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Encyclopedia > James II of England
James II & VII[1]
King of England and Ireland, King of Scots (more...)
Godfrey Kneller, 1684
Godfrey Kneller, 1684
Reign 6 February 168511 December 1688
Coronation 23 April 1685
Predecessor Charles II
Successor
Jacobite:
William III and Mary II
James III and VIII
Consort Mary of Modena
Issue
Mary II
Anne

James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick
James, Prince of Wales, "The Old Pretender"
Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Image File history File links James_II_of_England. ... Sir Godfrey Kneller (August 8, 1646 -October 19, 1723) was an artist, court painter to several British monarchs. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... The Prince James, Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart; The Old Pretender or The Old Chevalier; 10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed James II and VII. As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones (as James III and VIII) from the... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... James FitzJames, Duke of Berwick James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick-upon-Tweed (August 21, 1670- June 12, 1734) was a French military leader, illegitimate son of King James II of England and VII of Scotland by Arabella Churchill, sister of the Duke of Marlborough. ... The Prince James, Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart; The Old Pretender or The Old Chevalier; 10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed James II and VII. As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones (as James III and VIII) from the...

Titles and styles
HM The King
HRH The Duke of York
Prince James
Royal house House of Stuart
Father Charles I of England
Mother Henrietta Maria of France
Born 14 October 1633(1633-10-14)
St. James's Palace, London
Died 16 September 1701 (aged 67)
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
Burial Saint-Germain-en-Laye

James II and VII (14 October 163316 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Many of his subjects distrusted his religious policies and autocratic tendencies, leading a group of them to depose him in the Glorious Revolution in 1688. He was replaced not by his Roman Catholic son, James Francis Edward, but by his Protestant daughter and son-in-law, Mary II and William III, who became joint rulers in 1689. James made one serious attempt to recover his crowns, when he landed in Ireland in 1689. After his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in the summer of 1690, James returned to France, living out the rest of his life under the protection of his cousin and ally, King Louis XIV. A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Yvelines (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Saint-Germain-en-Laye Canton Chief town of 2 cantons Intercommunality none as of 2005 Mayor Emmanuel Lamy (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 22 m–107 m (avg. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... The Prince James, Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart; The Old Pretender or The Old Chevalier; 10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed James II and VII. As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones (as James III and VIII) from the... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James VII and II William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and... Louis XIV redirects here. ...


James is best known for his belief in absolute monarchy and his attempts to create religious liberty for his subjects. Both of these went against the wishes of the English Parliament and of most of his subjects. Parliament, opposed to the growth of absolutism that was occurring in other European countries, as well as to the loss of legal supremacy for the Church of England, saw their opposition as a way to preserve traditional English liberties. This tension made James's three-year reign a struggle for supremacy between the Parliament and the crown, resulting in his ouster, the passage of the English Bill of Rights, and the Hanoverian succession. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... English Bill of Rights (1689). ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ...

Contents

Birth and early life

The future James II with his father, Charles I
The future James II with his father, Charles I

James, the second surviving son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France, was born at St. James's Palace in London on 14 October 1633.[3] Later that same year, James was baptized by William Laud, the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury.[4] James was educated by tutors, along with his brother, the future King Charles II, and the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham, George and Francis Villiers.[5] At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral; the position was initially honorary, but would become a substantive office after the Restoration, when James was an adult.[6] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 619 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (647 × 627 pixel, file size: 974 KB, MIME type: image/png) Painted by Peter Lely, c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 619 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (647 × 627 pixel, file size: 974 KB, MIME type: image/png) Painted by Peter Lely, c. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The Duke of Buckingham by Rubens George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628) (IPA pronunciation: ) was one of the most rewarded royal courtiers in all history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ...

Civil War

James was invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642,[7] and created Duke of York on January 22, 1644.[4] As the King's disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War James stayed in Oxford, a Royalist stronghold.[8] When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, Parliamentary leaders ordered the Duke of York to be confined in St. James's Palace.[9] In 1648, he escaped from the Palace and from there he went to The Hague in disguise.[10] When Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed James's older brother, Charles, as King Charles II.[11] Charles II was recognized by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, and was crowned King of Scots at Scone, in Scotland in 1651. Although he was proclaimed King at Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England, and consequently fled to France and exile.[11] The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... HRH The Prince Andrew, the current Duke of York For the nursery rhyme see The Grand Old Duke of York. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... The Siege of Oxford was a Parliamentarian victory late in the First English Civil War. ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... Hague redirects here. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... This article is about the legislature abolished in 1801. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ... List of monarchs of the Kingdom of England is a list of the monarchs of the Kingdom of England. ...


Exile in France

Turenne, James's commander in France
Turenne, James's commander in France

Like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, and later against their Spanish allies.[12] In the French army, James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he "ventures himself and chargeth gallantly where anything is to be done".[12] In 1656, when his brother, Charles, entered into an alliance with Spain—an enemy of France—James was expelled from France and forced to leave Turenne's army.[13] James quarrelled with his brother over the diplomatic choice of Spain over France. Exiled and poor, there was little that either Charles or James could do about the larger diplomatic situation, and James ultimately travelled to Bruges and (along with his younger brother, Henry) joined the Spanish army under Louis, Prince of Condé, fighting against his former French comrades at the Battle of the Dunes.[14] During his term of service in the Spanish army, James became friendly with two Irish Catholic brothers in the Royalist entourage, Peter and Richard Talbot, and began to be somewhat estranged from his brother's Anglican advisers.[15] In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace. James, doubtful of his brother's chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy.[16] Ultimately, he declined and by the next year the situation in England had sufficiently changed, and Charles II was proclaimed King.[17] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Turenne Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, often referred to as Turenne (September 11, 1611 – July 27, 1675) achieved military fame and became a Marshal of France. ... For other uses, see Fronde (disambiguation). ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester KG (July 8, 1640 - September 18, 1660) was the fourth living son and youngest son of King Charles I of Englandand his Queen Henrietta Maria of France. ... Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 – November 11, 1686) was the most celebrated representative of Princes de Condé and one of the most brilliant generals of the 17th century. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Spain Commanders Vicomte de Turenne Juan José de Austria Louis II de Condé Strength 26,000 and ships 15,000 Casualties 500 dead or wounded 2,000 dead or wounded 4,000 captured The Battle of the Dunes, fought on June 14 (Gregorian calendar), 1658... Peter Talbot, (1620-1680), was the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin from 1669 to his death. ... Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel (1630 – 14 August 1691), the fifth son of Sir William Talbot, Bart. ... The Treaty of the Pyrenees was a treaty signed in 1659 to end the war between France and Spain that had begun in 1635 during the Thirty Years War. ...

Restoration

Marriage

James and Anne Hyde in the 1660s, by Sir Peter Lely

After Oliver Cromwell's death in 1658 and the subsequent collapse of the Commonwealth in 1660, Charles II was restored to the English throne. Although James was the heir-presumptive, it seemed unlikely that he would inherit the crown, as Charles was still a young man capable of fathering children.[18] Upon his brother's restoration, James was created Duke of Albany in Scotland, to go along with his English title, Duke of York. Upon his return to England, James produced an immediate controversy by announcing his engagement to Anne Hyde, the daughter of Charles's chief minister, Edward Hyde.[19] In 1659, while attempting to seduce her, James promised he would marry Anne.[20] Anne became pregnant in 1660, but following the Restoration and James's return to power, no one at the royal court expected a prince to marry a commoner, no matter what he had pledged beforehand.[21] Although nearly everyone, including Anne's father, urged the two not to marry, they did so.[21] The couple was married secretly, then went through an official marriage ceremony on 3 September 1660, in London. Their first child, Charles, was born less than two months later, but died in infancy, as did five further sons and daughters.[21] Only two daughters survived: Mary (born 30 April 1662) and Anne (born 6 February 1665).[22] Samuel Pepys wrote that James was fond of his children and his role as a father, writing that he played with them "like an ordinary father," a contrast to the distant parenting common to royals at the time.[23] James's wife was devoted to him and influenced many of his decisions.[24] Even so, he kept a variety of mistresses, including Arabella Churchill and Catherine Sedley, and was reputed to be "the most unguarded ogler of his time."[25] Anne Hyde died in 1671. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 792 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (849 × 643 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 792 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (849 × 643 pixel, file size: 1. ... Sir Peter Lely (14 September 1618 - 30 November 1680) was a painter of Dutch origin. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honor, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ... Duke of Albany is a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the youngers sons in the Scottish and later the British Royal Family, particularly in the Houses of Stuart and Hanover. ... Lady Anne Hyde (March 1637 – March 31, 1671), daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, became the first wife of James, Duke of York (the future King James II of England), and the mother of two British queens, Mary II and Anne. ... Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 1609–9 December 1674) was an English historian, statesman and grandfather of two queens regnant, Mary II and Anne. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... Arabella Churchill (23 February 1648 – 30 May 1730) was the mistress of King James II & VII, and the mother of at least four of his children (surnamed FitzJames Stuart, that´s son of James Stuart). She was the child of Sir Winston Churchill (an ancestor of Sir Winston Churchill) and... Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester (c. ...

Military and political offices

After the Restoration, James was confirmed as Lord High Admiral, an office that carried with it the subsidiary appointments of Governor of Portsmouth and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.[26] James commanded the Royal Navy during the Second (1665–1667) and Third Anglo-Dutch Wars (1672–1674). Following the raid on the Medway in 1667, James oversaw the survey and re-fortification of the southern coast.[27] The office of Lord High Admiral, combined with his revenue from post office and wine tariffs (granted him by Charles upon his restoration) gave James a sufficient salary to keep a sizeable court household.[28] Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is a ceremonial official in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March 1665 until 31 July 1667. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the specific history of the British postal system, see Royal Mail. ...


Following its capture by the English in 1664, the Dutch territory of New Netherland was named the Province of New York in James's honour. After the founding, the duke gave the colony to proprieters, George Carteret and John Lord Berkeley. Fort Orange, 240 kilometres (150 miles) north on the Hudson River, was renamed Albany after James's Scottish title.[21] In 1683, he became the governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, but did not take an active role in its governance.[21] James also headed the Royal African Company, which participated in the slave trade.[29] States which were part of New Netherlands Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... A map of the Province of New York. ... Fort Orange (Dutch: Fort Oranje or Fort Oranije) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland. ... , The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois,[1][2][3] or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, Θkahnéhtati[4] in Tuscarora), is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and... For other uses, see Albany. ... Hbc redirects here. ... The Royal African Company was a slaving company set up by the Stuart family and London merchants once the former retook the English throne in 1660. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Conversion to Catholicism

Mary of Modena, James's second wife
Mary of Modena, James's second wife

James's time in France had exposed him to Catholicism and he and his wife, Anne, became drawn to that faith.[30] James took Communion in the Roman Catholic Church in about 1668 or 1669, although his conversion was kept secret for some time and he continued to attend Anglican services until 1676.[31] In spite of his conversion, James continued to associate primarily with Anglicans, including John Churchill and George Legge, as well as French Protestants, such as Louis de Duras, the Earl of Feversham.[32] Image File history File links Mary_of_modena_lg. ... Image File history File links Mary_of_modena_lg. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... Admiral George Legge (c. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Louis de Duras, 2nd Earl of Feversham , (1641 - 19 April 1709), was a French nobleman who became Earl of Feversham in Stuart England. ...


Growing fears of Catholic influence at court led Parliament to introduce a new Test Act in 1673.[33] Under this Act, all civil and military officials were required to take an oath (in which they were required not only to disavow the doctrine of transubstantiation, but also denounce certain practices of the Roman Catholic Church as "superstitious and idolatrous") and to receive communion under the auspices of the Church of England.[34] James refused to perform both actions, instead choosing to relinquish the post of Lord High Admiral. His conversion to Catholicism was thereby made public.[33] The several Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ...


Charles II opposed the conversion, ordering that James's daughters, Mary and Anne, be raised as Protestants.[35] Nevertheless, in 1673, he allowed James to marry the Catholic Mary of Modena, a fifteen-year-old Italian princess.[36] Many of the English, distrustful of Catholicism, regarded the new Duchess of York as an agent of the Pope.[37] Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... Pope Clement X (July 13, 1590 – July 22, 1676), born Emilio Bonaventura Altieri, was Pope from April 29, 1670 to July 22, 1676. ...


Exclusion Crisis

In 1677, James reluctantly consented to his daughter Mary's marriage to the Protestant Prince of Orange, William III (who was also James's nephew,) acquiescing after Charles and William had agreed upon the marriage.[38] Despite the Protestant marriage, fears of a potential Catholic monarch persisted, intensified by the failure of Charles II and his wife, Catherine of Braganza, to produce any children. A defrocked Anglican clergyman, Titus Oates, spoke of a "Popish Plot" to kill Charles and put the Duke of York on the throne.[39] The fabricated plot caused a wave of anti-Catholic hysteria to sweep across the nation. William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Catherine of Braganza (November 25, 1638 – November 30, 1705) (Catherine Henrietta, Portuguese: Catarina Henriqueta de Bragança), was the queen consort of King Charles II of England. ... Titus Oates. ... The Popish Plot was an alleged Catholic conspiracy. ...

The Duke of Monmouth was involved in plots against James.
The Duke of Monmouth was involved in plots against James.

In England, the Earl of Shaftesbury, a former government minister and now a leading opponent of Catholicism, attempted to have James excluded from the line of succession.[40] Some members of Parliament even proposed that the crown go to Charles's illegitimate son, James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth.[41] In 1679, with the Exclusion Bill in danger of passing, Charles II dissolved Parliament.[42] Two further Parliaments were elected in 1680 and 1681, but were dissolved for the same reason.[43] The Exclusion Crisis contributed to the development of the English two-party system: the Whigs were those who supported the Bill, while the Tories were those who opposed it. Ultimately, the succession was not altered, but James was convinced to withdraw from all policy-making bodies and to accept a lesser role in his brother's government.[44] Image File history File links James_Scott. ... Image File history File links James_Scott. ... James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649 – July 15, 1685), was an English nobleman who was executed in 1685 after making an unsuccessful attempt to claim the British throne, the Monmouth Rebellion. ... A rough picture of Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (July 22, 1621 – January 21, 1683) was a prominent English politician of the Interregnum and during the reign of King Charles II. Cooper, born in the county of Dorset, suffered the death of both... James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649 – July 15, 1685), was an English nobleman who was executed in 1685 after making an unsuccessful attempt to claim the British throne, the Monmouth Rebellion. ... During the reign of Charles II of England, the Exclusion Bill crisis ran from 1678 till 1681. ... List of Parliaments of England is a list of the sittings of the Parliament of England, from the reign of Edward IV to 1707 with some earlier named parliaments. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ...


On the orders of the King, James left England for Brussels.[45] In 1680, he was appointed Lord High Commissioner of Scotland and took up his residence at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh to suppress an uprising and oversee royal government there.[46] James returned to England for a time when Charles was stricken ill and appeared to be near death.[47] The hysteria of the accusations eventually faded, but James's relations with many in Parliament, including the Earl of Danby, a former ally, were forever strained and a solid segment of Parliament was turned against him.[48] This article is about the settlement itself. ... A 19th century view of Holyrood Palace from Calton Hill. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds (February 20, 1631 - July 26, 1712), English statesman, commonly known also by his earlier title of Earl of Danby, served in a variety of offices under Kings Charles II and William III of England. ...


Return to favour

In 1683, a plot was uncovered to assassinate Charles and James and spark a republican revolution to re-establish a government of the Cromwellian style.[49] This conspiracy, known as the Rye House Plot, backfired upon its conspirators and provoked a wave of sympathy for the King and James.[50] Several notable Whigs, including the Earl of Essex and the King's illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth, were implicated.[49] Monmouth initially confessed to complicity in the plot, implicating fellow-plotters, but later recanted.[49] Essex committed suicide and Monmouth, along with several others, was obliged to flee into Continental exile.[51] Charles reacted to the plot by increasing repression of Whigs and dissenters.[49] Taking advantage of James's rebounding popularity, Charles invited him back onto the privy council in 1684.[52] While some in Parliament remained wary of the possibility of a Catholic king, the threat of excluding James from the throne had passed. Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Rye House 1823 The Rye House Plot of 1683 was a plan to assassinate King Charles II of England and his brother (and heir to the throne) James, Duke of York. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex (1631 – July 13, 1683), whose surname is often spelled Capel, was an English statesman. ... James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649 – July 15, 1685), was an English nobleman who was executed in 1685 after making an unsuccessful attempt to claim the British throne, the Monmouth Rebellion. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ...


Reign

Ascension to the throne

Statue of James II in Trafalgar Square, London
Statue of James II in Trafalgar Square, London

Charles died in 1685 after converting to Roman Catholicism on his deathbed.[53] Having no legitimate children, Charles was succeeded by his brother James, who reigned in England and Ireland as James II, and in Scotland as James VII. There was no initial opposition to James's succession, and there were widespread reports of public rejoicing at the orderly succession.[54] James wanted to proceed quickly to the coronation, and was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1685.[55] The new Parliament that assembled in May 1685 was initially favourable to James, and the new King sent word that even most of the former exclusionists would be forgiven if they acquiesced to his rule.[54] Most of Charles's officers continued in office, the exceptions being the promotion of James's brothers-in-law, the Earls of Clarendon and Rochester, and the demotion of Halifax.[56] Parliament granted James a generous life income, including all of the proceeds of tonnage and poundage and the customs duties.[57] James worked harder as king than his brother had, but was less willing to compromise when his advisers disagreed.[58] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (411x640, 160 KB) Summary Statue of James II, Trafalgar Square, Westminster, London. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (411x640, 160 KB) Summary Statue of James II, Trafalgar Square, Westminster, London. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... List of Parliaments of England is a list of the sittings of the Parliament of England, from the reign of Edward IV to 1707 with some earlier named parliaments. ... Henry Hyde, (1638-1709), was the son of Edward Hyde, the 1st Earl of Clarendon, and his wife Frances Aylesbury. ... Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester (March, 1641 - May 2, 1711), was an English statesman and writer. ... George Savile, Marquess of Halifax. ... …Tonnage and Poundage were certain duties and taxes first levied in Edward IIs reign on every tun (cask) of imported wine, which came mostly from Spain and Portugal, and on every pound weight of merchandise exported or imported. ... Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting customs duties and for controlling the flow of animals and goods (including personal effects and hazardous items) in and out of a country. ...

Two rebellions

Soon after becoming king, James faced a rebellion in southern England led by his nephew, the Duke of Monmouth, and another rebellion in Scotland led by Archibald Campbell, the Earl of Argyll.[59] Argyll and Monmouth both began their expeditions from the Netherlands, where James's nephew, William III, had neglected to detain them or put a stop to their recruitment efforts.[60] Argyll sailed to Scotland and, on arriving there, raised recruits mainly from amongst his own clan, the Campbells.[61] The rebellion was quickly crushed, and Argyll himself was captured at Inchinnan on 18 June 1685.[61] Having arrived with fewer than 300 men and unable to convince many more to flock to his standard, Argyll never posed a credible threat to James.[62] He was executed on 30 June in Edinburgh. The Monmouth Rebellion of 1685, also known as the Pitchfork Rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow the King of England, James II, who became king when his elder brother, Charles II, died on 6 February 1685. ... James Crofts, later James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and of Buccleuch (April 9, 1649 – July 15, 1685), was an English nobleman who was executed in 1685 after making an unsuccessful attempt to claim the British throne, the Monmouth Rebellion. ... Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll (c. ... The title Duke of Argyll was created in the peerage of Scotland in 1701 and in the peerage of the United Kingdom in 1892. ... Clan Campbell is historically one of the largest and most powerful Highland Scottish clans. ... Inchinnan (Innis Fhionghain in Scottish Gaelic) is a small village in Renfrewshire, Scotland. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


Argyll's rebellion was coordinated with Monmouth's, but the latter was more dangerous to James. Monmouth proclaimed himself King at Lyme Regis on 11 June.[63] He attempted to raise recruits but was unable to gather enough rebels to defeat even James's small standing army.[64] Monmouth attacked the King's forces at night, in an attempt at surprise, but was defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor.[64] The King's forces, led by Feversham and Churchill, quickly dispersed the ill-prepared rebels.[64] Monmouth himself was captured and executed at the Tower of London on 15 July.[65] The King's judges—most notably, George Jeffreys—condemned many of the rebels to transportation and indentured servitude in the West Indies in a series of trials that came to be known as the Bloody Assizes.[66] Some 250 of the rebels were executed.[67] While both rebellions were defeated easily enough, the effect on James was to harden his resolve against his enemies and to increase his suspicion of the Dutch.[68] , Lyme Regis (IPA: ) is a coastal town in West Dorset, England, situated 25 miles west of Dorchester and 25 miles east of Exeter. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Royal army of James II Rebel army of James Scott Commanders Louis de Duras, John Churchill Duke of Monmouth Strength 3,000 4,000 Casualties 300 1,000 killed 500 prisoners The Battle of Sedgemoor was fought on 6 July 1685[1] and took place at Westonzoyland near Bridgwater... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, on the north bank of the River Thames. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named George Jeffreys, see George Jeffreys (disambiguation). ... An indentured servant is a laborer under contract of an employer for some period of time, usually three to seven years, in exchange for transportation there, food, drink, clothing, lodging and other necessities. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... The Bloody Assizes were the series of trials in the aftermath of the Battle of Sedgemoor, which ended the Monmouth Rebellion in England. ...


Absolutism and religious liberty

To protect himself from further rebellions, James sought safety in an enlarged standing army.[69] This alarmed his subjects, not only because of the trouble soldiers caused in the towns, but because it was against the English tradition to keep a professional army in peacetime.[70] Even more alarming to Parliament was James's use of his dispensing power to allow Roman Catholics to command several regiments without having to take the oath mandated by the Test Act.[69] When even the previously supportive Parliament objected to these measures, James ordered Parliament prorogued in November 1685, never to meet again in his reign.[71] A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... A parliamentary session is a period of time where the legislature in a parliamentary government is sitting. ...

Rochester, once amongst James's supporters, turned against him by 1688, along with most Anglicans.

Religious tension grew from 1686. James allowed Roman Catholics to occupy the highest offices of the Kingdoms, and received at his court the papal nuncio, Ferdinando d'Adda, the first representative from Rome to London since the reign of Mary I.[69] James's Jesuit confessor, Edward Petre, was a particular object of Protestant ire.[72] When the King's Secretary of State, the Earl of Sunderland, began replacing office-holders at court with Catholic favourites, James began to lose the confidence of many of his Anglican supporters.[73] Sunderland's purge of office-holders even extended to the King's Anglican brothers-in-law and their supporters.[73] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester (March, 1641 - May 2, 1711), was an English statesman and writer. ... A Papal Nuncio (also known as an Apostolic Nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of mission) of the Holy See to a state, having ambassadorial rank. ... Ferdinando dAdda was born in Milan in 1649. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Sir Edward Petre (1631 - May 15, 1699), was a Jesuit priest, the confessor of King James II of England. ... Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland (1640 - September 28, 1702) was an English statesman and nobleman. ...


In 1687, James issued the Declaration of Indulgence, also known as the Declaration for Liberty of Conscience, in which he used his suspending power to negate the effect of laws punishing Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters.[74] James ordered the Declaration read from the pulpits of every Anglican church, further alienating the Anglican bishops against the Catholic head of their church.[75] While the Declaration elicited some thanks from Catholics and dissenters, it left the Established Church, the traditional ally of the monarchy, in the difficult position of being forced to erode its own privileges.[75] The King provoked further opposition by attempting to reduce the Anglican monopoly on education.[76] At the University of Oxford, James offended Anglicans by allowing Catholics to hold important positions in Christ Church and University College, two of Oxford's largest colleges. He also attempted to force the Protestant Fellows of Magdalen College to elect Anthony Farmer, a man of generally ill repute who was believed to be secretly Catholic,[77] as their president when the Protestant incumbent died, a violation of the Fellows' right to elect a candidate of their own choosing.[76] The Declaration of Indulgence (or the declaration for the liberty of conscience) was made by King James II of England, on the April 4, 1687. ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... and of the Christ Church College name Christ Church Latin name Ædes Christi Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister college Trinity College, Cambridge Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR president Laura Ellis Undergraduates 426 GCR president Tim Benjamin Graduates 154 Location of Christ Church within central Oxford... College name University College Collegium Magnae Aulae Universitatis Named after Established 1249 Sister College Trinity Hall Master Lord Butler of Brockwell JCR President Peter Surr Undergraduates 420 MCR President Monte MacDiarmid Graduates 144 Homepage Boatclub Crest of University College, Oxford University College (in full, the The Master and Fellows of... College name Magdalen College Latin name Collegium Beatae Mariae Magdalenae Named after Mary Magdalene Established 1458 Sister college Magdalene College, Cambridge President Professor David Clary FRS JCR President Jessica Jones Undergraduates 395 MCR President Eloise Scotford Graduates 230 Location of Magdalen College within central Oxford , Homepage Boatclub Magdalen College (pronounced... Anthony Farmer was an Englishman nominated by King James II to the office of President of Magdalen College, Oxford. ...


Glorious Revolution

Main article: Glorious Revolution
James's nephew, William, was invited to "save the Protestant religion".
James's nephew, William, was invited to "save the Protestant religion".

In April 1688, James re-issued the Declaration of Indulgence, subsequently ordering Anglican clergymen to read it in their churches.[78] When the Archbishop of Canterbury William Sancroft and six other bishops (known as the Seven Bishops) submitted a petition requesting the reconsideration of the King's religious policies, they were arrested and tried for seditious libel.[79] Public alarm increased when Queen Mary gave birth to a Catholic son and heir, James Francis Edward on 10 June of that year.[80] When James's only possible successors were his two Protestant daughters, moderate Anglicans could see his pro-Catholic policies as a temporary aberration; the Prince's birth opened the possibility of a permanent Catholic dynasty, and led such men to reconsider their patience.[81] Threatened by a Catholic dynasty, several influential Protestants claimed the child was "suppositious". They had already entered into negotiations with William, Prince of Orange, when it became known the Queen was pregnant, and the birth of James's son reinforced their convictions.[82] The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... Download high resolution version (800x1008, 97 KB)By Peter Lely. ... Download high resolution version (800x1008, 97 KB)By Peter Lely. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... William Sancroft (1616-1693), archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Fressingfield in Suffolk on January 30, 1616, and entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in July 1634. ... The Seven Bishops were seven bishops of the Church of England. ... Sedition refers to a legal designation of non-overt conduct that is deemed by a legal authority as being acts of treason, and hence deserving of legal punishment. ... The Prince James, Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart; The Old Pretender or The Old Chevalier; 10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed James II and VII. As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones (as James III and VIII) from the... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

John Churchill had been a member of James's household for many years, but defected to William of Orange in 1688.
John Churchill had been a member of James's household for many years, but defected to William of Orange in 1688.

On 30 June 1688, a group of Protestant nobles, later known as the Immortal Seven, invited the Prince of Orange to come to England with an army.[83] By September, it had become clear that William sought to invade.[84] Believing that his own army would be adequate, James refused the assistance of Louis XIV, fearing that the English would oppose French intervention.[84] When William arrived on 5 November 1688, many Protestant officers, including Churchill, defected and joined William, as did James's own daughter, Princess Anne.[85] James lost his nerve, and declined to attack the invading army, despite his own numerical superiority.[86] On 11 December, James attempted to flee to France, first throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames.[87] James was captured in Kent; later, he was released and placed under Dutch protective guard. Having no desire to make James a martyr, the Prince of Orange let him escape on 23 December.[87] James was received by his cousin and ally, Louis XIV, who offered him a palace and a pension. Image File history File links John_Churchill_in_his_thirties. ... Image File history File links John_Churchill_in_his_thirties. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Immortal Seven were seven notable English citizens who issued the Invitation to William, a document asking William of Orange to depose James II in favour of Williams wife Mary, culminating in the Glorious Revolution. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Seal of the Realm is a British institution by which the monarch can authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


William convened a Convention Parliament to decide how to handle James's flight. While the Parliament refused to depose him, they declared that James, having fled to France and dropped the Great Seal into the Thames, had effectively abdicated the throne, and that the throne had thereby become vacant.[88] To fill this vacancy, James's daughter Mary was declared Queen; she was to rule jointly with her husband William, who would be King. The Parliament of Scotland followed suit on 11 April 1689.[89] The Parliament passed a Bill of Rights that charged James II with abusing his power; amongst other things, it criticised the suspension of the Test Acts, the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for merely petitioning the crown, the establishment of a standing army and the imposition of cruel punishments.[90] The Bill also stipulated that no Catholic would henceforth be permitted to ascend to the English throne, nor could any English monarch marry a Catholic.[91] The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Bill of Rights 1689 is an English Act of Parliament with the long title An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown and known colloquially in the UK as the Bill of Rights. ...


Later years

War in Ireland

With the assistance of French troops, James landed in Ireland in March 1689.[92] The Irish Parliament did not follow the example of the English Parliament; it declared that James remained King and passed a massive bill of attainder against those who had rebelled against him.[93] At James's urging, the Irish Parliament passed an Act for Liberty of Conscience that granted religious freedom to all Catholics and Protestants in Ireland.[94] James worked to build an army in Ireland, but was ultimately defeated at the Battle of the Boyne on 1 July 1690 when William arrived, personally leading an army to defeat James and reassert English control.[95] James fled to France once more, departing from Kinsale, never to return to any of his former kingdoms.[95] Because he deserted his Irish supporters, James became known in Ireland as Séamus an Chaca or 'James the be-shitten'.[96] This article is about the legislature abolished in 1801. ... A bill of attainder (also known as an act or writ of attainder) is an act of legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime, and punishing them, without benefit of a trial. ... Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James VII and II William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Market Street in Kinsale, one of the towns oldest thoroughfares Kinsale (Cionn tSáile in Irish) is a town in County Cork, Ireland. ...


Return to exile

The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, James's home during his final exile
The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, James's home during his final exile

In France, James was allowed to live in the royal château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.[97] James's wife and some of his supporters fled with him, including the Earl of Melfort; most, but not all, were Catholic.[98] In 1692, James's last child, Louisa Maria Teresa, was born.[99] Some supporters in England attempted to restore James to the throne by assassinating William III in 1696, but the plot failed and the backlash made James's cause less popular.[100] Louis XIV's offer to have James elected King of Poland in the same year was rejected, for James feared that acceptance of the Polish crown might (in the minds of the English people) render him incapable of being King of England. After Louis concluded peace with William in 1697, he ceased to offer much in the way of assistance to James.[101] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (1025 × 643 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Château de saint-Germain-en-Laye (Yvelines) Photo JH Mora, août 2005 From french wiki, uploader by Spedona 23 août 2005 à 22:29... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (1025 × 643 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Château de saint-Germain-en-Laye (Yvelines) Photo JH Mora, août 2005 From french wiki, uploader by Spedona 23 août 2005 à 22:29... The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Yvelines (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Saint-Germain-en-Laye Canton Chief town of 2 cantons Intercommunality none as of 2005 Mayor Emmanuel Lamy (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 22 m–107 m (avg. ... John Drummond, 1st Earl and titular 1st Duke of Melfort (1649-1714) was a Scottish nobleman. ... Election of Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki as king of Poland at Wola, outside Warsaw ( 1669). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


During his last years, James lived as an austere penitent.[102] He died of a brain hemorrhage on 16 September 1701 at Saint-Germain-en-Laye.[103] His body was laid to rest in a coffin at the Chapel of Saint Edmund in the Church of the English Benedictines in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris.[103] In 1734, the Archbishop of Paris heard evidence to support James's canonization, but nothing came of it.[103] During the French Revolution, James's tomb was raided and his remains scattered.[104] Penance is the actual name of the Catholic Sacrament of Reconciliation/ Confession. ... A cerebral hemorrhage is a condition in the brain in which a blood vessel leaks. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region Île-de-France Department Yvelines (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Saint-Germain-en-Laye Canton Chief town of 2 cantons Intercommunality none as of 2005 Mayor Emmanuel Lamy (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 22 m–107 m (avg. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... The archbishop of Paris is one of twenty-three archbishops in France. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Succession

James's son was known as "James III and VIII" to his supporters, and "The Old Pretender" to his enemies.
James's son was known as "James III and VIII" to his supporters, and "The Old Pretender" to his enemies.

James's younger daughter Anne succeeded to the throne when William III died in 1702. The Act of Settlement 1701 provided that, if the line of succession established in the Bill of Rights were to be extinguished, then the crown would go to a German cousin, Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and to her Protestant heirs.[105] Thus, when Anne died in 1714 (fewer than two months after the death of Sophia), the crown was inherited by George I, Sophia's son, the Elector of Hanover and Anne's second cousin.[105] Image File history File links Pretend3. ... Image File history File links Pretend3. ... The Prince James, Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart; The Old Pretender or The Old Chevalier; 10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed James II and VII. As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones (as James III and VIII) from the... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the Winter King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ...


James's son James Francis Edward was recognised as King at his father's death by Louis XIV of France and James's remaining supporters (later known as Jacobites) as "James III and VIII."[106] He led a rising in Scotland in 1715 shortly after George I's accession, but was defeated.[107] Jacobites rose again in 1745 led by Charles Edward Stuart, James II's grandson, and were again defeated.[108] Since then, no serious attempt to restore the Stuart heir has been made. Charles's claims passed to his younger brother Henry Benedict Stuart, the Dean of the College of Cardinals of the Catholic Church.[109] Henry was the last of James II's legitimate descendants, and no relative has publicly acknowledged the Jacobite claim since then.[110] The Prince James, Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart; The Old Pretender or The Old Chevalier; 10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed James II and VII. As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones (as James III and VIII) from the... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in the British Isles occurring between 1688 and 1746. ... The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in the British Isles occurring between 1688 and 1746. ... Charles Edward Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788), known in Scots Gaelic as Teàrlach Eideard Stiùbhairt, was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and is now commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. ... Henry Benedict Cardinal Stuart (March 11, 1725 – July 13, 1807) was the fourth and last Jacobite to publicly claim the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals is the president of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church, and as such always holds the rank of Cardinal Bishop. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... The Jacobite Stuarts who claimed the thrones of England, Scotland, Ireland and France after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 were: James II and VII (February 6, 1685 – 16 September 1701). ...

Historiography

Macaulay wrote in the Whiggish tradition.
Macaulay wrote in the Whiggish tradition.

Historical analysis of James II has gone through considerable change since he was overthrown. Initially, Whiggish historians, led by Lord Macaulay, cast James as a cruel absolutist and his reign as "tyranny which approached to insanity."[111] Subsequent scholars, such as G. M. Trevelyan and David Ogg, while more balanced than Macaulay, continued Macaulay's tradition into the twentieth century, characterizing James as a tyrant, his attempts at religious tolerance as a fraud, and his reign as an aberration in the course of British history.[112] In 1892, A. W. Ward wrote for the Dictionary of National Biography that James was "obviously a political and religious bigot", although never devoid of "a vein of patriotic sentiment"; "his conversion to the church of Rome made the emancipation of his fellow-catholics in the first instance, and the recovery of England for catholicism in the second, the governing objects of his policy."[113] Image File history File links Thomas_Babington_Macaulay,_1st_Baron_Macaulay_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_13103. ... Image File history File links Thomas_Babington_Macaulay,_1st_Baron_Macaulay_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_13103. ... Quotes His imagination resembled the wings of an ostrich. ... Whig historiography perceives the past as a teleological progression toward the present. ... Whig historiography perceives the past as a teleological progression toward the present. ... Quotes His imagination resembled the wings of an ostrich. ... George Macaulay Trevelyan (February 16, 1876 – July 21, 1962), was an English historian, son of Sir George Otto Trevelyan and great-nephew of Thomas Macaulay. ... Adolphus William Ward (December 2, 1837 _ 1924), English historian and man of letters, was born at Hampstead, London, and was educated in Germany and at the university of Cambridge. ... The Dictionary of National Biography (or DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history. ...

Belloc was a notable apologist for James II.
Belloc was a notable apologist for James II.

Hilaire Belloc broke with this tradition in 1928. Belloc cast James as an honorable man and a true advocate for freedom of conscience, and his enemies as "men in the small clique of great fortunes ... which destroyed the ancient monarchy of the English."[114] Belloc's thesis failed to alter the course of historical opinion at the time, but by the 1960s and 1970s, Maurice Ashley and Stuart Prall began to reconsider James's motives in granting religious toleration, while still taking note of James's autocratic rule.[115] These modern authors moved away from the school of thought that preached inevitability of the Glorious Revolution and the continuous march of progress and democracy. "[H]istory is," Ashley wrote, "after all, the story of human beings and individuals, as well as of the classes and the masses."[116] He cast James II and William III as "men of ideals as well as human weaknesses."[116] John Miller, writing in 2000, accepted the claims of James's absolutism, but argued that "his main concern was to secure religious liberty and civil equality for Catholics. Any 'absolutist' methods ... were essentially means to that end."[117] In 2004, W. A. Speck wrote in the new Oxford Dictionary of National Biography that "James was genuinely committed to religious toleration, but also sought to increase the power of the crown."[118] He added that, unlike the government of the Netherlands, "James was too autocratic to combine freedom of conscience with popular government. He resisted any check on the monarch's power. That is why his heart was not in the concessions he had to make in 1688. He would rather live in exile with his principles intact than continue to reign as a limited monarch."[118] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Photograph of Belloc Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (27 July 1870 – 16 July 1953) was one of the most prolific writers in England during the early twentieth century. ... Photograph of Belloc Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (27 July 1870 – 16 July 1953) was one of the most prolific writers in England during the early twentieth century. ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William...


Tim Harris's conclusions from his 2006 book summarize the crossroads of modern scholarship on James II:

The jury will doubtless remain out on James for a long time…Was he an egotistical bigot…a tyrant who rode roughshod over the will of the vast majority of his subjects (at least in England and Scotland)…simply naïve, or even perhaps plain stupid, unable to appreciate the realities of political power…Or was he a well-intentioned and even enlightened ruler—an enlightened despot well ahead of his time, perhaps—who was merely trying to do what he thought was best for his subjects?[119]

Titles, styles, and arms

Titles and styles

Monarchical Styles of
King James II of England
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sir

The official style of James II was "James the Second, by the Grace of God, King of England, France and Ireland, King of Scots, Defender of the Faith, etc." (The claim to France was only nominal, and was asserted by every English King from Edward III to George III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled.) Image File history File links Edward's_crown_PD_cleaned. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... The Kingdom of England was first unified as a state by Athelstan of Wessex. ... This article or section should be merged with English claims to the French throne From 1339 to 1801, with only brief intervals in 1360-1369 and 1420-1422, the Kings of England also bore the title of King of France. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ... The English claims to the French throne have a long and rather complex history between the 1340s and the 1800s. ... This article is about the King of England. ... George III redirects here. ...

Half-Crown coin of James II, 1686
Half-Crown coin of James II, 1686

James was created "Duke of Normandy" by King Louis XIV of France, December 31, 1660. This was a few months after the restoration of his brother Charles II to the English and Irish thrones (Charles II had been crowned King of Scotland in 1651), and probably was done as a political gesture of support for James - since his brother also would have claimed the title "Duke of Normandy." ImageMetadata File history File links James2coin. ... ImageMetadata File history File links James2coin. ... Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...

Arms

His arms as King were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... The Coat of Arms of England The Coat of Arms of England is gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed & langued azure The Coat of Arms was introduced by King Richard I of England in the 1190s, apparently as a version of the arms of the Duchy of... The Coat of Arms of the Republic of Ireland. ...

In popular culture

Film and television

James has been portrayed on screen by:

For the Batman graphic novel, see Batman: The Man Who Laughs. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Samuel Alfred De Grace (June 12, 1875 - November 29, 1953) was a Canadian actor. ... The Man Who Laughs is a 1928 American silent Romantic drama film directed by German expressionist filmmaker Paul Leni. ... Captain Blood is a 1935 swashbuckling film made by First National Pictures and Warner Brothers. ... 2007 e-book edition cover Captain Blood is an adventure novel by Rafael Sabatini, originally published in 1922. ... Rafael Sabatini (April 29, 1875 - February 13, 1950) was an Italian/British writer of novels of romance and adventure. ... Henry Oscar, born Henry Wale on 14 July 1891 in London, England, died 28 December 1969, was an English actor on stage and film. ... John Westbrook (1 November 1922 - 16 June 1989) was an English actor. ... The First Churchills was a BBC miniseries from 1969 about the life of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and his wife, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. ... Guy Henry (born 17 October 1960) is a British stage and screen actor who trained at RADA (1979-81, at the same time as Paul McGann). ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), was an English Baroque composer. ... Charlie Creed-Miles (born 24 March 1972 in Nottingham, England) is an English actor. ...

Ancestors

Matthew Stewart (1516-1571) was the 4th Earl of Lennox, and leader of the Catholic nobility in Scotland. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, king consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who also succeded Elizabeth I of England. ... Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox (October 8, 1515 – March 7, 1578) was the daughter of Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and Margaret Tudor, Queen Dowager of Scotland. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... Marie de Guise Marie de Guise (in English, Mary of Guise) (November 22, 1515 – June 11, 1560) was the Queen Consort of James V of Scotland and the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... Christian III Christian III (August 12, 1503–January 1, 1559), king of Denmark and Norway, was the son of Frederick I of Denmark and his first consort, Anne of Brandenburg. ... Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... Queen Dorothea Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg (9 July 1511 – 7 October 1571), consort of Christian III from 1525 and Queen consort of Denmark and Norway. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Ulrich III, Duke of Mecklenburg (March 5, 1527 – March 14, 1603) was duke of Mecklenburg from 1555-56 to 1603. ... Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (4 September 1557, Wismar – 14 October 1631, Nykoping) was a German noblewoman and Queen of Denmark. ... Elizabeth of Denmark (14 October 1524 – 15 October 1586) was a Duchess of Mecklenburg. ... Charles de Bourbon duc de Vendôme (June 2, 1489 – 1537) was a French nobleman of the court of Francis I of France. ... Antoine de Bourbon (1560) Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme (22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562), was head of the House of Bourbon from 1537 to 1562, and King-consort of Navarre from 1555 to 1562. ... Francoise of Alençon (1490 - September 14, 1550) was the daughter of René of Alençon and Marguerite of Lorraine. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Coat of arms of Henry II. Henry II (April 18, 1503 - May 25, 1555), was the eldest son of Jean dAlbret (d. ... Jeanne dAlbret Jeanne dAlbret (January 7, 1528 - June 9, 1572) was Queen of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome and mother of Henry IV of France. ... Marguerite of Navarre (April 11, 1492 - December 21, 1549), also known as Marguerite of Angouleme and Margaret of Navarre, was the queen consort of King Henry II of Navarre. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... Cosimo I de Medici in Armour by Agnolo Bronzino. ... Francesco I of Tuscany. ... Eleonora di Toledo Eleonora di Toledo (1522– December 17, 1562) was a Spanish noblewoman who was Duchess of Florence from 1539. ... Portrait of Marie de Medici. ... Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was an Austrian monarch from the House of Habsburg. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anna of Bohemia (1204 – 1265) was the Duchess consort of Silesia, Poland (1238-1241), she was the daughter of Ottokar I, King of Bohemia and his second wife Constance, the daughter of Bela III, King of Hungary. ...

Issue

Lady Anne Hyde (March 1637 – March 31, 1671), daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, became the first wife of James, Duke of York (the future King James II of England), and the mother of two British queens, Mary II and Anne. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... James, Duke of Cambridge KG (11 July 1663 – 20 June 1667) was the second son of James, Duke of York (later James II of England) and his first wife Anne Hyde. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1663 (MDCLXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... Prince George of Denmark Prince George of Denmark (April 2, 1653 - October 28, 1708) was the Prince consort of Queen Anne of Great Britain. ... Charles Stuart, Duke of Kendal (4 July 1666 - 22 May 1667) was the third son of James, Duke of York (later James II of England) and his first wife Anne Hyde. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Edgar, Duke of Cambridge (14 September 1667 – 8 June 1671) was the fourth son of James, Duke of York (later James II of England) and his first wife Anne Hyde. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1677 (MDCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1677 (MDCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Prince James, Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart; The Old Pretender or The Old Chevalier; 10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed James II and VII. As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones (as James III and VIII) from the... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Noble Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jakub Ludwik Sobieski Hedwig Elisabeth Amelia Consorts James Francis Edward Stuart Children with James Francis Edward Stuart Bonnie Prince Charlie Stuart Henry Benedict Stuart Date of Birth July 18, 1702 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death January 18, 1735 Place of Death... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Arabella Churchill (23 February 1648 – 30 May 1730) was the mistress of King James II & VII, and the mother of at least four of his children (surnamed FitzJames Stuart, that´s son of James Stuart). She was the child of Sir Winston Churchill (an ancestor of Sir Winston Churchill) and... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Henry Waldegrave, 1st Baron Waldegrave (1661 – 24 January 1689) was a British peer and Jacobite supporter. ... James FitzJames, Duke of Berwick James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick-upon-Tweed (August 21, 1670- June 12, 1734) was a French military leader, illegitimate son of King James II of England and VII of Scotland by Arabella Churchill, sister of the Duke of Marlborough. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1670 (MDCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... Henry FitzJames, 1st Duke of Albemarle (August 1673 - December 1702), was the illegitimate son of King James II of England and VII of Scotland by Arabella Churchill, sister of the Duke of Marlborough. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Catherine Sedley, countess of Dorchester (c. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... James Annesley, 3rd Earl of Anglesey (1670–18/21 January 1702), succeeded to his Earldom on his fathers death in 1690. ... John Sheffield was the 1st Duke of BuckinghamSHIRE not the 1st Duke of Buckingham. ...

See also

The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... Touch Pieces are coins and medalets that have attracted superstitious beliefs, such as those with holes in them or those with particular designs. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b In Scotland, he was called James VII, as there were six previous kings of that nation named James.
  2. ^ An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.
  3. ^ Miller, 1
  4. ^ a b Callow, 31
  5. ^ Callow, 34
  6. ^ Miller, 10; Callow, 101
  7. ^ Callow, 36
  8. ^ Callow, 42; Miller, 3
  9. ^ Callow, 45
  10. ^ Callow, 48–50
  11. ^ a b Royle, 517
  12. ^ a b Miller, 16–17
  13. ^ Miller, 19–20
  14. ^ Miller, 19–25
  15. ^ Miller, 22–23
  16. ^ Miller, 24
  17. ^ Miller, 25
  18. ^ Callow, 89
  19. ^ Callow, 90
  20. ^ Miller, 44
  21. ^ a b c d e Miller, 44–45
  22. ^ Waller, 49–50
  23. ^ Miller, 46
  24. ^ Miller, 45–46
  25. ^ Miller, 46. Samuel Pepys recorded in his diary that James "did eye my wife mightily." Ibid. James's taste in women was often maligned, with Gilbert Burnet famously remarking that James's mistresses must have been "given him by his priests as a penance." Miller, 59.
  26. ^ Callow, 101
  27. ^ Callow, 104
  28. ^ Miller, 42
  29. ^ Miller, 43–44
  30. ^ Miller, 58–59; Callow, 144–145. Callow writes that Anne "made the greatest single impact upon his thinking" and that she converted shortly after the Restoration, "almost certainly before her husband." Ibid., 144.
  31. ^ Callow, 143–144; Waller, 135
  32. ^ Callow, 149
  33. ^ a b Miller, 69–71
  34. ^ Kenyon, 385
  35. ^ Waller, 92
  36. ^ Waller, 16–17
  37. ^ Waller, 30–31
  38. ^ Miller, 84; Waller, 94–97. According to Turner, James's reaction to the agreement was "The King shall be obeyed, and I would be glad if all his subjects would learn of me to obey him". Turner, 132.
  39. ^ Miller, 87
  40. ^ Miller, 99–105
  41. ^ Harris, 74
  42. ^ Miller, 93–95
  43. ^ Miller, 103–104
  44. ^ Miller, 90
  45. ^ Miller, 87–91
  46. ^ Miller, 95
  47. ^ Miller, 98–99
  48. ^ Miller, 89; Callow, 180–183
  49. ^ a b c d Miller, 115–116
  50. ^ Miller, 116; Waller, 142–143
  51. ^ Miller, 116–117
  52. ^ Miller, 117
  53. ^ Miller, 118–119
  54. ^ a b Miller, 120–121
  55. ^ Harris, 45. The English coronation only crowned James King of England and Ireland; James was never crowned in Scotland, but was proclaimed King there around the same time.
  56. ^ Miller, 121
  57. ^ Harris, 44–45
  58. ^ Miller, 123
  59. ^ Miller, 140–143; Harris, 73–86
  60. ^ Miller, 139–140
  61. ^ a b Harris, 75–76
  62. ^ Harris, 76
  63. ^ Harris, 82–85
  64. ^ a b c Miller, 141
  65. ^ Harris, 88
  66. ^ Miller, 141–142
  67. ^ Harris, 88
  68. ^ Miller, 142
  69. ^ a b c Miller, 142–143
  70. ^ Harris, 95–100
  71. ^ Miller, 146–147
  72. ^ Harris, 195–196
  73. ^ a b Miller, 150–152
  74. ^ Kenyon, 389–391
  75. ^ a b Harris, 216–224
  76. ^ a b Harris, 224–229
  77. ^ Farmer's exact religious affiliation is unclear. Macaulay, at 190, says Farmer "pretended to turn Papist." Prall, at 148, calls him a "Catholic sympathizer." Miller, at 170, says "although he had not declared himself a Catholic, it was believed he was no longer an Anglican." Ashley, at 89, does not refer to Farmer by name, but only as the King's Catholic nominee. All sources agree that Farmer's bad reputation as a "person of scandalous character" was as much a deterrent to his nomination as his uncertain religious loyalties. See, e.g., Prall, 148.
  78. ^ Harris, 258–259
  79. ^ Harris, 260–262; Prall, 312
  80. ^ Miller 186–187; Harris, 269–272
  81. ^ Harris, 271–272; Ashley, 110–111
  82. ^ Waller, 43–46; Miller, 186–187
  83. ^ Ashley, 201–202
  84. ^ a b Miller, 190–196
  85. ^ Waller, 236–239
  86. ^ Miller, 201–203
  87. ^ a b Miller, 205–209
  88. ^ Miller, 209. Harris, 320–328, analyses the legal nature of the abdication; James did not agree that he had abdicated.
  89. ^ Harris, 402–407
  90. ^ Ashley, 206–209; Harris, 329–348
  91. ^ Harris, 349–350
  92. ^ Miller, 222–224
  93. ^ Miller, 226–227
  94. ^ Harris, 440
  95. ^ a b Harris, 446–449
  96. ^ Szechi, Daniel (1994). The Jacobites, Britain and Europe, 1688-1788. 48: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0719037743. 
  97. ^ Miller, 235
  98. ^ Miller, 235–236
  99. ^ SCOTTISH ROYAL LINEAGE - THE HOUSE OF STUART Part 4 of 6 online at burkes-peerage.net (accessed 9 February 2008)
  100. ^ Miller, 238; Waller, 350
  101. ^ Miller, 239
  102. ^ Miller, 234–236
  103. ^ a b c Miller, 240
  104. ^ Miller, 240; Waller, 401; MacLeod, 349. MacLeod and Waller say all of James's remains were lost. McFerran says parts of his bowel sent to the parish church of St. Germain-en-Laye were rediscovered in 1824 and are the only known remains left. The English Illustrated Magazine article on St. Germain from September 1901 concurs.
  105. ^ a b Harris, 493
  106. ^ MacLeod, 349
  107. ^ MacLeod 361–363
  108. ^ MacLeod, 365–371
  109. ^ MacLeod, 371–372
  110. ^ MacLeod, 373–374
  111. ^ Macaulay, 239
  112. ^ See Prall, vii-xv, for a more detailed historiography.
  113. ^ Sidney Lee, editor (1892). James II of England. Dictionary of National Biography 197. MacMillan & Co.. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
  114. ^ Belloc, vii
  115. ^ See Ashley, 196–198; Prall, 291–293
  116. ^ a b Ashley, 9
  117. ^ Miller, ix
  118. ^ a b W. A. Speck, "James II and VII (1633–1701)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept. 2004; online edn, May 2006, accessed 15 October 2007. Speck elaborated that James "wished that all his subjects could be as convinced as he was that the Catholic church was the one true church. He was also convinced that the established church was maintained artificially by penal laws which proscribed nonconformity. If these were removed, and conversions to Catholicism were encouraged, then many would take place … James underestimated the appeal of protestantism in general and the Church of England in particular. His was the zeal and even bigotry of a narrow-minded convert...."
  119. ^ Harris, 478–479
  120. ^ The London Gazette, 6 February 1681; 8 June 1682; 6 August 1683
  121. ^ Stuart, Catherine Laura
  122. ^ Stuart, Charles of Cambridge, Duke of Cambridge
  123. ^ Stuart, Charlotte Maria

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References

  • Ashley, Maurice, The Glorious Revolution of 1688, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York 1966. ISBN 0-340-00896-2.
  • Belloc, Hilaire, James the Second, J.B. Lippincott Co, Philadelphia 1928.
  • Callow, John, The Making of King James II: The Formative Years of a King, Sutton Publishing, Ltd, Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 2000. ISBN 0750923989.
  • Clarke, James S. (Editor), The Life of James II, London, 1816
  • Davis, Richard B. (Editor). (1963). William Fitzhugh and His Chesapeake World, 1676–1701. Chapel Hill: The Virginia Historical Society by University of North Carolina Press.
  • Hallam, Henry, The Constitutional History of England from the Accession of Henry VII to the Death of George II, W. Clowes & Sons, London, 1855.
  • Harris, Tim, Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy, 1685–1720, Penguin Books, Ltd., 2006. ISBN 0713997591.
  • "James II," Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London, 1911: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kenyon, J.P., The Stuart Constitution 1603–1688, Documents and Commentary, 2d ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1986. ISBN 0521313279.
  • MacLeod, John, Dynasty, the Stuarts, 1560–1807, Hodder and Stoughton, London 1999. ISBN 0340707674.
  • Macauley, Thomas Babington, The History of England from the Accession of James the Second, 1848. Penguin Books Edition, New York 1968, 1986. ISBN 0140431330.
  • Miller, John, James II, 3d. ed. Yale University Press, New Haven 2000. ISBN 0-300-08728-4
  • McFerran, Noel S. (2003). "James II and VII."
  • Prall, Stuart, The Bloodless Revolution: England, 1688, Anchor Books, Garden City, New York 1972.
  • Royle, Trevor, The British Civil Wars: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, 1638–1660, Little, Brown, 2004. ISBN 0312292937.
  • Turner, Francis C., James II, Eyre and Spottiswoode, London, 1948
  • Waller, Maureen, Ungrateful Daughters: The Stuart Princesses who Stole Their Father's Crown, Hodder & Stoughton, London, 2002. ISBN 031230711X.

Photograph of Belloc Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (27 July 1870 – 16 July 1953) was one of the most prolific writers in England during the early twentieth century. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other places with the same name, see Stroud (disambiguation). ... Thomas Macaulay Thomas Babington Macaulay at the age of forty-nine — after an engraving by W. Holl, from a drawing by George Richmond Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a nineteenth-century English poet, historian and Whig politician. ... The History of England from the Accession of James the Second is the full title of the multi-volume work by Lord Macaulay more generally known as The History of England. The history is famous for its brilliant ringing prose and for its confident, sometimes dogmatic, emphasis on a progressive...

External links

James II of England
Born: 14 October 1633 Died: 16 September 1701
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles II
King of England
1685 – 1688
Succeeded by
William and Mary
King of Scotland
1685 – 1688
King of Ireland
1685 – 1688
British royalty
Preceded by
Charles II of England
Heir to the English, Scottish and Irish thrones
as heir presumptive
30 January 1649 – 6 February 1685
Succeeded by
Mary II of England
Political offices
Vacant Lord High Admiral
1660 – 1673
Succeeded by
Charles II
Preceded by
The Earl of Winchilsea
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1660 – 1673
Succeeded by
John Beaumont
Preceded by
The Duke of Lennox
Lord High Admiral of Scotland
1673 – 1701
Succeeded by
The Duke of Richmond
Preceded by
The Duke of Lauderdale
Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland
1680 – 1685
Succeeded by
The Duke of Queensberry
Preceded by
Charles II
Lord High Admiral
1685 – 1688
Succeeded by
William III
Peerage of England
New creation Duke of York
5th creation
1644 – 1685
Merged in the Crown
Peerage of Scotland
New creation Duke of Albany
6th creation
1660 – 1685
Merged in the Crown
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
— TITULAR —
Jacobite King of England and Scotland
1688 – 1701
Reason for succession failure:
Succession overruled by English and Scots Parliament
Succeeded by
James III
— TITULAR —
Jacobite King of Ireland
1690 – 1701
Persondata
NAME James II
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Stuart, James
SHORT DESCRIPTION King of England, King of Ireland, King of Scotland
DATE OF BIRTH October 14, 1633
PLACE OF BIRTH London
DATE OF DEATH September 5, 1701
PLACE OF DEATH Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... William III Mary II The phrase William and Mary usually refers to the joint sovereignty over the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland of King William III and his wife Queen Mary II. Their joint reign began in February, 1689, when they were called to the throne by... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Category: ... An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honor, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Sir Heneage Finch (1628-1689) of Eastwell, Kent, was the 3rd Earl of Winchilsea. ... Flag of the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is a ceremonial official in the United Kingdom. ... Charles Stewart, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 6th Duke of Lennox (March 7, 1639–December 1672) was the son of George Stewart, 9th Seigneur dAubigny. ... The Lord High Admiral of Scotland was one of the Great Offices of State in Scotland before the Union with England in 1707. ... Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond and 1st Duke of Lennox (29 July 1672 _ 27 May 1723), was the illegitimate son of Charles II of England and his mistress Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth. ... John Maitland, 1st Duke of Lauderdale (May 24, 1616-1682), eldest surviving son of John Maitland, 2nd Lord Maitland of Thirlestane (d. ... As the Sovereigns personal representative Lord High Commissioners were appointed to the Parliament of Scotland between 1603 and 1707. ... William Douglas (1637-1695), 3rd Earl of Queensberry, 1st Marquess of Queensberry, and 1st Duke of Queensberry was a Scottish nobleman. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. ... HRH The Prince Andrew, the current Duke of York For the nursery rhyme see The Grand Old Duke of York. ... The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. ... Duke of Albany is a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the youngers sons in the Scottish and later the British Royal Family, particularly in the Houses of Stuart and Hanover. ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... This is a gallery of Jacobite pretenders to the British throne. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The Prince James, Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart; The Old Pretender or The Old Chevalier; 10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed James II and VII. As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones (as James III and VIII) from the... This is a gallery of Jacobite pretenders to the British throne. ... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region Île-de-France Department Yvelines (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Saint-Germain-en-Laye Canton Chief town of 2 cantons Intercommunality none as of 2005 Mayor Emmanuel Lamy (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 22 m–107 m (avg. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
James II, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (645 words)
James consented to the marriage (1677) of his daughter Mary (later Mary II) to the Protestant prince of Orange (later William III), and the couple became the heirs presumptive, after James, to the English throne.
William of Orange was invited to England by Whig and Tory leaders.
James made an effort to restore himself by landing in Ireland in 1689 and leading his many Catholic followers there, but the effort failed at the battle of the Boyne (1690).
Luminarium Encyclopedia: King James II of England (1633-1701). (1408 words)
JAMES II, King of Great Britain and Ireland, second surviving son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria, was born at St James's on the 15th of October 1633, and created Duke of York in January 1643.
Returning to England with Charles II in 1660 he was appointed Lord High Admiral and warden of the Cinque Ports.
James pretended to treat, and in the midst of the negotiations fled to France.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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