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Encyclopedia > James I of Scotland
King James I of Scotland
King of Scots
Reign April 4, 1406February 21, 1437
Coronation May 2 or 21, 1424
Born December 10, 1394 Edinburgh Castle
Died February 21, 1437
England
Predecessor Robert III
Successor James II
Consort Joan Beaufort
Royal House Stewart
Father Robert III
Mother Annabella Drummond

James I (December 10, 1394February 21, 1437) reigned as King of Scots from April 4, 1406 until February 21, 1437. However, from 1406 to 1424 he was king in name only. This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Image File history File linksMetadata James_I_of_Scotland. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events foundation of All Souls College, University of Oxford. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... Events August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stuart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events foundation of All Souls College, University of Oxford. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Robert III (circa 1340 – April 4, 1406), king of Scotland (reigned 1390 - 1406), the eldest son of King Robert II by his mistress, Elizabeth Mure, became legitimised with the formal marriage of his parents about 1349. ... James II of Scotland (October 16, 1430 – August 3, 1460) was king of Scotland from 1437 to 1460. ... Joan Beaufort (c. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Robert III (circa 1340 – April 4, 1406), king of Scotland (reigned 1390 - 1406), the eldest son of King Robert II by his mistress, Elizabeth Mure, became legitimised with the formal marriage of his parents about 1349. ... Anabella Drummond was a queen consort of Robert III of Scotland. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events foundation of All Souls College, University of Oxford. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events foundation of All Souls College, University of Oxford. ...


Born on December 10, 1394, the son of Robert III and Annabella Drummond. He had an eventful childhood. In 1402 his elder brother, David, starved to death in prison at Falkland in Fife. Before the death of his father in 1406 the authorities sent James to France for safety. December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Robert III (circa 1340 – April 4, 1406), king of Scotland (reigned 1390 - 1406), the eldest son of King Robert II by his mistress, Elizabeth Mure, became legitimised with the formal marriage of his parents about 1349. ... Anabella Drummond was a queen consort of Robert III of Scotland. ... David Stewart (October 24, 1378 - 1402) was (from 1390) the heir to the throne of Scotland and (from 1398) the first Duke of Rothesay. ... Falkland is a burgh in Fife, Scotland. ... Fife (Fìobh in Gaelic) is a council area of Scotland, situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with landward boundaries to Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire. ...


On the journey to France, the English captured the young prince and handed him over to Henry IV of England, who imprisoned him and demanded a ransom. Robert III allegedly died from grief over the capture of James. James's uncle, Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, who became Regent on the death of Robert III, showed no haste in paying for his nephew's release. Albany secured the release of his own son Murdoch, captured at the Battle of Homildon Hill, but not so with James. So for the next 18 years James remained a prisoner/hostage in England. Henry IV had the young Scots King imprisoned and educated in Windsor Castle and in secure large country houses near London. After the death of James's uncle in 1420, the Scots finally paid the ransom of £40,000, and in 1424 James returned to Scotland to find a country in chaos. He took his bride with him – he had met and fallen in love with Joan Beaufort, a cousin of King Henry VI of England, while imprisoned. He married her in London in February 2, 1423. They would have eight children, including the future James II of Scotland, and Margaret of Scotland, wife of Louis XI of France. Scholars believe that during his captivity James wrote The Kingis Quair, an allegorical romance, one of the earliest major works of Scottish literature. The English are an ethnic group or nation primarily associated with England and the English language. ... // Birth and life before accession - relationship with Richard II - exile - return and usurpation Henry IV (April 3, 1367 – March 20, 1413) was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, hence the other name by which he was known, Henry of Bolingbroke. His father, John of Gaunt was the third and oldest... Robert III (c. ... Robert Stewart or Stuart, 1st Duke of Albany (c. ... Robert III (c. ... Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany (1362 – 24 May 1425) was a Scottish nobleman who inherited the Dukedom of Albany in 1420, but was convicted and executed for treason five years later. ... On September 14, 1402, a Scottish army returning from a pillaging expedition in the English county of Northumberland, suffered complete defeat at the Battle of Humbleton Hill (or Homildon Hill). ... Windsor Castle: The Round Tower or keep dominating the castle, as seen from the River Thames. ... Joan Beaufort (c. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21/22, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... James II of Scotland (October 16, 1430 – August 3, 1460) was king of Scotland from 1437 to 1460. ... Margaret of Scotland (1424, Perth, Scotland, Perthshire, Scotland - August 16, 1445, Chalons Surmarne, Marne, France )was a Princess of the Kingdom of Scotland and Dauphine of France by her marriage to the future Louis XI of France. ... Louis XI the Prudent (French: Louis XI le Prudent) (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), also informally nicknamed luniverselle aragne (old French for universal spider), or the Spider King, was King of France (1461–1483). ... Most likely written by James I of Scotland, The Kingis Quair is a long poem in Middle Scots that is roughly a romance in genre. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ...


James was formally crowned King of Scotland at Scone Abbey, Perthshire, on May 2 or 21, 1424. He immediately took strong actions to regain authority and control. In one such action he had the Albany family, who had opposed his actions, executed. The execution of Murdoch, Duke of Albany, and two of Murdoch's sons took place on May 24, 1425 at Castle Hill, Stirling. Scone Palace. ... Perthshire (Siorrachd Pheairt in Gaelic) was a county in central Scotland, which extended from Strathmore in the east, to the Pass of Drumochter in the north, Rannoch Moor and Ben Lui in the west, and Aberfoyle in the south. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Events August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stuart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... Events Foundation of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Births John II, Duke of Lorraine (died 1470) Edmund Sutton, English nobleman (died 1483) Deaths January 18 - Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, English politician (born 1391) March 17 - Ashikaga Yoshikazu, Japanese shogun (born 1407) May 24 - Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of... Broad St at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area called Top of the Town by locals on a rare snowy day Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ...


James proceeded to rule Scotland with a firm hand, and achieved numerous financial and legal reforms. For instance, for the purpose of trade with other nations, he made Scots coinage exchangeable for foreign currency only within Scottish borders. He also tried to remodel the Parliament of Scotland along English lines. However, in foreign policy, he renewed the Auld Alliance, a Scottish-French (and therefore anti-English) alliance, in 1428. The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... The Auld Alliance refers to a series of treaties, offensive and defensive in nature, between Scotland and France aimed specifically against an aggressive and expansionist England. ...


His actions throughout his reign, though effective, upset many people. During the later years of his reign, they helped to lead to his claim to the throne coming under question.


James I's grandfather, Robert II, had married twice and the awkward circumstances of the first marriage (the one with James's grandmother Elizabeth Mure) led some to dispute its validity. Conflict broke out between the descendants of the first marriage and the unquestionably legitimate descendants of the second marriage over who had the better right to the Scottish throne. Matters came to a head on February 21, 1437, when a group of Scots led by Sir Robert Graham assassinated James at the Friars Preachers Monastery in Perth. He attempted to escape his assailants through a sewer. However, three days previously, he had had the other end of the drain blocked up because of its connection to the tennis court outside, balls habitually got lost in it. (See also: Catherine Douglas.) Robert II (March 2, 1316 – April 19, 1390), king of Scotland, called the Steward, a title that gave the name to the House of Stewart (or Stuart). ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events foundation of All Souls College, University of Oxford. ... Robert Graham is the name of several persons: Robert Graham (Privy Counsellor), English statesman who was a member of the Privy Council. ... Laudare, Benedicere, Praedicare Saint Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization to address the needs of his time, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities, but with more... The Royal Burgh of Perth (Peairt in Scottish Gaelic) is a large burgh in central Scotland. ... Catherine Douglas, later Catherine Barlass, was a historical figure involved in the assassination of James I of Scotland on February 20, 1437. ...


A wave of executions followed in March, 1437, of those who had participated in the plot. The authorities executed (among others) James's uncle, Walter Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl, and Atholl's grandson, Robert Stewart, Master of Atholl — both of them descended from Robert II's second marriage). Walter Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl (d. ... Robert II (March 2, 1316 – April 19, 1390), king of Scotland, called the Steward, a title that gave the name to the House of Stewart (or Stuart). ...


See also

This is a family tree for the kings of Scotland, since the unification under the House of Alpin in 834, to the personal union with England in 1603 under James VI of Scotland. ...

Reference

  • Peter Wordie and Lance St John Butler (1989). "Tennis in Scotland" in The Royal Game. Stirling: Falkland Palace Real Tennis Club. ISBN 0-9514622-0-2 or ISBN 0-9514622-1-0.
Preceded by:
Robert III
King of Scots
1406–1437
Succeeded by:
James II

  Results from FactBites:
 
James V of Scotland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (593 words)
James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542).
The son of King James IV of Scotland, he was born in April 10, 11 or 15, 1512, at Linlithgow Palace, West Lothian, and was still an infant when his father was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field on September 9, 1513.
James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, his son by his favourite mistress, went on to play an important part in the reigns of Mary, Queen of Scots and James VI.
James II of Scotland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1009 words)
James was son of James I of Scotland and Joan Beaufort, daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset and Margaret Holland.
James I's death had been an attempt to usurp power by Walter Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl, but it failed miserably and Atholl and his allies were captured and executed in the months after the assassination.
But James' patronage of lands, titles and office to allies of the Douglases saw their allies begin to change sides, most tellingly the Earl of Crawford, and in 1455 James was finally able to make a decisive blow against the Douglases, and they were finally defeated at the battle of Arkinholm in May 1455.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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