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Encyclopedia > James I of England
James VI and I
King of Scots, England, and Ireland (more...)
James I of England from the period 1603–1613, by Paul van Somer I (1576–1621)
James I of England from the period 1603–1613, by Paul van Somer I (1576–1621)
Reign In Scotland: 24 July 156727 March 1625
In England and Ireland: 24 March 160327 March 1625
Predecessor Mary, Queen of Scots
Elizabeth I
Successor Charles I
Consort Anne of Denmark
Issue
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
Elizabeth of Bohemia
Charles I
Robert Stuart, Duke of Kintyre
Titles
HM The King of England
His Grace The King of Scots
The Duke of Rothesay
The Duke of Albany
Royal house House of Stuart
Father Lord Darnley
Mother Mary, Queen of Scots
Born 19 June 1566(1566-06-19)
Edinburgh Castle
Died 27 March 1625 (aged 58)
Theobalds House
Burial Westminster Abbey

James VI and I (19 June 156627 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Image File history File links JamesIEngland. ... Sir Francis Bacon, after an original attributed to Paul van Somer I. Paul van Somer (c. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales (February 19, 1594 - November 6, 1612) was the eldest son of King James VI of Scotland/James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... Elisabeth, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (born Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland; 19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was the eldest daughter to James VI of Scotland and his Queen consort Anne of Denmark. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Robert Bruce Stuart, Duke of Kintyre ( 18 January 1602— 27 May 1602) was the fifth child of King James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, king consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who also succeded Elizabeth I of England. ... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... The castle dominates the Edinburgh skyline as seen here from Princes Street Gardens Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which, from its position atop Castle Rock, dominates the sky-line of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands second most visited tourist attraction, after the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Theobalds House (also known as Theobalds Palace), located in Theobalds Park, just outside Cheshunt in the English county of Hertfordshire, was a prominent stately home and (later) royal palace of the 16th and early 17th centuries. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ...


He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary, Queen of Scots. Regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1581.[1] On 24 March 1603, as James I, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died without issue.[2] He then ruled England, Scotland and Ireland for 22 years, until his death at the age of 58.[3] This article is about the country. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ...


James achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England,[4] including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. According to a tradition originating with historians of the mid-seventeenth-century, James's taste for political absolutism, his financial irresponsibility, and his cultivation of unpopular favourites established the foundation for the English Civil War.[5] Recent historians, however, have revised James's reputation and treated him as a serious and thoughtful monarch.[6] A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ... Look up Favorite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ...


Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, and Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture.[7] James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie (1597)[8] and Basilikon Doron (1599).[9] Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character ever since.[10] Elizabethan redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... for the painter see Francis Bacon (painter) For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... Demonology is the systematic study of demons. ... Basilikon Doron means royal gift. ... Sir Anthony Weldon was an 18th Century author who was well known as one of King James I detractors. ...

Contents

Childhood as King James VI of Scotland

Birth

James Charles was the only child of Mary, Queen of Scots and her second husband, Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany, commonly known as Lord Darnley. He was a descendant of Henry VII through his great-grandmother Margaret Tudor, elder sister of Henry VIII.[11] Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, for both she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. Their marriage was a particularly difficult one.[12] While Mary was pregnant with James, Lord Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels and murdered the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio.[13] Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, king consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who also succeded Elizabeth I of England. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (29 November 1489 – October 1541) was the eldest of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503 she married James IV, king of Scotland, thus becoming the mother of James V and... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Scotland describes the organisation of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church in the geographic area of Scotland, distinct from the Catholic Church in England & Wales and the Catholic Church in Ireland. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... David Rizzio, private secretary of Mary I of Scotland David Rizzio or David Riccio (approx. ...


James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, and as the eldest son of the monarch and heir-apparent, automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. Elizabeth I of England, as godmother in absentia, sent a magnificent gold font as a christening gift.[14] is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... The castle dominates the Edinburgh skyline as seen here from Princes Street Gardens Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which, from its position atop Castle Rock, dominates the sky-line of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands second most visited tourist attraction, after the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and... Banner of the Duke of Rothesay, the quarterings represent the Great Steward of Scotland and the Lord of the Isles. ... The position of Lord High Steward of England, not to be confused with the Lord Steward, a court functionary, is the first of the Great Officers of State. ...


James's father Henry was murdered on 10 February 1567 at the Hamiltons' house, Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh, perhaps in revenge for Rizzio's death. Mary's marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, who was widely suspected of murdering Henry, increased her unpopularity.[15] In June 1567, Protestant rebels arrested Mary and imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle; she never saw her son again. She was forced to abdicate on 24 July in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent.[16] is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... Contemporaneous drawing of the murder scene at Kirk o Field. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... The Duke of Orkney James Hepburn, Duke of Orkney, Marquess of Fife, 4th Earl of Bothwell, usually just referred to as Bothwell (~1535 - April 14, 1578) was the third husband of Mary I of Scotland. ... Loch Leven Castle is a castle on an island at in Loch Leven in the Perth and Kinross region of Scotland. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (c. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ...


Regencies

The care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved, nursed, and upbrought"[17] in the security of Stirling Castle.[18] The boy was formally crowned at the age of thirteen months as King James VI of Scotland at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, on 19 July 1567.[19] The sermon was preached by the Geneva Calvinist John Knox. And, in accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant national Church of Scotland, his education supervised by historian and poet George Buchanan, who subjected him to regular beatings but also instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning.[20] John Erskine, 1st Earl of Mar (died 29 October 1572), regent of Scotland, was a son of John, 5th Lord Erskine (d. ... Stirling Castle southwest aspect from the Kings Knot Parterre below the castle crags. ... The Church of the Holy Rude is the second oldest building in Stirling, Scotland after the Castle. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... The term national church is usually a reference to a church organization in Christianity that claims pastoral jurisdiction over a nation. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... George Buchanan. ...


In 1568, Mary escaped from prison, leading to a brief period of violence. The Earl of Moray defeated Mary's troops at the Battle of Langside, forcing her to flee to England, where she was subsequently imprisoned by Elizabeth. On 22 January 1570, Moray was assassinated by James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, to be succeeded as regent by James's paternal grandfather, Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, who a year later was carried fatally wounded into Stirling Castle after a raid by Mary's supporters.[21] The next regent, John Erskine, 1st Earl of Mar, died soon after banqueting at the estate of James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, where he "took a vehement sickness", dying on 28 October 1572 at Stirling. Morton, who now took Mar's office, proved in many ways the most effective of James's regents,[22] but he made enemies by his rapacity.[23] He fell from favour when the Frenchman Esmé Stewart, Sieur d'Aubigny, first cousin of James's father Lord Darnley, and future Earl of Lennox, arrived in Scotland and quickly established himself as the first of James's powerful male favourites.[24] Morton was executed on 2 June 1581, belatedly charged with complicity in Lord Darnley's murder.[25] On 8 August, James made Lennox the only duke in Scotland.[26] Then fifteen years old, the king was to remain under the influence of Lennox for about one more year.[27] James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (c. ... The Battle of Langside was a battle fought on May 13, 1568 between the forces of Mary Queen of Scots and a confederacy of Scottish Protestants under James Stewart, Earl of Moray, her half-brother (who won the battle). ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Matthew Stewart (1516-1571) was the 4th Earl of Lennox, and leader of the Catholic nobility in Scotland. ... John Erskine, 1st Earl of Mar (died 29 OCtober 1572), regent of Scotland, was a son of John, 5th Lord Erskine (d. ... James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton (c. ... Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox, 1st Earl of Lennox (1542–May 26, 1583) was the son of John Stewart, 5th Seigneur dAubigny. ... The Peerage title of Earl of Lennox has been created six times in British history, becoming extinct every time. ...


Personal rule in Scotland

Although a Protestant convert, Lennox was distrusted by Scottish Calvinists, who noticed the physical displays of affection between favourite and king and alleged that Lennox "went about to draw the King to carnal lust".[28] In August 1582, in what became known as the Ruthven Raid, the Protestant earls of Gowrie and Angus lured James into Ruthven Castle, imprisoned him,[29] and forced Lennox to leave Scotland. After James was freed in June 1583, he assumed increasing control of his monarchy. He pushed through the Black Acts to assert royal authority over the Kirk and between 1584 and 1603 established effective royal government and relative peace among the lords, ably assisted by John Maitland of Thirlestane, who led the government until 1592.[30] One last Scottish attempt against the king's person occurred in August 1600, when James was apparently assaulted by Alexander Ruthven, the Earl of Gowrie's younger brother, at Gowrie House, the seat of the Ruthvens.[31] Since Ruthven was run through by James's page John Ramsay and the Earl of Gowrie was himself killed in the ensuing fracas, James's account of the circumstances, given the lack of witnesses and his history with the Ruthvens, was not universally believed.[32] The Raid of Ruthven was a 1582 conspiracy of several Presbyterian nobles, led by John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie, against King James VI of Scotland, who was treacherously seized while a guest at the castle of Ruthven (today known as Huntingtower Castle in Perthshire), and kept under restraint for... William Ruthven, 4th Lord Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie (c. ... Archibald Douglas, 8th Earl of Angus, and Earl of Morton (1555-1588), was the son of David, 7th earl. ... Huntingtower Castle in Perthshire was built in the 13th century by the Ruthven family. ... Kirk can mean church in general or the Church of Scotland in particular. ... Lord Thirlestane John Maitland, 1st Lord Maitland of Thirlestane, (1537 - 3 October 1595), Knight (1581), was Lord Chancellor of Scotland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie (c. ... John Ramsay, 1st Earl of Holdreness (born ca. ... John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie (c. ...


In 1586, James signed the Treaty of Berwick with England; and the execution of his mother in 1587, which he denounced as a "preposterous and strange procedure", helped clear the way for his succession south of the border.[33] During the Spanish Armada crisis of 1588, he assured Elizabeth of his support as "your natural son and compatriot of your country";[34] and as time passed and Elizabeth remained unmarried, securing the English succession became a cornerstone of James's policy. The Treaty of Berwick was a league of amity or peace agreement made on July 6, 1586 between Queen Elizabeth I of England and King James VI of Scotland. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured...


Marriage

Main article: Anne of Denmark
Anne of Denmark, by John de Critz, circa 1605.
Anne of Denmark, by John de Critz, circa 1605.

Throughout his youth, James was praised for his chastity, since he showed little interest in women; and after the loss of Lennox, he continued to prefer male company.[35] A suitable marriage, however, was necessary to reinforce his monarchy, and the choice fell on the fourteen-year-old Anne of Denmark (born October 1574), younger daughter of the Protestant Frederick II. Shortly after a proxy marriage in August 1589, Anne sailed for Scotland but was forced by storms to the coast of Norway. On hearing the crossing had been abandoned, James, in what Willson calls "the one romantic episode of his life",[36] sailed from Leith with a three-hundred-strong retinue to fetch Anne personally.[37] The couple were married formally at the Old Bishop's Palace in Oslo on 23 November and, after stays at Elsinore and Copenhagen, returned to Scotland in May 1590. By all accounts, James was at first infatuated with Anne, and in the early years of their marriage seems always to have showed her patience and affection.[38] But between 1593 and 1595, James was romantically linked with Anne Murray, later Lady Glamis, whom he addressed in verse as "my mistress and my love". The royal couple produced three surviving children: Henry, Prince of Wales, who was to die, probably of typhoid, in 1612, aged 18; Elizabeth, later Queen of Bohemia; and Charles, the future King Charles I of England. Anne predeceased her husband in March 1619. Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... The Old Bishops Palace in Oslo was the site of the catholic bishop in Oslo. ... Kronborg Castle Helsingør , also known by its English anglo name Elsinore, is a city in Helsingør municipality on the northeast coast of the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales (February 19, 1594 - November 6, 1612) was the eldest son of King James VI of Scotland/James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... There were many people whose name was Elizabeth Stuart, including: Elizabeth of Bohemia Elizabeth Stuart (died January 23, 1673 or 1674) was the mother of Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk, and married to Henry Frederick Howard, 25th Earl of Arundel. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ...


Theory of monarchy

In 1597–8, James wrote two works, The Trew Law of Free Monarchies and Basilikon Doron (Royal Gift), in which he established an ideological base for monarchy. In the Trew Law, he sets out the divine right of kings, explaining that for Biblical reasons kings are higher beings than other men, though "the highest bench is the sliddriest to sit upon".[39] The document proposes an absolutist theory of monarchy, by which a king may impose new laws by royal prerogative but must also pay heed to tradition and to God, who would "stirre up such scourges as pleaseth him, for punishment of wicked kings".[40] Basilikon Doron, written as a book of instruction for the four-year-old Prince Henry, provides a more practical guide to kingship.[41] Despite banalities and sanctimonious advice,[42] the work is well-written, perhaps the best example of James's prose.[43] James's advice concerning parliaments, which he understood as merely the king's "head court", foreshadows his difficulties with the English Commons: "Hold no Parliaments," he tells Henry, "but for the necesitie of new Lawes, which would be but seldome".[44] In the Trew Law James states that the king owns his realm as a feudal lord owns his fief, because: The True Law of Free Monarchies is a book of political theory attributed to James I of England. ... Basilikon Doron means royal gift. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales (February 19, 1594 - November 6, 1612) was the eldest son of King James VI of Scotland/James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ...

"[Kings arose] before any estates or ranks of men, before any parliaments were holden, or laws made, and by them was the land distributed, which at first was wholly theirs. And so it follows of necessity that kings were the authors and makers of the laws, and not the laws of the kings."[45]

This, meaning that his kingship was not moved by laws.


The English Throne

Proclaimed King of England

Main article: Union of the Crowns
British Royalty
House of Stuart
James VI & I
   Henry, Prince of Wales
   Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia
   Charles I
   Robert, Duke of Kintyre

From 1601, in the last years of Elizabeth I's life, certain English politicians, notably her chief minister Sir Robert Cecil,[46] maintained a secret correspondence with James in order to prepare in advance for a smooth succession. In March 1603, with the old Queen clearly dying, Cecil sent James a draft proclamation of his accession to the English throne. Elizabeth died in the early hours of 24 March; and James was proclaimed king in London later the same day.[47] As James headed south, his new subjects flocked to see him, relieved above all that the succession had triggered neither unrest nor invasion;[48] When he entered London, he was mobbed.[49] James's English coronation took place on 25 July, with elaborate allegories provided by dramatic poets such as Thomas Dekker and Ben Jonson, though an outbreak of the plague restricted festivities.[50] The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Image File history File links England_Arms_1603. ... Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales (February 19, 1594 - November 6, 1612) was the eldest son of King James VI of Scotland/James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... Elisabeth, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (born Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland; 19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was the eldest daughter to James VI of Scotland and his Queen consort Anne of Denmark. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Robert Bruce Stuart, Duke of Kintyre ( 18 January 1602— 27 May 1602) was the fifth child of King James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... ] The Right Honourable Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, KG, PC (1 June 1563–24 May 1612), son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and half-brother of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, statesman, spymaster and minister to Queen Elizabeth I and King James I. Lord Salisbury is the... Thomas Dekker, (c. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ...


Early reign in England

Despite the smoothness of the succession and the warmth of his welcome, James survived two conspiracies in the first year of his reign, the Bye Plot and Main Plot, which led to the arrest, among others, of Lord Cobham and Sir Walter Raleigh.[51] Those hoping for governmental change from James were at first disappointed when he maintained Elizabeth's Privy Councillors in office, as secretly planned with Cecil,[51] but James shortly added long-time supporter Henry Howard and his nephew Thomas Howard to the Privy Council, as well as five Scottish nobles.[52] In the early years of James's reign, the day-to-day running of the government was tightly managed by the shrewd Robert Cecil, later earl of Salisbury, ably assisted by the experienced Thomas Egerton, whom James made Baron Ellesmere and Lord Chancellor, and by Thomas Sackville, soon earl of Dorset, who continued as Lord Treasurer.[51] As a consequence, James was free to concentrate on the bigger issues, such as a scheme for a closer union between England and Scotland and foreign-policy issues, as well as to enjoy his leisure pursuits, particularly the hunt.[51] The Bye Plot was a conspiracy by English Catholics to kidnap King James I of England and force him to repeal anti-Catholic legislation. ... The Main Plot was a conspiracy by English Catholics, allegedly led by lay Catholic Lord Cobham, to remove King James I of England from the English throne, replacing him by aid of Spain with his cousin Arabella (or Arbella) Stuart. ... Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham succeeded his father as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports under Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... Alternatively, Professor Walter Raleigh was a scholar and author circa 1900. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ... Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton (1540 - June 15, 1614), was the second son of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, the poet, and of his wife, the former Lady Frances de Vere, daughter of the 15th Earl of Oxford, and was the younger brother of the 4th Duke of Norfolk. ... Admiral Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk (24 August 1561-28 May 1626) was a son of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk by his second wife Hon. ... The title Marquess of Salisbury is a British title of Peerage, created in 1789 for James Cecil, 7th Earl of Salisbury. ... Thomas Egerton, 1st Viscount Brackley (1540 – 1617) was an English nobleman who served as Member of Parliament for Cheshire. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset (1536 - 19 April 1608) was an English statesman and poet. ... The title Earl of Dorset has been created at least four times in the Peerage of England. ... The Lord High Treasurer bears a white staff as his symbol of office. ...

Portrait of James by Nicholas Hilliard, from the period 1603–1609.
Portrait of James by Nicholas Hilliard, from the period 1603–1609.

James was ambitious to build on the personal union of the crowns of Scotland and England to establish a permanent Union of the Crowns under one monarch, one parliament and one law, a plan which met opposition in both countries.[53] "Hath He not made us all in one island," James told the English parliament, "compassed with one sea and of itself by nature indivisible?" In April 1604, however, the Commons refused on legal grounds his request to be titled "King of Great Britain".[54] In October 1604, he assumed the title "King of Great Britain" by proclamation rather than statute, though Sir Francis Bacon told him he could not use the style in "any legal proceeding, instrument or assurance".[55] Download high resolution version (776x958, 68 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (776x958, 68 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Self-portrait, 1577. ... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ... for the painter see Francis Bacon (painter) For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ...


In foreign policy, James achieved more success. Never having been at war with Spain, he devoted his efforts to bringing the long Armada war to an end, and in August 1604, thanks to skilled diplomacy on the part of Robert Cecil and Henry Howard, now earl of Northampton, a peace treaty was signed between the countries, which James celebrated by hosting a great banquet.[56] Freedom of worship for Catholics in England continued, however, to be a major objective of Spanish policy, causing constant dilemmas for James, distrusted abroad for repression of Catholics and at home for tolerance towards them.[57] Combatants Spain England Dutch Republic Commanders Philip II, Philip III, Marquis of Santa Cruz, Duke of Medina Sidonia, Duke of Parma Elizabeth I, Francis Drake, John Hawkins, Earl of Leicester The Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England, which was never... The title of Marquess of Northampton was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1812 for the Earl of Northampton. ...


Gunpowder plot

Main article: Gunpowder Plot

On the eve of the state opening of the second session of James's first Parliament on 5 November 1605, a soldier named Guy Fawkes was discovered in the cellars of the parliament buildings guarding a pile of faggots, not far from about twenty barrels of gunpowder with which he intended to blow up Parliament House the following day and cause the destruction, as James put it, "not only...of my person, nor of my wife and posterity also, but of the whole body of the State in general".[58] The sensational discovery of the Catholic Gunpowder Plot, as it quickly became known, aroused a mood of national relief at the delivery of the king and his sons which Salisbury exploited to extract higher subsidies from the ensuing Parliament than any but one granted to Elizabeth.[59] A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ... Guy Fawkes (13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606), was a member of a group of English Roman Catholics who attempted to carry out the Gunpowder Plot, an attempt to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill King James I of England, to destroy Protestant rule by killing the Protestant... Look up faggot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ...


King and Parliament

The moment of co-operation between monarch and Parliament following the Gunpowder plot represented a deviation from the norm. Instead, it was the previous session of 1604 that shaped the attitudes of both sides for the rest of the reign, though the initial difficulties owed more to mutual incomprehension than conscious enmity.[60] On 7 July 1604, James had angrily prorogued Parliament after failing to win its support either for full union of the crowns or financial subsidies. "I will not thank where I feel no thanks due," he had remarked in his closing speech. "...I am not of such a stock as to praise fools...You see how many things you did not well...I wish you would make use of your liberty with more modesty in time to come".[61] James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625), King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland, faced many difficulties with Parliament during his reign in England. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... A parliamentary session is a period of time where the legislature in a parliamentary government is sitting. ... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ...


As James's reign progressed, his government faced growing financial pressures, due partly to creeping inflation[62] but also to the profligacy and financial incompetence of James's court. In February 1610 Salisbury, a believer in parliamentary participation in government,[63] proposed a scheme, known as the Great Contract, whereby Parliament, in return for ten royal concessions, would grant a lump sum of £600,000 to pay off the king's debts plus an annual grant of £200,000.[64] The ensuing prickly negotiations became so protracted that James eventually lost patience and dismissed Parliament on 31 December 1610. "Your greatest error," he told Salisbury, "hath been that ye ever expected to draw honey out of gall".[65] The same pattern was repeated with the so-called "Addled Parliament" of 1614, which James dissolved after a mere eight weeks when Commons hesitated to grant him the money he required.[66] James then ruled without parliament until 1621, employing officials such as the businessman Lionel Cranfield, who were astute at raising and saving money for the crown, and sold earldoms and other dignities, many created for the purpose, as an alternative source of income.[67] The Great Contact was a plan submitted to James I and parliament in 1610 by Robert Cecil. ... The Addled Parliament was the second Parliament of the reign of James I of England, which sat in 1614. ... Sir Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex (1575 – 6 August 1645) was a successful London merchant, who was introduced to King James I of England by Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton, and entered the royal service in 1605. ...


The Spanish match

Main article: Spanish Match
Portrait of James by John de Critz, circa 1606
Portrait of James by John de Critz, circa 1606

Another potential source of income was the prospect of a Spanish dowry from a marriage between Charles, Prince of Wales and the Spanish Infanta, Maria.[68] The policy of the Spanish Match, as it was called, also attracted James as a way to maintain peace with Spain and avoid the additional costs of a war.[69] The peace benefits of the policy could be maintained as effectively by keeping the negotiations alive as by consummating the match—which may explain why James protracted the negotiations for almost a decade.[70] Supported by the Howards and other Catholic-leaning ministers and diplomats—together known as the Spanish Party—the policy was deeply distrusted in Protestant England. The Spanish Match describes the proposed marriage of Prince Charles, son of the son of King James I, to Maria Anna, Infanta of Spain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 378 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (442 × 700 pixel, file size: 647 KB, MIME type: image/png) Portrait of James VI and 1, c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 378 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (442 × 700 pixel, file size: 647 KB, MIME type: image/png) Portrait of James VI and 1, c. ... William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Maria Anna (18 August 1606 – 13 May 1646), also known as Maria Anna of Austria, Infanta of Spain, was the youngest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. ... The Spanish Match describes the proposed marriage of Prince Charles, son of the son of King James I, to Maria Anna, Infanta of Spain. ...


The outbreak of the Thirty Years War, however, jeopardized James's peace policy, especially after his son-in-law, Frederick V, Elector Palatine, was ousted from Bohemia by Emperor Ferdinand II in 1620, and Spanish troops simultaneously invaded Frederick's Rhineland home territory. Matters came to a head when James finally called a parliament in 1621 to fund a military expedition in support of his son-in-law.[71] The Commons on the one hand granted subsidies inadequate to finance serious military operations in aid of Frederick,[72] and on the other—remembering the profits gained under Elizabeth by naval attacks on gold shipments from the New World—called for a war directly against Spain.[73] In November 1621, led by Sir Edward Coke, they framed a petition asking not only for war with Spain but also for Prince Charles to marry a Protestant, and for enforcement of the anti-Catholic laws.[74] James flatly told them not to interfere in matters of royal prerogative or they would risk punishment,[75] which provoked them into issuing a statement protesting their rights, including freedom of speech.[76] James ripped the protest out of the record book and dissolved Parliament once again.[77] The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Sir Edward Coke Sir Edward Coke (pronounced cook) (1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634), was an early English colonial entrepreneur and jurist whose writings on the English common law were the definitive legal texts for some 300 years. ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ...


In 1623, Prince Charles, now 23, and Buckingham decided to seize the initiative and travel to Spain incognito,[78] to win the Infanta directly, but the mission proved a desperate mistake.[79] The Spanish overreached, confronting them with terms that included Charles' conversion to Catholicism and a one-year stay in Spain as, in essence, a diplomatic hostage, the prince and duke returned to England in October without the Infanta and immediately renounced the treaty, much to the delight of the British people.[80] Their eyes opened by the visit to Spain, Charles and Buckingham now turned James’s Spanish policy upon its head and called for a French match and a war against the Hapsburg empire.[81] To raise the necessary finance, they prevailed upon James to call another Parliament, which met in February 1623. For once, the outpouring of anti-Catholic sentiment in the Commons was echoed in court, where control of policy was shifting from James to Charles and Buckingham,[82] who pressured the king to declare war and engineered the impeachment of the Lord Treasurer, Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, when he opposed the plan on grounds of cost.[83] The outcome of the Parliament of 1624 was ambiguous: James still refused to declare war, but Charles believed the Commons had committed themselves to financing a war against Spain, a stance which was to contribute to his problems with Parliament in his own reign.[84] The Lord High Treasurer bears a white staff as his symbol of office. ... Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex (1575 – 6 August 1645) was a successful merchant in London, England, who was introduced to King James I and VI of England and Scotland by Lord Northampton, and entered the Royal service in 1605. ... The title of Earl of Middlesex has been created twice in the Peerage of England. ...


Religious challenges

The Gunpowder Plot forced James to reconsider his tolerant policy towards English Catholics; and for a while he sanctioned stricter measures to control them. In May 1606, Parliament passed an act which could require any citizen to take an Oath of Allegiance, incorporating a denial of the pope's authority over the king.[85] In practice, James proved lenient towards Catholic laymen who took the Oath of Allegiance,[86] and he tolerated Catholicism and crypto-Catholicism even at court.[87] Towards the Puritan clergy, with whom he debated at the Hampton Court Conference of 1604,[88] James was at first strict in enforcing conformity, inducing a sense of persecution amongst many Puritans;[89] but ejections and suspensions from livings became fewer as the reign wore on. A notable success of the Hampton Court Conference was the commissioning of a new translation of the Bible, completed in 1611, which became known as the King James Bible, considered a masterpiece of Jacobean prose.[90] In Scotland, James attempted to bring the Scottish kirk "so neir as can be" to the English church and reestablish the episcopacy, a policy which met with strong opposition.[91] In 1618, James's bishops forced his Five Articles of Perth through a General Assembly; but the rulings were widely resisted.[92] James was to leave the church in Scotland divided at his death, a source of future problems for his son.[93] James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625), King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland, faced many complicated religious challenges during his reigns in Scotland and England. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... The Hampton Court Conference was a meeting in January 1604, convened at Hampton Court Palace between King James I of England and representatives of the English Puritans. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ... The Five Articles of Perth were an attempt by King James VI of Scotland to impose popish practices on the Presbyterian Church of Scotland in an attempt to integrate it with the Episcopalian Church of England. ...


Favourites

See also: Thomas Overbury and George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham

Salisbury died in 1612, little mourned by those who jostled to fill the power vacuum.[94] Until Salisbury's death, the Elizabethan administrative system over which he had presided continued to function with relative efficiency; from this time forward, however, James's government entered a period of decline and disrepute.[95] Salisbury's passing gave James the notion of governing in person as his own chief Minister of State, with his young Scottish favourite, Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester, carrying out many of Salisbury's former duties, but James's inability to attend closely to official business exposed the government to factionalism.[96] Thomas Overbury Sir Thomas Overbury (1581 - September 15, 1613), English poet and essayist, and the victim of one of the most sensational crimes in English history, was the son of Nicholas Overbury, of Bourton-on-the-Hill, and was born at Compton Scorpion, near Ilmington, in Warwickshire. ... The Duke of Buckingham by Rubens George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628) (IPA pronunciation: ) was one of the most rewarded royal courtiers in all history. ...

George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, by Peter Paul Rubens, 1625
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, by Peter Paul Rubens, 1625

The Howard party, consisting of Northampton, Suffolk, Suffolk's son-in-law Lord Knollys, and Charles Howard, earl of Nottingham, along with Sir Thomas Lake, soon took control of much of the government and its patronage. Even the powerful Carr, unfitted for the responsibilities thrust upon him and often dependent on his intimate friend Sir Thomas Overbury for assistance with government papers,[97] fell into the Howard camp, after beginning an affair with the married Frances Howard, countess of Essex, daughter of the earl of Suffolk, whom James assisted in securing an annulment of her marriage to free her to marry Carr.[98] In summer 1615, however, it emerged that Sir Thomas Overbury, who on 14 September 1613 had died in the Tower of London, where he had been placed at the king's request,[99] had been poisoned.[100] Among those convicted of the murder were Frances Howard and Robert Carr, the latter having been replaced as the king's favourite in the meantime by a young man called George Villiers. The implication of the king in such a scandal provoked much public and literary conjecture and irreparably tarnished James's court with an image of corruption and depravity.[101] The subsequent downfall of the Howards left George Villiers, now earl of Buckingham, unchallenged as the supreme figure in the government by 1618.[102] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (681x960, 62 KB) Description: George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham Date: 1625 Painter: Peter Paul Rubens File links The following pages link to this file: George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (681x960, 62 KB) Description: George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham Date: 1625 Painter: Peter Paul Rubens File links The following pages link to this file: George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... William Knollys, 1st Earl of Banbury KG PC (1547–25 May 1632) was the son of Sir Francis Knollys and Catherine Carey. ... Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham (1536-December 14, 1624) was a British statesman and admiral. ... Thomas Overbury Sir Thomas Overbury (1581 - September 15, 1613), English poet and essayist, and the victim of one of the most sensational crimes in English history, was the son of Nicholas Overbury, of Bourton-on-the-Hill, and was born at Compton Scorpion, near Ilmington, in Warwickshire. ... Frances Carr, Countess of Somerset (1591 – 1632) was an English noblewoman who was a central figure in a famous scandal and murder during the reign of King James I. She was born Frances Howard, the daughter of Lord Thomas Howard (later 1st Earl of Suffolk), second son of the 4th... The Duke of Buckingham by Rubens George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628) (IPA pronunciation: ) was one of the most rewarded royal courtiers in all history. ... The Duke of Buckingham by Rubens George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628) (IPA pronunciation: ) was one of the most rewarded royal courtiers in all history. ...


Personal relationships

See also: Personal relationships of James I of England

Throughout his life James had close relationships with male courtiers, in particular Esmé Stewart, 6th Lord d'Aubigny (later 1st Duke of Lennox), Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset, and George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham. There has been debate among historians about the nature of these relationships: "The evidence of his correspondence and contemporary accounts have led some historians to conclude that the king was homosexual or bisexual. In fact, the issue is murky." (Bucholz, 2004)[103] In Basilikon Doron, James lists sodomy among crimes "ye are bound in conscience never to forgive". (Sharpe, 2000)[104] "The same pattern repeated itself with these men [Carr and Villiers] as had earlier been the case with Esmé Stuart. The evidence suggests that both had a physical liaison with their sovereign". (Barroll and Cerasano, 1996)[105] Furthermore, it was standard practice at the time that the king did not sleep alone, but had the security and companionship of members of the royal bedchamber (see gentleman of the bedchamber). As well as his relationships with his male courtiers, James married Anne of Denmark, with whom he fathered his children. Throughout his life James I had relationships with his male courtiers, beginning with his older relative Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox. ... A courtier is a person who attends upon, and thus receives a privileged position from, a powerful person, usually a head of state. ... Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox, 1st Earl of Lennox (1542–May 26, 1583) was the son of John Stewart, 5th Seigneur dAubigny. ... The Right Honourable Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset, KG, PC (sometimes spelt Kerr) ( 1590 – July 17, 1645), was a Scottish politician, and favourite of King James I of England. ... The Duke of Buckingham by Rubens George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628) (IPA pronunciation: ) was one of the most rewarded royal courtiers in all history. ... Gentleman of the bedchamber was an office in a European royal household beginning from about the early in the 11th century. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ...


Final year

During the last year of James' life, with Buckingham consolidating his control of Charles to ensure his own future, the king was often seriously ill, leaving him an increasingly peripheral figure, rarely able to visit London.[106] In early 1625, James was plagued by severe attacks of arthritis, gout and fainting fits, and in March fell seriously ill with tertian ague and then suffered a stroke. James finally died at Theobalds House on 27 March during a violent attack of dysentery, with Buckingham at his bedside.[107] James’s funeral, a magnificent but disorderly affair, took place on 7 May. Bishop John Williams of Lincoln preached the sermon, observing, "King Solomon died in Peace, when he had lived about sixty years...and so you know did King James".[108] Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Theobalds House (also known as Theobalds Palace), located in Theobalds Park, just outside Cheshunt in the English county of Hertfordshire, was a prominent stately home and (later) royal palace of the 16th and early 17th centuries. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... John Williams (1582–1650) was a British clergyman and political advisor to King James I. He served as Bishop of Lincoln 1621-1641, Keeper of the Great Seal also known as Lord Keeper or Lord Chancellor 1621-1625, and Archbishop of York 1641-1650. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


Legacy

James I wore the insignia of the Order of the Garter for this portrait by Daniel Mytens in 1621.
James I wore the insignia of the Order of the Garter for this portrait by Daniel Mytens in 1621.

The king was widely mourned. For all his flaws, James had never completely lost the affection of his people, who had enjoyed uninterrupted peace and low taxation during the Jacobean era. "As he lived in peace," remarked the Earl of Kellie, "so did he die in peace, and I pray God our king [Charles] may follow him".[109] The earl prayed in vain: once in power, Charles and Buckingham sanctioned a series of reckless military expeditions that ended in humiliating failure.[110] James bequeathed Charles a fatal belief in the divine right of kings, combined with a disdain for Parliament, which culminated in the English Civil War and the execution of Charles. James had often neglected the business of government for leisure pastimes, such as the hunt; and his later dependence on male favourites at a scandal-ridden court undermined the respected image of monarchy so carefully constructed by Elizabeth.[111] The stability of James’s government in Scotland, however, and in the early part of his English reign, as well as his relatively enlightened views on religious issues and war, have earned him a re-evaluation from many recent historians, who have rescued his reputation from a tradition of criticism stemming back to the anti-Stuart historians of the mid-seventeenth century.[112] Download high resolution version (800x1170, 197 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (800x1170, 197 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... James Hamilton in 1623, aged 17. ... Not to be confused with Jacobinism or Jacobitism. ... The title Earl of Kellie is one of the peerage titles of in the Peerage of Scotland, created in 1619 for Thomas Erskine. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... The Duke of Buckingham by Rubens George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628) (IPA pronunciation: ) was one of the most rewarded royal courtiers in all history. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles

is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...

Styles

As King of England and Scots, James' full style was His Majesty, James VI, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc.


Children

Further information: Descendants of James I of England

James's wife, Anne of Denmark, gave birth to seven children who survived beyond birth:[113] James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland. ...

  1. Henry, Prince of Wales (19 February 15946 November 1612). Died, probably of typhoid fever, aged 18.[114]
  2. Elizabeth of Bohemia (19 August 159613 February 1662). Married 1613, Frederick V, Elector Palatine. Died aged 65.
  3. Margaret Stuart (24 December 1598 – March 1600). Died aged 1.
  4. Charles I of England (19 November 160030 January 1649). Married 1625, Henrietta Maria. Executed aged 48.
  5. Robert Stuart, Duke of Kintyre (18 January 160227 May 1602). Died aged 4 months.[115]
  6. Mary Stuart (8 April 160516 December 1607). Died aged 2.
  7. Sophia Stuart. (Died in June 1607 within 48 hours of birth.)[116]

Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales (February 19, 1594 - November 6, 1612) was the eldest son of King James VI of Scotland/James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... There were many people whose name was Elizabeth Stuart, including: Elizabeth of Bohemia Elizabeth Stuart (died January 23, 1673 or 1674) was the mother of Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk, and married to Henry Frederick Howard, 25th Earl of Arundel. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 - September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Maria) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert... Robert Bruce Stuart, Duke of Kintyre ( 18 January 1602— 27 May 1602) was the fifth child of King James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is about the year. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is about the year. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1607 (MDCVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Ancestry

Genealogy of James VI and I in three generations[117]
James VI and I Father:
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Paternal Grandfather:
Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox
Paternal Great-grandfather:
John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Elizabeth Stewart, Countess of Lennox
Paternal Grandmother:
Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Margaret Tudor
Mother:
Mary I, Queen of Scots
Maternal Grandfather:
James V of Scotland
Maternal Great-grandfather:
James IV of Scotland
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Margaret Tudor
Maternal Grandmother:
Mary of Guise
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Claude, Duke of Guise
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Antoinette de Bourbon

Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, king consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who also succeded Elizabeth I of England. ... Matthew Stewart (1516-1571) was the 4th Earl of Lennox, and leader of the Catholic nobility in Scotland. ... John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox (d. ... Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox (October 8, 1515 – March 7, 1578) was the daughter of Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and Margaret Tudor, Queen Dowager of Scotland. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (29 November 1489 – October 1541) was the eldest of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503 she married James IV, king of Scotland, thus becoming the mother of James V and... Mary I (Mary Stuart, popularly known as Mary, Queen of Scots); (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587) was Queen of Scots (the monarch of the Kingdom of Scotland) from December 14, 1542 to July 24, 1567. ... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ... James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) was King of Scots from 1488 to his death. ... Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (29 November 1489 – October 1541) was the eldest of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503 she married James IV, king of Scotland, thus becoming the mother of James V and... Marie de Guise Marie de Guise (in English, Mary of Guise) (November 22, 1515 – June 11, 1560) was the Queen Consort of James V of Scotland and the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. ... Claude, Duke of Guise Coat of arms of the Duke of Guise Claude of Lorraine (October 20, 1496, Château de Condé-sur-Moselle, – April 12, 1550, Château de Joinville) was the first Duke of Guise, from 1528 to his death. ... Antoinette de Bourbon (25 December 1493 - 22 January 1583. ...

Patrilineal descent

James's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.


Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that James’s historically accurate royal house was the House of Stuart. Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


Descent from before Walter fitz Alan is from [1] and may be unreliable.

  1. Alan of Dol, b. 1020
  2. Flaald fitz Alan, Baron of St. Florent
  3. Alan FitzFlaald, Sheriff of Shropshire, 1081 - 1121
  4. Walter fitz Alan, 1106 - 1177
  5. Alan fitz Walter, 2nd High Steward of Scotland, d. 1204
  6. Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland, 1178 - 1241
  7. Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, 1214 - 1283
  8. Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, 1246 - 1298
  9. Sir Alan Stewart of Dreghorn, 1280 - 1333
  10. Sir Alexander Stewart, d. 1374
  11. Sir Alexander Stewart, d. 1404
  12. Sir John Stewart, 1st Lord Aubigny, 1370 - 1429
  13. Sir Alan Stewart of Darnley, 1407 - 1439
  14. John Stewart, 1st Earl of Lennox, 1430 - 1495
  15. Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox, 1472 - 1513
  16. John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox, 1490 - 1526
  17. Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, 1516 - 1571
  18. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, 1545 - 1567
  19. James I of England, 1566 - 1625

Walter Fitzalan born before 1114, died c. ... Alan Fitzwalter was born circa 1140 and died circa 1204. ... Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland and Justicar of Scotland Born before 1198, he was the son of Alan FitzWalter, 2nd High Steward of Scotland; who accompanied King Richard on the Third Crusade in 1191, and Alesta, Alans second wife. ... Alexander Stewart (c. ... John Stewart, 1st Earl of Lennox. ... Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox (Bef. ... John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox (d. ... Matthew Stewart (1516-1571) was the 4th Earl of Lennox, and leader of the Catholic nobility in Scotland. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, king consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who also succeded Elizabeth I of England. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Stewart, p 47; Croft, p 16; Willson, pp 29–31.
  2. ^ James's claim to the English throne, as the great great grandson of Henry VII, was far superior to any other. However, Henry VIII's will had passed over the Scottish line of his sister Margaret Tudor in favour of that of their younger sister Mary Tudor. In the event, Henry's will was successfully challenged. Stewart, pp 159–161; Willson, pp 138–141.
  3. ^ After the personal union of the three crowns, James was the first to style himself "King of Great Britain", but the title was rejected by the English Parliament and had no basis in law. The Parliament of Scotland also opposed it. Croft, p 67; Willson, pp 249–52. See also: the early history of the Union Flag.
  4. ^ For a summary of historians' differing interpretations of James's reigns, see the introduction to Pauline Croft's King James. Much recent scholarship has emphasised James's success in Scotland (though there have been partial dissenters, such as Michael Lynch), and there is an emerging appreciation of James's successes in the early part of his reign in England. Croft, pp 1–9.
  5. ^ Over the last three hundred years, the king's reputation has suffered from the acid description of him by Sir Anthony Weldon, whom James had sacked and who wrote treatises on James in the 1650s. "Often witty and perceptive but also prejudiced and abusive, their status as eye-witness accounts and their compulsive readability led too many historians to take them at face value." Croft, pp 3–4. Other influential anti-James histories written during the 1650s include: Sir Edward Peyton, Divine Catastrophe of the Kingly Family of the House of Stuarts (1652); Arthur Wilson, History of Great Britain, Being the Life and Reign of King James I (1658); and Francis Osborne, Historical Memoirs of the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King James (1658). See, Lindley, p 44, for more on the influence of Commonwealth historians on the tradition of tracing Charles I's errors back to his father's reign.
  6. ^ "Historians have returned to reconsidering James as a serious and intelligent ruler". Croft, p 6; "In contrast to earlier historians, recent research on his reign has tended to emphasize the wisdom and downplay the foolishness." Smith, p 238.
  7. ^ Milling, p 155.
  8. ^ James I, king of England (1597). Daemonologie, in forme of a dialogue. at Folger Shakespeare Library web site.. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  9. ^ "James VI and I was the most writerly of British monarchs. He produced original poetry, as well as translation and a treatise on poetics; works on witchcraft and tobacco; meditations and commentaries on the Scriptures; a manual on kingship; works of political theory; and, of course, speeches to parliament...He was the patron of Shakespeare, Jonson, Donne, and the translators of the "Authorized version" of the Bible, surely the greatest concentration of literary talent ever to enjoy royal sponsorship in England." Rhodes et al, p 1.
  10. ^ "A very wise man was wont to say that he believed him the wisest fool in Christendom, meaning him wise in small things, but a fool in weighty affairs." Sir Anthony Weldon (1651), The Court and Character of King James I, quoted by Stroud, p 27; "The label 'the wisest fool in Christendom', often attributed to Henri IV of France but possibly coined by Anthony Weldon, catches James’s paradoxical qualities very neatly." Smith, p 238.
  11. ^ Margaret Tudor was the mother of Margaret Douglas, the future countess of Lennox and mother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. She was also the grandmother of Mary, Queen of Scots, through her son James V. Guy, p 54.
  12. ^ Guy, pp 236–7, pp 241–2, p 270.
  13. ^ Guy, pp 248–50.
  14. ^ Croft, p 11.
  15. ^ Elizabeth I of England wrote to Mary: "My ears have been so astounded, my mind so disturbed and my heart so appalled at hearing the horrible report of the abominable murder of your late husband and my slaughtered cousin, that I can scarcely as yet summon the spirit to write about it...I will not conceal from you that people for the most part are saying that you will look through your fingers at this deed instead of avenging it and that you don't care to take action against those who have done you this pleasure." Historian John Guy nonetheless concludes: "Not a single piece of uncontaminated evidence has ever been found to show that Mary had foreknowledge of Darnley's murder". Guy, pp 312–313. In historian David Harris Willson's view, however: "That Bothwell was the murderer no one can doubt; and that Mary was his accomplice seems equally certain". Willson, p 18.
  16. ^ Guy, pp 364–5.
  17. ^ Letter of Mary to Mar, 29 March 1567. "Suffer nor admit no noblemen of our realm or any others, of what condition soever they be of, to enter or come within our said Castle or to the presence of our said dearest son, with any more persons but two or three at the most." Quoted by Stewart, p 27.
  18. ^ Willson, p 18; Stewart, p 33.
  19. ^ Croft, p 11.
  20. ^ Croft, pp 12–13.
  21. ^ Croft, p 13.
  22. ^ Stewart, p 45; Willson, pp 28–29.
  23. ^ Croft, p 15.
  24. ^ Stewart, pp 51–63.
  25. ^ David Calderwood wrote of Morton's death: "So ended this nobleman, one of the chief instruments of the reformation; a defender of the same, and of the King in his minority, for the which he is now unthankfully dealt with." Quoted by Stewart, p 63.
  26. ^ Stewart, p 63.
  27. ^ Willson, p 35.
  28. ^ Croft, p 15.
  29. ^ James's captors forced from him a proclamation, dated 30 August, declaring that he was not being held prisoner "forced or constrained, for fear or terror, or against his will", and that no one should come to his aid as a result of "seditious or contrary reports". Stewart, p 66.
  30. ^ Croft, p 17, p 20.
  31. ^ Stewart, pp 150–157.
  32. ^ "The two principal characters were dead, the evidence of eyewitnesses was destroyed and only King James's version remained". Williams, 61; George Nicolson reported: "It is begun to be noted that the reports coming from the King should differ". Stewart, p 154. Pauline Croft calls the Gowrie plot "the most obscure of all Scottish noble conspiracies". Croft, p 45.
  33. ^ James briefly broke off diplomatic relations with England over Mary's execution, but he wrote privately that Scotland "could never have been without factions if she had beene left alive". Croft, p 22.
  34. ^ Croft, p 23.
  35. ^ Croft, pp 23–24.
  36. ^ Willson, p 85.
  37. ^ James heard on 7 October of the decision to postpone the crossing for winter. Stewart, pp 107–110.
  38. ^ Willson, pp 85–95.
  39. ^ "Kings are called gods by the prophetical King David because they sit upon God His throne in earth and have the count of their administration to give unto Him." Quoted by Willson, p 131.
  40. ^ Croft, pp 131–133.
  41. ^ Willson, p 133.
  42. ^ A king, James advised, should not look like "a deboshed waster" (Croft, p135) and should avoid the company of women, "which are no other thing else but irritamenta libidinis" (Willson, p 135).
  43. ^ "The Basilikon Doron is the best prose James ever wrote." Willson, p 132; "James wrote well, scattering engaging asides throughout the text." Croft, pp 134–5.
  44. ^ Croft, p 133.
  45. ^ Quoted by Willson, p 132.
  46. ^ James described Cecil as "king there in effect". Croft, p 48.
  47. ^ Croft, p 49; Willson, p 158.
  48. ^ Croft, p 50,
  49. ^ Stewart, p 169.
  50. ^ Stewart, p 172.
  51. ^ a b c d Croft, p 51.
  52. ^ Croft, p 51; The introduction of Henry Howard, soon to be earl of Northampton, and of Thomas Howard, soon to be earl of Suffolk, marked the beginning of the rise of the Howard family to power in England, which was to culminate in their dominance of James's government after the death of Cecil in 1612. Henry Howard, son of poet Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, had been a diligent correspondent with James in advance of the succession (James referred to him as "long approved and trusted Howard"). His connection with James may have owed something to the attempt by his brother Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, to free and marry Mary, Queen of Scots, leading to his execution in 1572. Willson, p 156; Guy, pp 461–468. For details on the Howards, see The Trials of Frances Howard by David Lindley. On Henry Howard, a traditionally reviled figure (Willson [1956] called him "A man of dark counsels and creeping schemes, learned but bombastic, and a most fulsome flatterer". p 156) whose reputation has been upgraded in recent years (Croft, p 6), see Northampton, by Linda Levy Peck.
  53. ^ Croft, pp 52–54.
  54. ^ English and Scot, James insisted, should "join and coalesce together in a sincere and perfect union, as two twins bred in one belly, to love one another as no more two but one estate". Willson, p 250.
  55. ^ Willson, pp 249–52.
  56. ^ Croft, pp 52–3.
  57. ^ Croft, p 118.
  58. ^ Stewart, p 219.
  59. ^ Croft, p 64.
  60. ^ Croft, p 63.
  61. ^ Quoted by Croft, p 62.
  62. ^ Croft, p 69.
  63. ^ "All wise princes, whensoever there was cause to withstand present evils or future perils...have always addressed themselves to their Parliaments." Quoted by Croft, p 76.
  64. ^ Croft, pp 75–81.
  65. ^ Croft, p 80.
  66. ^ Willson, p 348.
  67. ^ Willson, p 409.
  68. ^ Willson, p 357.
  69. ^ Simon Schama, A History of Britain, Vol. II, p 59 (New York, Hyperion, 2001).
  70. ^ J.P. Kenyon, Stuart England, pp 88–89 (Harmondsworth, England, Penguin Books, 1978).
  71. ^ Willson, pp 408–416.
  72. ^ Willson, p 417.
  73. ^ Willson, p 421.
  74. ^ Willson, p 421.
  75. ^ Willson, p 442.
  76. ^ James wrote: "We cannot with patience endure our subjects to use such anti-monarchical words to us concerning their liberties, except they had subjoined that they were granted unto them by the grace and favour of our predecessors." Quoted by Willson, p 423.
  77. ^ Willson, p 243.
  78. ^ They travelled under the names Thomas and John Smith. Croft, p 118.
  79. ^ Croft, pp 118–119.
  80. ^ Shama, p. 64. "There was an immense outbreak of popular joy, with fireworks, bell ringing and street parties." Croft, p 120.
  81. ^ Croft, pp 120–121.
  82. ^ "The aging monarch was no match for the two men closest to him. By the end of the year, the prince and the royal favourite spoke openly against the Spanish marriage and pressured James to call a parliament to consider their now repugnant treaties...with hindsight...the prince’s return from Madrid marked the end of the king’s reign. The prince and the favourite encouraged popular anti-Spanish sentiments to commandeer control of foreign and domestic policy." Krugler, pp 63–4.
  83. ^ "The lord treasurer fell not on largely unproven grounds of corruption, but as the victim of an alliance between warmongering elements at court and in Parliament." Croft, p 125.
  84. ^ "On that divergence of interpretation, relations between the future king and the Parliaments of the years 1625–9 were to founder." Croft, p 126.
  85. ^ Stewart, p 225.
  86. ^ Willson, p 228.
  87. ^ A crypto-Catholic was someone who outwardly conformed to Protestantism but remained a Catholic in private. Henry Howard, for example, was a crypto-Catholic, received back into the Roman church in his final months. Before ascending the English throne, James had assured him he would not persecute "any that will be quiet and give but an outward obedience to the law". Croft, p 162.
  88. ^ Croft, p 156; In the Millenary Petition of 1603, the Puritan clergy asked, among other things, for the abolition of confirmation, wedding rings, and the term "priest", and that the wearing of cap and surplice, "outward badges of Popish errours", become optional. Willson, p 201.
  89. ^ “In things indifferent,” James wrote in a new edition of Basilikon Doron, "they are seditious which obey not the magistrates". Willson, p 201, p 209; Croft, p 156; "In seeking conformity, James gave a name and a purpose to nonconformity." Stewart, p 205.
  90. ^ Willson, pp 213–215; Croft, p 157.
  91. ^ In March 1605, Archbishop Spottiswood wrote to James warning him that sermons against bishops were being preached daily in Edinburgh. Croft, p 164.
  92. ^ Croft, p 166; Willson, p 320.
  93. ^ Historians have differed in their assessments of the kirk at James's death: some consider that the Scots might have accepted James’s policies eventually; others that James left the kirk in crisis. Croft, p 167.
  94. ^ Northampton, who assumed the day-to-day running of government business, spoke of "the death of the little man for which so many rejoice and few do as much as seem to be sorry." Willson, p 269.
  95. ^ "Finances fell into chaos, foreign affairs became more difficult. James exalted a worthless favourite and increased the power of the Howards. As government relaxed and honour cheapened, we enter a period of decline and weakness, of intrigue, scandal, confusion, and treachery." Willson, p 333.
  96. ^ Willson, pp 334–5.
  97. ^ Willson, p 349; "Packets were sent, sometimes opened by my lord, sometimes unbroken unto Overbury, who perused them, registered them, made table-talk of them, as they thought good. So I will undertake the time was, when Overbury knew more of the secrets of state, than the council-table did." Francis Bacon, speaking at Carr's trial. Quoted by Perry, p 105.
  98. ^ The commissioners judging the case reached a 5–5 verdict, so James quickly appointed two extra judges guaranteed to vote in favour, an intervention which aroused public censure. When, after the annulment, the son of Bishop Bilson, one of the added commissioners, was knighted, he was given the nickname "Sir Nullity Bilson". Lindley, p 120.
  99. ^ It is very likely that he was the victim of a 'set-up' contrived by the earls of Northampton and Suffolk, with Robert Carr's complicity, to keep him out of the way during the annulment proceedings. Sir Thomas Overbury knew too much of Carr's dealings with Frances and, motivated by a deep political hostility to the Howards, he opposed the match with a fervour that made him dangerous. It cannot have been difficult to secure James's compliance, because he disliked Sir Thomas Overbury and his influence over Robert Carr. Lindley, p 145; John Chamberlain (1553–1628) reported at the time that the king "hath long had a desire to remove him from about the lord of Rochester, as thinking it a dishonour to him that the world should have an opinion that Rochester ruled him and Overbury ruled Rochester". Willson, p 342.
  100. ^ Lindley, p 146; "Rumours of foul play involving Rochester and his wife with Overbury had, however, been circulating since his death. Indeed, almost two years later, in September 1615, and as James was in the process of replacing Rochester with a new favourite, George Villiers, the Governor of the Tower of London sent a letter to the king informing him that one of the warders in the days before Overbury had been found dead had been bringing the prisoner poisoned food and medicine." Barroll, Anna of Denmark, p 136.
  101. ^ "Probably no single event, prior to the attempt to arrest the five members in 1642, did more to lessen the general reverence with which royalty was regarded in England than this unsavoury episode." Davies, p 20.
  102. ^ Willson, p 397.
  103. ^ Bucholz, p 208 Google Book links retrieved 17 April 2007.
  104. ^ Sharpe, p 171 Google Book links retrieved 17 April 2007.
  105. ^ Barroll and Cerasano (ed), p 239. Google Book link retrieved 17 April 2007.
  106. ^ Some historians (for example Willson, p 425) consider James, who was 58 in 1624, to have lapsed into premature senility; but he suffered from, among other ailments, an agonising species of arthritis which constantly left him indisposed; and Pauline Croft suggests that in summer 1624, afforded relief by the warm weather, James regained some control over his affairs, his continuing refusal to sanction war against Spain a deliberate stand against the aggressive policies of Charles and Buckingham (Croft, pp 126–127); "James never became a cypher." Croft, p 101.
  107. ^ A medicine recommended by Buckingham had only served to make the king worse. "The disparity between the foreign policy of the monarch and the favourite was so obvious that there was a widespread rumour that the duke had poisoned him." Croft, pp 127–128.
  108. ^ John Williams's sermon was later printed as "Great Britain’s Salomon" (sic). Croft, pp 129–130.
  109. ^ Croft, p 130.
  110. ^ "A 1627 mission to save the Huguenots of La Rochelle ended in an ignominious siege on the Isle of Ré, leaving the Duke as the object of widespread ridicule." Stewart, p 348.
  111. ^ Croft, p 129.
  112. ^ Croft, pp 6–8.
  113. ^ Stewart, p 140, p 142.
  114. ^ John Chamberlain (1553–1628) recorded: "It was verily thought that the disease was no other than the ordinary ague that had reigned and raged all over England". Alan Stewart writes: "Latter day experts have suggested enteric fever, typhoid fever, or porphyria, but at the time poison was the most popular explanation." Stewart, p 248.
  115. ^ Willson, p 452; Barroll, Anna of Denmark, p 27.
  116. ^ Croft, p 55; Stewart, p 142; Sophia was buried at King Henry's Chapel in a tiny tomb shaped like a cradle. Willson, p 456.
  117. ^ Noble, 1795: Guy, genealogical tables, pp xii–xiv.

Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (29 November 1489 – October 1541) was the eldest of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503 she married James IV, king of Scotland, thus becoming the mother of James V and... Mary Tudor (March 18, 1496 – June 25, 1533) was the younger sister of Henry VIII of England and queen consort of France due to her marriage to Louis XII. After his death, she married Charles Brandon and became Duchess of Suffolk. ... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... “Union Jack” redirects here. ... Sir Anthony Weldon was an 18th Century author who was well known as one of King James I detractors. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... The Folger Shakespeare Library is an independent research library located on Capitol Hill in Washington, DC. History Standard Oil president, then chairman of the board, Henry Clay Folger was an avid collector of Shakespeareana. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... Sir Anthony Weldon was an 18th Century author who was well known as one of King James I detractors. ... By Frans Pourbus the younger. ... Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (29 November 1489 – October 1541) was the eldest of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503 she married James IV, king of Scotland, thus becoming the mother of James V and... Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox (October 8, 1515 – March 7, 1578) was the daughter of Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and Margaret Tudor, Queen Dowager of Scotland. ... The Scottish Peerage title of Earl of Lennox has been created six times, becoming extinct every time. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, king consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who also succeded Elizabeth I of England. ... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... John Guy (born 1949 in Warragul, Australia) is a leading British historian and biographer. ... Throughout his life James I had relationships with his male courtiers, beginning with his older relative Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox. ... David Calderwood (1575 - October 29, 1650), was a Scottish divine and historian. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (1517 – January 19, 1547) was an English aristocrat, and one of the founders of English Renaissance poetry. ... Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk (March 10, 1536 — 1572) and 1st Earl of Southampton, was entrusted by Queen Elizabeth I of England with public office despite his family history and his prior support for the Catholic cause, although he claimed to be a... Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton (1540 - June 15, 1614), was the second son of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, the poet, and of his wife, the former Lady Frances de Vere, daughter of the 15th Earl of Oxford, and was the younger brother of the 4th Duke of Norfolk. ... The Millenary Petition was a list of requests given to James I by Puritans in 1603 when he was on his way to claim the English throne. ... An Anglican priest wearing a surplice as part of his choir dress. ... John Spottiswood (1565 - 1639), historian, son of John Spottiswood, minister of Midcalder and Superintendent of Lothian. ... for the painter see Francis Bacon (painter) For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... John Chamberlain (1553-1628) was the author of a series of letters used by later historians as a record concerning life in England from 1597 to 1626. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle, Henri Motte, 1881. ... The quays at Saint Martin en Ré. ÃŽle de Ré (formerly also ÃŽle de Rhé; in English Isle of Rhé) is an island off the west coast of France near La Rochelle, on the northern side of the Pertuis dAntioche strait. ... John Chamberlain (1553-1628) was the author of a series of letters used by later historians as a record concerning life in England from 1597 to 1626. ... Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... The Henry VII Lady Chapel is a large chapel at the far eastern end of Westminster Abbey. ...

References

  • Atherton, Ian; and David Como (2005). The Burning of Edward Wightman: Puritanism, Prelacy and the Politics of Heresy in Early Modern England. English Historical Review, Volume 120, December 2005, Number 489, 1215–1250. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Barroll, J. Leeds (2001). Anna of Denmark, Queen of England: A Cultural Biography. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. ISBN 0812235746.
  • Barroll, J. Leeds and Susan P. Cerasano (1996). Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England: An Annual Gathering of Research, Criticism and Reviews. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 0838636411.
  • Bucholz, Robert and Newton Key (2004). Early Modern England, 1485–1714: A Narrative History. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0631213937.
  • Croft, Pauline (2003). King James. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-61395-3.
  • Davies, Godfrey ([1937] 1959). The Early Stuarts. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198217048.
  • Guy, John (2004). My Heart is My Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots. London and New York: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-84115-752-X.
  • Krugler, John D. (2004). English and Catholic: the Lords Baltimore in the Seventeenth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801879639.
  • Lindley, David (1993). The Trials of Frances Howard: Fact and Fiction at the Court of King James. Routledge. ISBN 0415052068.
  • Milling, Jane (2004). "The Development of a Professional Theatre", in The Cambridge History of British Theatre. Jane Milling, Peter Thomson, Joseph W. Donohue. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521650402.
  • Noble, Mark (1795). An Historical Genealogy of the Royal House of Stuarts, from the Reign of King Robert II to that of King James VI. London: R. Faulder. Read complete digitized copy at Google Books. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
  • Perry, Curtis (2006). Literature and Favoritism in Early Modern England. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521854059.
  • Rhodes, Neil; Jennifer Richards; and Joseph Marshall (2003). King James VI and I: Selected Writings. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0754604829.
  • Sharpe, Kevin M. (2000). Remapping Early Modern England: The Culture of Seventeenth-century England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521664098.
  • Smith, David L (2003). "Politics in Early Stuart Britain," in A Companion to Stuart Britain. Ed. Barry Coward. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0631218742.
  • Solt, Leo Frank (1990). Church and State in Early Modern England: 1509–1640. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195059794.
  • Stewart, Alan (2003). The Cradle King: A Life of James VI & 1. London: Chatto and Windus. ISBN 0-7011-6984-2.
  • Stroud, Angus (1999). Stuart England. Routledge ISBN 0415206529.
  • Watts, Michael R (1985). The Dissenters: From the Reformation to the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198229569.
  • Williams, Ethel Carleton (1970). Anne of Denmark. London: Longman. ISBN 0 582 12783 1.
  • Willson, David Harris ([1956] 1963 ed). King James VI & 1. London: Jonathan Cape Ltd. ISBN 0-224-60572-0.

John Guy (born 1949 in Warragul, Australia) is a leading British historian and biographer. ...

Further reading

  • Akrigg, G. P. V (1978). Jacobean Pageant: The Court of King James I. New York: Atheneum. ISBN 0-689-70003-2.
  • Chambers, Robert (1856). "James VI", Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen. London: Blackie and Son. 
  • Fraser, Antonia (1974). King James VI of Scotland, I of England. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-76775-5. 
  • Lee, Maurice (1990). Great Britain's Solomon: James VI and I in his Three Kingdoms. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-01686-6. 
  • Lynch, Michael (1991). Scotland: A New History. Ebury Press. ISBN 0712634134.
  • — ——(1994) "Preaching to the Converted? Perspectives on the Scottish Reformation," in The Renaissance in Scotland: Studies in Literature, Religion, History and Culture.
  • Peck, Linda Levy (1982). Northampton: Patronage and Policy at the Court of James I. Harper Collins. ISBN 0049421778.
  • Tranter, Nigel (1996). Master of Gray Trilogy. London: Hodder Paperbacks Ltd. ISBN 0-3401-7838-8. 
  • Williamson, David (1998). The National Portrait Gallery History of the Kings and Queens of England. London: National Portrait Gallery. ISBN 1-85514-228-7. 

Robert Chambers (10 July 1802 – 17 March 1871), Scottish author and publisher, was born in Peebles. ... Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ... Nigel Tranter (November 23, 1909 – January 9, 2000) was a Scottish historian and author. ...

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
James VI of Scotland & I of England
Born: June 19 1566 Died: March 27 1625
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mary I
King of Scots
29 July 1567 – 27 March 1625
Succeeded by
Charles I
Lord of the Isles
29 July 1567 – 27 March 1625
Preceded by
Elizabeth I
King of England
King of Ireland

24 March 1603 – 27 March 1625
Scottish royalty
Preceded by
James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran
Heir to the Scottish throne
as heir apparent
19 June 1566 – 29 July 1567
Succeeded by
James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran
English royalty
Preceded by
No designated heir under
Elizabeth I of England.
Potential heir was Mary I of Scotland
Potential Heir to the English and Irish Thrones
by cognatic primogeniture
24 February 1587 – 24 March 1603
Succeeded by
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
Lord Darnley
Duke of Albany
4th creation
19 June 1566 – 29 July 1567
Vacant
Title next held by
Charles I
Vacant
Title last held by
James Stewart
Duke of Rothesay
19 June 1566 – 29 July 1567
Vacant
Title next held by
Henry Stuart

  Results from FactBites:
 
James I (of England) - MSN Encarta (497 words)
James I (of England) (1566-1625), king of England (1603-1625) and, as James VI, king of Scotland (1567-1625).
James tried unsuccessfully to advance the cause of religious peace in Europe, giving his daughter Elizabeth in marriage to the elector of the Palatinate, Frederick V, the leader of the German Protestants.
James I died at the Theobalds in Hertfordshire on March 27, 1625, and was succeeded to the throne by his son, Charles I.
James I Of England (5444 words)
James VI of Scotland/James I of England and Ireland (Charles James) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland and was the first to style himself King of Great Britain.
James faced a Roman Catholic uprising in 1588, and was forced to reconcile with the Church of Scotland, at length agreeing to the repeal of the Black Acts in 1592.
James' English arms, whilst he was King of England and Scotland, were: ''Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland)''.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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