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Encyclopedia > James IV of Scotland
James IV of Scotland
King of Scots
image:James_IV_of_Scotland.jpg
Reign 1488 – 1513
Coronation June 24, 1488
Born March 17, 1473
Stirling Castle
Died September 9, 1513 (aged 40)
Battle of Flodden Field
Predecessor James III
Successor James V
Consort Margaret Tudor
Royal House Stewart
Father James III
Mother Margaret of Denmark
Scottish Royalty-
House of Stewart

Robert II
Children
   John, Earl of Carrick (later King Robert III)
   Robert, Duke of Albany
   Alexander, Earl of Buchan
   David, Earl of Strathearn
   Walter, Earl of Atholl
Robert III
   Prince David
   Prince James
James I
Children
   Margaret Stewart
   Prince James
James II
Children
   Prince James
   Alexander, Duke of Albany
   John, Earl of Mar
James III
Children
   Prince James
   James, Duke of Ross
   John, Earl of Mar
James IV
Children
   Prince James
   James, Earl of Moray
James V
Children
   Princess Mary
   James, Earl of Moray
Mary I
Children
   Prince James
James VI
Children
   Prince Henry
   Prince Charles
Charles I
Children
   Prince Charles
   Prince James
   Prince Henry
   Princess Mary
   Princess Henrietta
Charles II
James VII
Children
   Princess Mary
   Princess Anne
   Prince James
Mary II
William II
Anne

James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) was King of Scots from 1488 to his death. This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... // January 8 - The present Royal Netherlands Navy was formed By decree of Maximillian of Austria. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... Stirling Castle (southwest aspect) For ships named after the castle, see Stirling Castle (disambiguation) Stirling Castle is a castle in Stirling, one of the largest and most important, both historically and architecturally, in Scotland and indeed Western Europe. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants England Scotland Commanders Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey James IV † Strength 26,000 approx 30,000 approx Casualties 1,500 dead 10,000 dead Western side of the battlefield, looking south-south-east from the monument erected in 1910. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ... Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (29 November 1489 – October 1541) was the eldest of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503 she married James IV, king of Scotland, thus becoming the mother of James V and... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... Margaret of Denmark (June 23, 1456 - before July 14, 1486) was the daughter of King Christian I of Denmark (1448-81), Norway (1450-81), and Sweden (1457-64), and his wife Dorothea of Brandenburg. ... The House of Stuart or Stewart was a Scottish, and then British, Royal House of Breton origin. ... Image File history File links Scottish_Royal_Banner. ... Robert the warrior and knight: the reverse side of Robert IIs Great Seal, enhanced as a 19th century steel engraving. ... Robert III (circa 1340 – April 4, 1406), king of Scotland (reigned 1390 - 1406), the eldest son of King Robert II by his mistress, Elizabeth Mure, became legitimised with the formal marriage of his parents about 1349. ... Robert Stewart or Stuart, 1st Duke of Albany (c. ... Alexander Stewart or Stuart, nicknamed the Wolf (1343 - July 24, 1394), was a Scottish prince and the first Earl of Buchan of the second creation of the title, from 1382 to his death. ... Walter Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl (d. ... Robert III (circa 1340 – April 4, 1406), king of Scotland (reigned 1390 - 1406), the eldest son of King Robert II by his mistress, Elizabeth Mure, became legitimised with the formal marriage of his parents about 1349. ... David Stewart (October 24, 1378 - 1402) was (from 1390) the heir to the throne of Scotland and (from 1398) the first Duke of Rothesay. ... James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) reigned as King of Scots from April 4, 1406 until February 21, 1437. ... James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) reigned as King of Scots from April 4, 1406 until February 21, 1437. ... Margaret of Scotland (1424, Perth, Scotland, Perthshire, Scotland - August 16, 1445, Chalons Surmarne, Marne, France )was a Princess of the Kingdom of Scotland and Dauphine of France by her marriage to the future Louis XI of France. ... James II of Scotland (October 16, 1430 – August 3, 1460) was king of Scotland from 1437 to 1460. ... James II of Scotland (October 16, 1430 – August 3, 1460) was king of Scotland from 1437 to 1460. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany (c. ... John Stewart, Earl of Mar and Garioch (c. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... James Stewart, Duke of Ross (March 1476 - January 1504) was the son of King James III of Scotland and Margaret of Denmark. ... John Stewart, Earl of Mar (c. ... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ... James Stewart, Earl of Moray (c. ... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (c. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland. ... James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland. ... Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales (February 19, 1594 - November 6, 1612) was the eldest son of King James VI of Scotland/James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester KG (July 8, 1640 - September 18, 1660) was the fourth living son and youngest son of King Charles I of Englandand his Queen Henrietta Maria of France. ... Mary, Princess Royal and Princess Orange-Nassau (4 November 1631 - 24 December 1660) was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his queen, Henrietta Maria. ... Henrietta Anne Stuart (June 16, 1644 - June 30, 1670), sometimes known familiarly as Minette, was the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria of France. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England and Ireland and Queen of Scots on 8 March 1702. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart (June 10, 1688 – January 1, 1766) was a claimant of the thrones of Scotland and England (September 16, 1701 – January 1, 1766) and is commonly referred to as The Old Pretender. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Hampton Court, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England and Ireland and Queen of Scots on 8 March 1702. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... // January 8 - The present Royal Netherlands Navy was formed By decree of Maximillian of Austria. ...

Contents

Life and work

As the son of King James III and Margaret of Denmark, James IV was probably born in Stirling Castle. When his father was killed at the Battle of Sauchieburn on June 11, 1488 (or possibly assassinated a few hours later) the fifteen-year-old James took the throne and was crowned at Scone on June 24. The rebels who had gathered at Sauchieburn had done so with James supposedly as their figurehead. When James realised the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father, he decided to do penance for his sin. From that date on, he wore a heavy iron chain cilice around his waist, next to the skin, each Lent as penance. James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... Margaret of Denmark (June 23, 1456 - before July 14, 1486) was the daughter of King Christian I of Denmark (1448-81), Norway (1450-81), and Sweden (1457-64), and his wife Dorothea of Brandenburg. ... Stirling Castle (southwest aspect) For ships named after the castle, see Stirling Castle (disambiguation) Stirling Castle is a castle in Stirling, one of the largest and most important, both historically and architecturally, in Scotland and indeed Western Europe. ... The Battle of Sauchieburn was fought on June 11, 1488, at the side of Sauchie Burn, a brook about two miles south of Stirling, Scotland. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... // January 8 - The present Royal Netherlands Navy was formed By decree of Maximillian of Austria. ... For the foodstuff see Scone (bread). ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... It has been suggested that hairshirt be merged into this article or section. ... In Western Christianity, Lent is the forty-day period (or season) lasting from Ash Wednesday to Easter[1] or Holy Saturday. ...


James IV quickly proved to be an effective ruler. He defeated another rebellion in 1489, took a direct interest in the administration of justice and finally brought the Lord of the Isles under control in 1493. James was well educated and it was claimed that he was fluent in Lowland Scots/English, Scottish Gaelic, Latin, French, German, Italian, Flemish, Spanish and Danish; he was the patron of the Scottish makar, or poet, William Dunbar, who is known for his song "Lament of the Makaris," (which is often called after its refrain: "Timor Mortis conturbat me"-- Latin for "the fear of Death frightens/confounds me.") an 'Ubi sunt Qui ante Nos Fuerent' poem in which Dunbar laments past makars including Chaucer, and speaks of the general transitory nature of the "wald." Events March 14 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. ... MacDonald, Lord of the Isles The designation Lord of the Isles (Scottish Gaelic: ), now a Scottish title of nobility, emerged from a series of hybrid Viking/Gaelic rulers of the west coast and islands of Scotland in the Middle Ages, who wielded sea-power with fleets of galleys. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Flemish dialects are the regional dialects of Dutch that are spoken in Flanders (Belgium). ... This article is about William Dunbar, the poet. ...


He was a true Renaissance prince with an interest in practical and scientific matters. James granted the Edinburgh College of Surgeons a royal charter in 1506, turned Edinburgh Castle into one of Britain's foremost gun foundries, and welcomed the establishment of Scotland's first printing press in 1505. The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, a centre of excellence for surgical education and research traces its origins to 1505 when the Barber Surgeons of Edinburgh was formally incorporated as a Craft Guild of Edinburgh, and granted a royal charter in 1506 by King James IV of Scotland. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The castle from below (2003) Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which from its position on Castle Rock, dominates views of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands most famous landmark. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


James also loved ships and saw the importance in Scotland having a large navy. He acquired 38 ships for the Royal Scottish Navy and founded two new dockyards. His finest creation was the carrack Michael. Launched in 1511, she weighed 1,000 tons, was 240 feet in length and was then the largest ship in Europe. The Scottish Red Ensign, flown by ships of the Old Scots Navy The Royal Scottish Navy (or Old Scots Navy) was the navy of the Kingdom of Scotland from its foundation in the 11th century until its merger with the Royal Navy in 1707. ... Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Dockyards and shipyards are places which repair and build ships. ... The Santa Maria at anchor by Andries van Eertvelt, painted c. ... A model of Michael in the Royal Museum Michael (later popularly known as Great Michael) was a carrack or great ship of the Royal Scottish Navy. ... 1511 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


For a time, he supported the pretender to the English throne Perkin Warbeck and carried out a brief invasion of England on his behalf. Despite this, James finally recognized that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, and so signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace (1502) and married Henry VII's daughter Margaret Tudor, on August 8, 1503, at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh. Contemporary painting of Warbeck Perkin Warbeck (c. ... The Treaty of Perpetual Peace was signed by James IV of Scotland and Henry VII of England in 1502. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (29 November 1489 – October 1541) was the eldest of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503 she married James IV, king of Scotland, thus becoming the mother of James V and... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Image:Holrodab. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


When war broke out between England and France as a result of the Italian Wars, James found himself in a difficult position as his obligations under the Auld Alliance with France conflicted with the treaty made with England in 1502. The new king of England, Henry VIII, attempted to invade France in 1513, and James reacted by declaring war on England. Hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence, he led an invading army southward, only to be killed, with many of his nobles and common soldiers, at the disastrous Battle of Flodden Field on September 9, ending Scotland's involvement in the War of the League of Cambrai. A body, thought to be his, was recovered from the battlefield and taken to London for burial. Because he was excommunicated, the embalmed body lay unburied for many years in the monastery of Sheen in Surrey, and was lost after the Reformation. [1] The Italian Wars, often referred to as the great Italian Wars or the great wars of Italy in historical works, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, all the major states of western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, Scotland, the... The Auld Alliance refers to a series of treaties, offensive and defensive in nature, between Scotland and France aimed specifically against an aggressive and expansionist England. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Silver groat of Henry VIII, minted c. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants England Scotland Commanders Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey James IV † Strength 26,000 approx 30,000 approx Casualties 1,500 dead 10,000 dead Western side of the battlefield, looking south-south-east from the monument erected in 1910. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots3 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  -  First Minister Jack McConnell... The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names,[1] was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Sheen is a place in southwest London nearby to Barnes, Roehampton and Putney to the east and Richmond to the west. ... Not to be confused with Surry. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


Rumors persisted that James had survived and had gone into exile, but there is no evidence to support them.


Legacy

James's decision to invade England is often seen as ill-considered. However it has been argued that it can be criticised only if Scotland was not entitled to pursue an independent foreign policy, and the military force was adequate for the task, but the Battle of Flodden was lost through poor generalship. Undoubtedly his death ushered in a period of prolonged instability in Scotland.


However, James had granted the Edinburgh College of Surgeons a royal charter in 1506, expanded Edinburgh Castle into a major gun foundry, and welcomed Scotland's first printing press in 1505. He had expanded the Royal Scottish Navy with 38 more ships, creating 2 new dockyards. The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, a centre of excellence for surgical education and research traces its origins to 1505 when the Barber Surgeons of Edinburgh was formally incorporated as a Craft Guild of Edinburgh, and granted a royal charter in 1506 by King James IV of Scotland. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The castle from below (2003) Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which from its position on Castle Rock, dominates views of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands most famous landmark. ... A foundry is a factory which produces castings of metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Scottish Red Ensign, flown by ships of the Old Scots Navy The Royal Scottish Navy (or Old Scots Navy) was the navy of the Kingdom of Scotland from its foundation in the 11th century until its merger with the Royal Navy in 1707. ... Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Dockyards and shipyards are places which repair and build ships. ...


James IV and Margaret Tudor had four children: the first three children died in infancy; but their son James V survived, and he also had a posthumous son, Alexander, who died in infancy. Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (29 November 1489 – October 1541) was the eldest of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503 she married James IV, king of Scotland, thus becoming the mother of James V and... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ...


James also had seven illegitimate children by four different mistresses. With Janet Kennedy he had James and two children who died in infancy. With Marion Boyd he had Alexander, and Catherine Stewart, who married James Douglas, 3rd Earl of Morton. With Margaret Drummond he had Margaret. With Isabel Buchan, daughter of James Stewart, 1st Earl of Buchan, he had Lady Janet Stewart. Janet Kennedy (c. ... James Stewart, Earl of Moray (c. ... Alexander Stewart (c. ... James Douglas, 3rd Earl of Morton (d. ... Margaret Drummond (c. ... Sir James Hearty James Stewart, 1st Earl of Buchan in its third creation (1442-1499), the second son of Sir James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorne, by Joan Beaufort the widow of James I of Scotland. ... Lady Janet Stewart (c. ...


James IV is also significant in Scottish history as the last King of Scots who is known to have spoken Scottish Gaelic.


Notes

  1. ^ Find-a-Grave, Findagrave.com webpage: FindaGrave.

References

  • Norman MacDougall, James the Fourth (the most recent biography, regarded as definitive).
  • Mackie wrote the most important previous biography.
Preceded by
James III
King of Scots
1488–1513
Succeeded by
James V
Preceded by
John II
Lord of the Isles
1493–1513

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James V Of Scotland - LoveToKnow 1911 (759 words)
JAMES V. (1512-1542), king of Scotland, son of James IV., was born at Linlithgow on the 10th of April 1512, and became king when his father was killed at Flodden in 1513.
Henceforward the minority of James was disturbed by constant quarrels between a faction, generally favourable to England, under Angus, and the partisans of France under Albany; while the queen-mother and the nobles struggled to gain and to regain possession of the king's person.
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James IV of Scotland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (629 words)
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James was well educated and it was claimed that he was fluent in Lowland Scots, English, Scottish Gaelic, Latin, French, German, Italian, Flemish, Spanish and Danish.
James IV is also significant in Scottish history as the last King of Scots to have been fluent in Scottish Gaelic.
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