war due to his pro-Italian politics) were more strained than ever. Joyce headed to Paris in 1920 at an invitation from Ezra Pound, supposedly for a week, but he ended up living there for the next twenty years. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Frank Budgen (1882-1971) was a painter in World War One Switzerland acquainted with the author James Joyce. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876 - 1961, was the patron of James Joyce. ...


1920–1941: Paris and Zürich

He traveled frequently to Switzerland for eye surgeries and treatments for Lucia, who, according to the Joyce estate, suffered from schizophrenia. In her 2003 work, Lucia Joyce: To Dance in the Wake, Carol Loeb Shloss alleges that there may have been incest between Lucia and her father and quite possibly between Lucia and her brother Georgio.[14] She cites the admission of the current heir of the Joyce estate, Stephen Joyce, that he burned thousands of letters between Lucia and her father that he received upon Lucia's death in 1982.[15] There is much correspondence of Joyce's showing that Lucia was his muse in Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ulysses, and Finnegans Wake. All three works include a voyeuristic father with a libidinal interest in nubile pre-pubescent and adolescent girls—very often his own daughter.[16] Finnegans Wake ends with a father having sex with his daughter.[17] There is correspondence from Joyce proving that he spoke with Lucia in a language similar to that of the fragmented multi-language style in Finnegans Wake. There is much evidence that Lucia was not diagnosed with schizophrenia by several doctors. In fact, she was analyzed by Carl Jung who was of the opinion that her father was a schizophrenic after reading Ulysses.[18] Jung noted that she and her father were two people heading to the bottom of a river, except that he was diving and she was falling.[19][20] Jung redirects here. ...



In Paris, Maria and Eugene Jolas nursed Joyce during his long years of writing Finnegans Wake. Were it not for their unwavering support (along with Harriet Shaw Weaver's constant financial support), there is a good possibility that his books might never have been finished or published. In their now legendary literary magazine "transition," the Jolases published serially various sections of Joyce's novel under the title Work in Progress. He returned to Zürich in late 1940, fleeing the Nazi occupation of France. On 11 January 1941, he underwent surgery for a perforated ulcer. While at first improved, he relapsed the following day, and despite several transfusions, fell into a coma. He awoke at 2 a.m. on 13 January 1941, and asked for a nurse to call his wife and son before losing consciousness again. They were still en route when he died 15 minutes later. He is buried in the Fluntern Cemetery within earshot of the lions in the Zürich zoo - Nora's offer to permit the repatriation of Joyce's remains was declined by the Irish government. Nora, whom he had finally married in London in 1931, survived him by 10 years. She is buried now by his side, as is their son George, who died in 1976. Ellmann reports that when the arrangements for Joyce's burial were being made, a Catholic priest tried to convince Nora that there should be a funeral Mass. Ever loyal, she replied, 'I couldn't do that to him'. Maria Jolas, born Maria McDonald on January 12, 1893, Louisville, Kentucky, United States - died March 4, 1987 in Paris, France, was one of the founding members of transition in Paris, France with her husband Eugene Jolas. ... Eugene Jolas (1894-1952) was a writer, translator and literary critic. ... For specific information on todays France, see France and Portal:France. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Also known as Friedhof Fluntern, Fluntern Cemetery is located in the Zürichberg district of Zürich. ...


Major works

The title page of the first edition of Dubliners.
The title page of the first edition of Dubliners.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (498x780, 77 KB)Title page of the first edition of James Joyces Dubliners, published in 1914. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (498x780, 77 KB)Title page of the first edition of James Joyces Dubliners, published in 1914. ...

Dubliners

Main article: Dubliners

Joyce's Irish experiences constitute an essential element of his writings, and provide all of the settings for his fiction and much of their subject matter. His early volume of short stories, Dubliners, is a penetrating analysis of the stagnation and paralysis of Dublin society. The final and most famous story in the collection, "The Dead," was made into a feature film in 1987, directed by John Huston (it was Huston's last major work). For the Irish folk band, see The Dubliners. ... The Dead is the final short story in the collection Dubliners by James Joyce. ... John Marcellus Huston (August 5, 1906 – August 28, 1987) was an American film director and actor. ...


A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a nearly complete rewrite of the abandoned novel Stephen Hero, the original manuscript of which Joyce partially destroyed in a fit of rage during an argument with Nora. A Künstlerroman, or story of the personal development of an artist, it is a biographical coming-of-age novel in which Joyce depicts a gifted young man's gradual attainment of maturity and self-consciousness; the main character, Stephen Dedalus, is in many ways based upon Joyce himself.[21] Some hints of the techniques Joyce was to frequently employ in later works — such as the use of interior monologue and references to a character's psychic reality rather than his external surroundings — are evident in this novel.[22] Joseph Strick directed a film of the book in 1977 starring Luke Johnston, Bosco Hogan, T.P. McKenna and John Gielgud. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist from 1914 to 1915 and published in book form in 1916. ... A Künstlerroman (//, German: artists novel) is a kind of Bildungsroman; it is a novel about an artists growth to maturity. ... A Bildungsroman (IPA: /, German: novel of self-cultivation) is a novelistic form which concentrates on the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the protagonist usually from childhood to maturity. ... Stephen Dedalus was James Joyces early pen name and the name of the main character of his early novel Stephen Hero. ... Joseph Strick is an American director, producer and screenwriter. ... Bosco Hogan is an Irish actor of stage, screen and television. ... British actor, appearing in many film and TV productions. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor. ...


Exiles and poetry

Despite early interest in the theatre, Joyce published only one play, Exiles, begun shortly after the outbreak of World War I in 1914 and published in 1918. A study of a husband and wife relationship, the play looks back to The Dead (the final story in Dubliners) and forward to Ulysses, which was begun around the time of the play's composition. Pomes Penyeach is a collection of thirteen short poems, written over a twenty-year period from 1904 to 1924 by the novelist James Joyce and originally published on 7th July 1927 by Shakespeare and Co. ... A collection of poems by James Joyce, published by Elkin Matthews in May, 1907. ... Exiles is a play by James Joyce, who is principally remembered for his novels. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Joyce also published a number of books of poetry. His first mature published work was the satirical broadside "The Holy Office" (1904), in which he proclaimed himself to be the superior of many prominent members of the Celtic revival. His first full-length poetry collection Chamber Music (referring, Joyce explained, to the sound of urine hitting the side of a chamber pot) consisted of 36 short lyrics. This publication led to his inclusion in the Imagist Anthology, edited by Ezra Pound, who was a champion of Joyce's work. Other poetry Joyce published in his lifetime includes "Gas From A Burner" (1912), Pomes Penyeach (1927) and "Ecce Puer" (written in 1932 to mark the birth of his grandson and the recent death of his father). It was published in Collected Poems (1936). The Celtic Revival, also known as the Irish Literary Revival, was begun by Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn and William Butler Yeats in Ireland in 1896. ... Ezra Pound was one of the prime movers of Imagism. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ...


Ulysses

Main article: Ulysses (novel)
Announcement of the initial publication of Ulysses.
Announcement of the initial publication of Ulysses.

As he was completing work on Dubliners in 1906, Joyce considered adding another story featuring a Jewish advertising canvasser called Leopold Bloom under the title Ulysses. Although he did not pursue the idea further at the time, he eventually commenced work on a novel using both the title and basic premise in 1914. The writing was completed in October, 1921. Three more months were devoted to working on the proofs of the book before Joyce halted work shortly before his self-imposed deadline, his 40th birthday (2 February 1922). Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (889x1319, 134 KB) Sylvia Beachs press release and order form for Ulysses. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (889x1319, 134 KB) Sylvia Beachs press release and order form for Ulysses. ... Leopold Bloom is a fictional character in James Joyces novel Ulysses. ... Proofreading means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Thanks to Ezra Pound, serial publication of the novel in the magazine The Little Review began in 1918. This magazine was edited by Margaret Anderson and Jane Heap, with the backing of John Quinn, a New York attorney at law with an interest in contemporary experimental art and literature. Unfortunately, this publication encountered censorship problems in the United States; serialization was halted in 1920 when the editors were convicted of publishing obscenity. The novel remained banned in the United States until 1933. Ezra Pound in 1913. ... The Little Review was a American literary magazine founded by Margaret Caroline Anderson which published modernist American and English writers between 1914 and 1929, most famously James Joyces Ulysses. ... Margaret Caroline Anderson (November 24, 1886 - October 18, 1973) was founder and editor of the celebrated literary magazine The Little Review, which published an extraordinary collection of modern American and English writers between 1914 and 1929. ... Jane Heap (1883 - 1964) was an American publisher and a significant figure in the development and promotion of literary modernism. ... John Quinn (1870-1924) was an Irish-American corporate lawyer in New York, who for a time was an important patron of major figures of post-impressionism and literary modernism, and collector in particular of original manuscripts. ... This article is about the state. ... For information on the type of fish called Lawyer, see the article on Burbot. ...


At least partly because of this controversy, Joyce found it difficult to get a publisher to accept the book, but it was published in 1922 by Sylvia Beach from her well-known Rive Gauche bookshop, Shakespeare and Company at 12 Rue l'Odéon. A commemorative plaque placed in 1989 by JJSSF (James Joyce Society of Sweden and Finland) is to be found on the wall. An English edition published the same year by Joyce's patron, Harriet Shaw Weaver, ran into further difficulties with the United States authorities, and 500 copies that were shipped to the States were seized and possibly destroyed. The following year, John Rodker produced a print run of 500 more intended to replace the missing copies, but these were burned by English customs at Folkestone. A further consequence of the novel's ambiguous legal status as a banned book was that a number of 'bootleg' versions appeared, most notably a number of pirate versions from the publisher Samuel Roth. In 1928, a court injunction against Roth was obtained and he ceased publication. Sylvia Beach (March 14, 1887–October 5, 1962), born Nancy Woodbridge Beach in her fathers parsonage in Baltimore, Maryland, was one of the leading expatriate figures in Paris between World War I and II. Her father was a Presbyterian pastor and his work took the family to Paris in... For the musical group, see Left Banke. ... Shakespeare and Company store, Paris, 2004 Shakespeare and Company, is an independent bookstore located in the 5th arrondissement of Pariss Left Bank. ... Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876 - 1961, was the patron of James Joyce. ... John Rodker (18 December 1894 – 6 October 1955) was a British writer, modernist poet, and publisher of some of the major modernist figures. ... , Folkestone (IPA: ) is a coastal resort town in the Shepway district of Kent, England. ... Samuel Roth (1893 - 1974) was an American publisher and writer. ...


The year 1922 was a key year in the history of English-language literary modernism, with the appearance of both Ulysses and T. S. Eliot's poem, The Waste Land. In Ulysses, Joyce employs stream of consciousness, parody, jokes, and virtually every other literary technique to present his characters.[23] The action of the novel, which takes place in a single day, 16 June 1904, sets the characters and incidents of the Odyssey of Homer in modern Dublin and represents Odysseus (Ulysses), Penelope and Telemachus in the characters of Leopold Bloom, his wife Molly Bloom and Stephen Dedalus, contrasted with their lofty models. The book explores various areas of Dublin life, dwelling on its squalor and monotony. Nevertheless, the book is also an affectionately detailed study of the city, and Joyce said that "I want to give a picture of Dublin so complete that if the city one day suddenly disappeared from the earth it could be reconstructed out of my book".[24] In order to achieve this level of accuracy, Joyce used the 1904 edition of Thom's Directory — a work that listed the owners and/or tenants of every residential and commercial property in the city. He also bombarded friends still living there with requests for information and clarification. Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... The Waste Land (1922)[1] is a highly influential 434-line modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see Odysseus (disambiguation) Ulysses redirects here. ... The Vatican Penelope: a Roman marble copy of an Early Classical 6th-century Greek work (Vatican Museums) For other uses, see Penelope (disambiguation). ... Slaughter of the suitors by Odysseus and Telemachus, Campanian red-figure bell-krater, ca. ... Molly Bloom is a fictional character in the novel Ulysses by James Joyce. ... Stephen Dedalus was James Joyces early pen name and the name of the main character of his early novel Stephen Hero. ...


The book consists of 18 chapters, each covering roughly one hour of the day, beginning around about 8 a.m. and ending sometime after 2 a.m. the following morning. Each of the 18 chapters of the novel employs its own literary style. Each chapter also refers to a specific episode in Homer's Odyssey and has a specific colour, art or science and bodily organ associated with it. This combination of kaleidoscopic writing with an extreme formal, schematic structure represents one of the book's major contributions to the development of 20th century modernist literature.[25] The use of classical mythology as a framework for his book and the near-obsessive focus on external detail in a book in which much of the significant action is happening inside the minds of the characters are others. Nevertheless, Joyce complained that, "I may have oversystematised Ulysses," and played down the mythic correspondences by eliminating the chapter titles that had been taken from Homer.[26] The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ...


Joseph Strick directed a film of the book in 1967 starring Milo O'Shea, Barbara Jefford and Maurice Roëves. Sean Walsh directed another version released in 2004 starring Stephen Rea, Angeline Ball and Hugh O'Conor. Ulysses is a film shot in 1967 and based on James Joyces novel Ulysses. ... Milo OShea (born June 2, 1926 in Dublin, Ireland) is a character actor, recognizable for his bushy eyebrows, resounding voice and impish smile. ... Barbara Jefford as Isabella in Measure for Measure, 1950 Barbara Jefford OBE, full name Barbara Mary Jefford (born in Plymstock, Devon, England in 1930), is a British Shakespearean actress best known for her theatrical performances with the Royal Shakespeare Company, the Old Vic and the National Theatre, and her role... Maurice Roëves (born 19 March 1937 in Sunderland) is a British actor. ... Sean P. Walsh is a Producer on the Nine Network Australias A Current Affair. ... Stephen Rea (born October 31, 1946) is an Irish actor. ... Angeline Ball (born 1969) is an Irish actress. ... Hugh OConor (born 1975 in Dublin, Ireland) is a film and television actor. ...


Finnegans Wake

Main article: Finnegans Wake

Having completed work on Ulysses, Joyce was so exhausted that he did not write a line of prose for a year.[27] On 10 March 1923 he informed a patron, Harriet Weaver: "Yesterday I wrote two pages — the first I have since the final Yes of Ulysses. Having found a pen, with some difficulty I copied them out in a large handwriting on a double sheet of foolscap so that I could read them. Il lupo perde il pelo ma non il vizio, the Italians say. The wolf may lose his skin but not his vice or the leopard cannot change his spots".[28] Thus was born a text that became known, first, as Work in Progress and later Finnegans Wake. For the street ballad which the novel is named after, see Finnegans Wake. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


By 1926 Joyce had completed the first two parts of the book. In that year, he met Eugene and Maria Jolas who offered to serialise the book in their magazine transition. For the next few years, Joyce worked rapidly on the new book, but in the 1930s, progress slowed considerably. This was due to a number of factors, including the death of his father in 1931, concern over the mental health of his daughter Lucia and his own health problems, including failing eyesight. Much of the work was done with the assistance of younger admirers, including Samuel Beckett. For some years, Joyce nursed the eccentric plan of turning over the book to his friend James Stephens to complete, on the grounds that Stephens was born in the same hospital as Joyce exactly one week later, and shared the first name of both Joyce and of Joyce's fictional alter-ego (this is one example of Joyce's numerous superstitions).[29] The journal transition was founded in 1927 by poet Eugene Jolas and his wife Maria McDonald along with editors Elliot Paul, Robert Sage & Stuart Gilbert, Caresse Crosby & Harry Crosby did some editing as well. ... Lucia Anna Joyce (July 26, 1907 - December 12, 1982), daughter of Irish writer James Joyce and Nora Barnacle, was born in Trieste, speaking Italian as her first language. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... James Stephens (February 9, 1882–December 26, 1950) was an Irish novelist and poet. ...


Reaction to the work was mixed, including negative comment from early supporters of Joyce's work, such as Pound and the author's brother Stanislaus Joyce.[30] In order to counteract this hostile reception, a book of essays by supporters of the new work, including Beckett, William Carlos Williams and others was organised and published in 1929 under the title Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress. At his 47th birthday party at the Jolases' home, Joyce revealed the final title of the work and Finnegans Wake was published in book form on 4 May 1939. Stanislaus Joyce (December 17, 1884-June 16, 1955), teacher, scholar, and writer; brother of James Joyce. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress is a collection of critical essays on the subject of James Joyces Finnegans Wake. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Joyce's method of stream of consciousness, literary allusions and free dream associations was pushed to the limit in Finnegans Wake, which abandoned all conventions of plot and character construction and is written in a peculiar and obscure language, based mainly on complex multi-level puns. This approach is similar to, but far more extensive than that used by Lewis Carroll in Jabberwocky. If Ulysses is a day in the life of a city, then Wake is a night and partakes of the logic of dreams. This has led many readers and critics to apply Joyce's oft-quoted description in the Wake of Ulysses as his "usylessly unreadable Blue Book of Eccles"[31] to the Wake itself. However, readers have been able to reach a consensus about the central cast of characters and general plot. In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a literary technique which seeks to portray an individuals point of view by giving the written equivalent of the characters thought processes. ... For the street ballad which the novel is named after, see Finnegans Wake. ... Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... For other uses, see Jabberwocky (disambiguation). ...


Much of the wordplay in the book stems from the use of multilingual puns which draw on a wide range of languages. The role played by Beckett and other assistants included collating words from these languages on cards for Joyce to use and, as Joyce's eyesight worsened, of writing the text from the author's dictation.[32]


The view of history propounded in this text is very strongly influenced by Giambattista Vico, and the metaphysics of Giordano Bruno of Nola are important to the interplay of the "characters". Vico propounded a cyclical view of history, in which civilisation rose from chaos, passed through theocratic, aristocratic, and democratic phases, and then lapsed back into chaos. The most obvious example of the influence of Vico's cyclical theory of history is to be found in the opening and closing words of the book. Finnegans Wake opens with the words 'riverrun, past Eve and Adam's, from swerve of shore to bend of bay, brings us by a commodius vicus of recirculation back to Howth Castle and Environs.' ('vicus' is a pun on Vico) and ends 'A way a lone a last a loved a long the'. In other words, the book ends with the beginning of a sentence and begins with the end of the same sentence, turning the book into one great cycle. Indeed, Joyce said that the ideal reader of the Wake would suffer from "ideal insomnia"[33] and, on completing the book, would turn to page one and start again, and so on in an endless cycle of reading. Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Giordano Bruno Giordano Bruno (1548, Nola – February 17, 1600, Rome) was an Italian philosopher, priest, cosmologist, and occultist. ... For other uses, see Nola (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chaos (disambiguation). ... Theocracy is a form of government in which a religion and the government are allied. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ...


Legacy

See also: Postmodern literature
Statue of James Joyce on North Earl Street, Dublin.
Statue of James Joyce on North Earl Street, Dublin.

Joyce's work has been subject to intense scrutiny by scholars of all types. He has also been an important influence on writers and scholars as diverse as Samuel Beckett,[34] Jorge Luis Borges,[35] Flann O'Brien,[36] Máirtín Ó Cadhain, Salman Rushdie,[37] Robert Anton Wilson,[38] and Joseph Campbell.[39] The term Postmodern literature is used to describe certain tendencies in post-World War II literature. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (654x1842, 247 KB) Sumari James Joyce statue next to OConnell street in Dublin Llicència dús File links The following pages link to this file: James Joyce ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (654x1842, 247 KB) Sumari James Joyce statue next to OConnell street in Dublin Llicència dús File links The following pages link to this file: James Joyce ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... Borges redirects here. ... Flann OBrien (October 5, 1911, Strabane, County Tyrone Ireland – April 1, 1966 Dublin) is a pseudonym of the twentieth century Irish novelist and satirist Brian ONolan (in Irish Brian Ó Nuallain), best known for his novels An Béal Bocht, At Swim-Two-Birds and The Third Policeman. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Ahmed Salman Rushdie (Devanagari : अख़्मद सल्मान रश्दी Nastaliq:; born 19 June 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... Robert Anton Wilson Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (January 18, 1932 – January 11, 2007) was a prolific American novelist, essayist, philosopher, psychologist, futurologist, anarchist, and conspiracy theory researcher. ... For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ...


Some scholars, most notably Vladimir Nabokov, have mixed feelings on his work, often championing some of his fiction while condemning other works. In Nabokov's opinion, Ulysses was brilliant;[40] Finnegans Wake, horrible (see Strong Opinions, The Annotated Lolita or Pale Fire[41]), an attitude Jorge Luis Borges shared.[42] In recent years, literary theory has embraced Joyce's innovation and ambition. Jacques Derrida tells an anecdote about the two novels' importance for his own thought; in a bookstore in Tokyo, Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... Lolita (1955) is a novel by Vladimir Nabokov. ... Penguin Classics edition of Pale Fire Pale Fire (1962) is a novel by Vladimir Nabokov, his fourteenth in total and fifth in English. ... Borges redirects here. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...

...an American tourist of the most typical variety leaned over my shoulder and sighed: "So many books! What is the definitive one? Is there any?" It was an extremely small book shop, a news agency. I almost replied, "Yes, there are two of them, Ulysses and Finnegans Wake.[43]

Joyce's influence is also evident in fields other than literature. The phrase "Three Quarks for Muster Mark" in Joyce's Finnegans Wake is often called the source of the physicists' word "quark", the name of one of the main kinds of elementary particles, proposed by the physicist Murray Gell-Mann.[44] The French philosopher Jacques Derrida has written a book on the use of language in Ulysses, and the American philosopher Donald Davidson has written similarly on Finnegans Wake in comparison with Lewis Carroll. Additionally, the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan used Joyce's writings to explain his concept of the sinthome. According to Lacan, Joyce's writing is the supplementary cord which kept him from psychosis.[45] For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929 in Manhattan, New York City, USA) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Donald Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher and the Willis S. and Marion Slusser Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... The sinthome is a concept used in the work of the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a loss of contact with reality. Stedmans Medical Dictionary defines psychosis as a severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality and causing deterioration...


The life of Joyce is celebrated annually on June 16, Bloomsday, in Dublin and in an increasing number of cities worldwide. is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bloomsday performers outside Davy Byrnes pub Bloomsday is a commemoration observed annually on 16 June in Dublin and elsewhere to celebrate the life of Irish writer James Joyce and relive the events in his novel Ulysses, all of which took place on the same day in Dublin in 1904. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ...


Each year in Dedham, Massachusetts, USA literary-minded runners hold the James Joyce Ramble, a 10K Road Race with each mile dedicated to a different work by Joyce.[46] With professional actors in period garb lining the streets and reading from his books as the athletes run by, it is billed as the only theatrical performance where the performers stand still and the audience does the moving. Nickname: Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Norfolk County Settled 1635 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Administrator Bill Keegan  - Board of    Selectmen Marie-Loise Kehoe Mike Butler James MacDonald Carmen DelloIocono Dennis Teehan Area  - Town  10. ...


Much of Joyce's legacy is protected by the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas, which houses thousands of manuscripts, pieces of correspondence, drafts, proofs, notes, novel fragments, poems, song lyrics, musical scores, limericks, and translations by Joyce. The Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center (usually shortened to HRHRC or just HRC) is an archive at the University of Texas at Austin, specializing in the collection of literary and other cultural artifacts from the United States and Europe. ... The University of Texas System comprises fifteen educational institutions in Texas, of which nine are general academic universities, and six are health institutions. ...


Not everyone is eager to expand upon academic study of Joyce, however; Stephen Joyce, James' grandson and sole beneficiary owner of the estate, has been alleged to have destroyed some of the writer's correspondence,[47] threatened to sue if public readings were held during Bloomsday,[48] and blocked adaptations he felt were 'inappropriate'.[49] On June 12, 2006, Carol Shloss, a Stanford University professor, sued the estate for refusing to give permission to use material about Joyce and his daughter on the professor's website.[50][51] Stephen James Joyce is the controversial executor of the estate of James Joyce. ... Bloomsday performers outside Davy Byrnes pub Bloomsday is a commemoration observed annually on 16 June in Dublin and elsewhere to celebrate the life of Irish writer James Joyce and relive the events in his novel Ulysses, all of which took place on the same day in Dublin in 1904. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stanford redirects here. ...


The main library at University College Dublin today, bears his name.


Works

Bust of James Joyce in St. Stephen's Green, Dublin.
Bust of James Joyce in St. Stephen's Green, Dublin.

Download high resolution version (1289x943, 741 KB)Photograph by Colin Gregory Palmer in 2005. ... Download high resolution version (1289x943, 741 KB)Photograph by Colin Gregory Palmer in 2005. ... St. ... Stephen Hero is part of the now mostly-lost first draft of James Joyces first novel, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. ... A collection of poems by James Joyce, published by Elkin Matthews in May, 1907. ... See also: 1906 in literature, other events of 1907, 1908 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... For the Irish folk band, see The Dubliners. ... The year 1914 in literature involved some significant events and new books. ... A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist from 1914 to 1915 and published in book form in 1916. ... See also: 1915 in literature, other events of 1916, 1917 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Exiles is a play by James Joyce, who is principally remembered for his novels. ... See also: 1917 in literature, other events of 1918, 1919 in literature, list of years in literature. ... For other uses, see Play (disambiguation). ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... See also: 1921 in literature, other events of 1922, 1923 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Pomes Penyeach is a collection of thirteen short poems, written over a twenty-year period from 1904 to 1924 by the novelist James Joyce and originally published on 7th July 1927 by Shakespeare and Co. ... See also: 1926 in literature, other events of 1927, 1928 in literature, list of years in literature. ... For the street ballad which the novel is named after, see Finnegans Wake. ... See also: 1938 in literature, other events of 1939, 1940 in literature, list of years in literature. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b McCourt, John (May 2001). The Years of Bloom: James Joyce in Trieste, 1904-1920. The Lilliput Press. ISBN 1901866718. 
  2. ^ Asked why he was afraid of thunder when his children weren't, "'Ah,' said Joyce in contempt, 'they have no religion.' His fears were part of his identity, and he had no wish, even if he had had the power, to slough any of them off." (Ellmann, p. 514).
  3. ^ Ellmann, p. 132.
  4. ^ Ellmann, p. 30, 55.
  5. ^ She was originally diagnosed with cirrhosis of the liver, but this proved incorrect, and she was diagnosed with cancer in April, 1903 (Ellmann, p. 128–129).
  6. ^ Ellmann, pp. 129, 136.
  7. ^ History of the Feis Ceoil Association. Retrieved 3 December 2006.
  8. ^ Ellmann, p. 162.
  9. ^ Ellmann, p. 230.
  10. ^ Ellmann, p. 175.
  11. ^ According to Ellmann, Stanislaus allowed James to collect his pay, "to simplify matters" (p. 213).
  12. ^ The worst of the conflicts were in July, 1910 (Ellmann, pp. 311–313).
  13. ^ Ellmann, p. 272.
  14. ^ Shloss pp.69,288,443
  15. ^ Stanley, Alessandra. "Poet Told All; Therapist Provides the Record," The New York Times, July 15, 1991. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
  16. ^ Shloss, p.429
  17. ^ Finnegans Wake, pp.622, 626
  18. ^ Shloss, p.278
  19. ^ Pepper, Tara
  20. ^ Shloss p.297
  21. ^ MacBride, P. 14.
  22. ^ Deming, p, 749.
  23. ^ Examined at length in Vladimir Nabokov's Lectures on Ulysses. A Facsimile of the Manuscript.
  24. ^ Budgen, p. 69.
  25. ^ Sherry, p. 102.
  26. ^ Dettmar, p. 285.
  27. ^ Bulson, Eric. The Cambridge Introduction to James Joyce. Cambridge University Press, 2006. Page 14.
  28. ^ Joyce, James. Ulysses: The 1922 Text. Oxford University Press, 1998. Page xlvii.
  29. ^ Ellmann, pp. 591–592
  30. ^ Ellmann, pp. 577–585, 603.
  31. ^ Finnegans Wake, 179.26–27.
  32. ^ Gluck, p. 27.
  33. ^ Finnegans Wake, 120.9–16.
  34. ^ Friedman, Melvin J. A review of Barbara Reich Gluck's Beckett and Joyce: friendship and fiction, Bucknell University Press (June 1979), ISBN 0-8387-2060-9. Retrieved 3 December 2006.
  35. ^ Williamson, 123–124, 179, 218.
  36. ^ For example, Hopper, p. 75, says "In all of O'Brien's work the figure of Joyce hovers on the horizon …".
  37. ^ Interview of Salmon Rushdie, by Margot Dijkgraaf for the Dutch newspaper NRC Handelsblad, translated by K. Gwan Go. Retrieved 3 December 2006.
  38. ^ Edited transcript of an April 23, 1988 interview of Robert Anton Wilson by David A. Banton, broadcast on HFJC, 89.7 FM, Los Altos Hills, California. Retrieved 3 December 2006.
  39. ^ "About Joseph Campbell", Joseph Campbell Foundation. Retrieved 3 December 2006.
  40. ^ "When I want good reading I reread Proust's A la Recherche du Temps Perdu or Joyce's Ulysses" (Nabokov, letter to Elena Sikorski, August 3, 1950, in Nabokov's Butterflies: Unpublished and Uncollected Writings [Boston: Beacon, 2000], 464–465.
  41. ^ "Of course, it would have been unseemly for a monarch to appear in the robes of learning at a university lectern and present to rosy youths Finnigan's Wake [sic] as a monstrous extension of Angus MacDiarmid's "incoherent transactions" and of Southey's Lingo-Grande. . ." (Nabokov, Pale Fire [New York: Random House, 1962], p. 76).
  42. ^ Borges, p. 195.
  43. ^ Derrida, "Ulysses Gramophone: Hear Say Yes in Joyce" (in Acts of Literature, ed. Derek Attridge [New York: Routledge, 1992], pp. 253–309), p. 265.
  44. ^ "quark", American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition 2000.
  45. ^ Evans, Dylan, An Introductory Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis, Routledge, 1996, p.189
  46. ^ James Joyce Ramble. Retrieved 28 November 2006.
  47. ^ Max, "The Injustice Collector".
  48. ^ Max, D.T., "The Injustice Collector: Is James Joyce’s Grandson Suppressing Scholarship?," The New Yorker, 19 June 2006. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
  49. ^ Cavanaugh, "Ulysses Unbound".
  50. ^ Schloss. Stanford Law School, The Center for Internet and Society. June 12, 2006, Retrieved on 28 November 2006.
  51. ^ Associated Press. Professor sues James Joyce’s estate: Carol Schloss wants right to use copyrighted material on her Web site. MSNBC. 12 June 2006, Retrieved 28 November 2006.

Cirrhosis is a chronic disease of the liver in which liver tissue is replaced by connective tissue, resulting in the loss of liver function. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...

References

General

  • Adams, David. Colonial Odysseys: Empire and Epic in the Modernist Novel. Cornell University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8014-8886-9.
  • Borges, Jorge Luis, (ed.) Eliot Weinberger, Borges: Selected Non-Fictions, Penguin (October 31, 2000). ISBN 0-14-029011-7.
  • Bradley, Bruce. James Joyce's Schooldays. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1982; and Dublin: Gill & MacMillan, 1982. ISBN 9780312439781
  • Budgen, Frank. James Joyce and the Making of 'Ulysses', and other writings. Oxford University Press, 1972. ISBN 0-19-211713-0.
  • Burgess, Anthony, Joysprick: An Introduction to the Language of James Joyce (1973), Harcourt (March 1975). ISBN 0-15-646561-2.
  • Burgess, Anthony, Here Comes Everybody: An Introduction to James Joyce for the Ordinary Reader, Faber & Faber (1965), ISBN 0571063950; (also published as Re Joyce OCLC 3873146); Hamlyn Paperbacks; Rev. ed edition (1982). ISBN 0-600-20673-4.
  • Cavanaugh, Tim, "Ulysses Unbound: Why does a book so bad it "defecates on your bed" still have so many admirers?". reason, July 2004.
  • Clark, Hilary, The Fictional Encyclopaedia: Joyce, Pound, Sollers. Taylor & Francis, 1990. ISBN 978-0-8240-0006-6.
  • Deming, Robert H. (Ed.) James Joyce: The Critical Heritage. Routledge, 1997. ISBN 978-0-203-27490-3.
  • Dettmar, Kevin J. H. (Ed.) Rereading the New: A Backward Glance at Modernism. University of Michigan Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0-472-10290-7.
  • Ellmann, Richard. James Joyce. Oxford University Press, 1959, revised edition 1983. ISBN 0-19-503381-7.
  • Gluck, Barbara Reich, Beckett and Joyce: Friendship and Fiction. Bucknell University Press, 1979. ISBN 0-8387-2060-9.
  • Gravgaard, Anna-Katarina Could Leopold Bloom Read Ulysses?, University of Copenhagen, 2006.
  • Hopper, Keith, Flann O'Brien: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Post-Modernist, Cork University Press (May 1995). ISBN 1-85918-042-6.
  • Igoe, Vivien. A Literary Guide to Dublin. ISBN 0-413-69120-9.
  • Klein, Scott W. The Fictions of James Joyce and Wyndham Lewis: Monsters of Nature and Design. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  • Levin, Harry (ed. with introduction and notes). The Essential James Joyce. Cape, 1948. Revised edition Penguin in association with Jonathan Cape, 1963.
  • MacBride, Margaret. Ulysses and the Metamorphosis of Stephen Dedalus. Bucknell University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8387-5446-5.
  • Max, D. J., "The Injustice Collector", The New Yorker, 2006-06-19.
  • Nabokov, Vladimir. Lectures on Ulysses: A Facsimile of the Manuscript. Bloomfield Hills/Columbia: Bruccoli Clark, 1980. ISBN 0-89723-027-2.
  • Pepper, Tara. "Portrait of the Daughter: Two works seek to reclaim the legacy of Lucia Joyce." Newsweek International. March 8, 2003.
  • Quillian, William H. Hamlet and the new poetic: James Joyce and T. S. Eliot. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1983.
  • Perelman, Bob. The Trouble with Genius: Reading Pound, Joyce, Stein, and Zukofsky. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1994.
  • Read, Forrest. Pound/Joyce: The Letters of Ezra Pound to James Joyce, with Pound's Essays on Joyce. New Directions, 1967.
  • Sherry, Vincent B. James Joyce: Ulysses. Cambridge University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-521-53976-5.
  • Shloss, Carol Loeb. Lucia Joyce: To Dance in the Wake. ISBN 0-374-19424-6
  • Williamson, Edwin, Borges: A Life, Viking Adult (August 5, 2004). ISBN 0-670-88579-7.

Ulysses Borges redirects here. ... Eliot Weinberger (b. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... 1975 Harcourt edition Joysprick: An Introduction to the Language of James Joyce is a work of literary criticism by Anthony Burgess. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Richard Ellmann (March 15, 1918 – May 13, 1987) was a prominent American/British literary critic and biographer of Irish writers such as James Joyce, Oscar Wilde, and William Butler Yeats. ... James Joyce by Richard Ellmann was published in 1959. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... William H. Quillian is at Mount Holyoke College where he has been a professor (and departmental chair on two occasions) since 1975. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... Bob Perelman is an American poet, critic, editor and teacher. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Blamires, Harry. "The New Bloomsday Book: A Guide through Ulysses." Routledge. ISBN 0-415--00704-6.
  • Groden, Michael "Ulysses" in Progress. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977. Paperback Edition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987.
  • Kenner, Hugh. "Ulysses". London: George Allen and Unwin. 1980. ISBN 0-04-800003-5.
  • Mood, John. Joyce's "Ulysses" for Everyone, Or How to Skip Reading It the First Time. Bloomington, Indiana: Author House, 2004. ISBN 1-4184-5104-5

Finnegans Wake Michael Groden is Professor of English at The University of Western Ontario. ...

Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress is a collection of critical essays on the subject of James Joyces Finnegans Wake. ... Shakespeare and Company store, Paris, 2004 Shakespeare and Company, is an independent bookstore located in the 5th arrondissement of Pariss Left Bank. ... Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ... A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake (1944) by mythologist Joseph Campbell and Henry Morton Robinson is an important work of literary criticism. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  • In depth review of Dubliners

Ulysses

Finnegans Wake (web)

Poems and Exiles

Persondata
NAME Joyce, James
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Joyce, James Augustine Aloysius; Seoighe, Seamus
SHORT DESCRIPTION Irish writer and poet
DATE OF BIRTH 2 February 1882(1882-02-02)
PLACE OF BIRTH Rathgar, Dublin, Ireland
DATE OF DEATH 13 January 1941
PLACE OF DEATH Zürich, Switzerland

  Results from FactBites:
 
James Joyce - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4632 words)
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 13 January 1941) was an expatriate Irish writer and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century.
James Joyce was initially educated at Clongowes Wood College, a boarding school in County Kildare, which he entered in 1888 but had to leave in 1892 when his father could no longer pay the fees.
Joyce, however, was to reject Catholicism by the age of 16, although the philosophy of St.
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