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Encyclopedia > James Francis Edward Stuart
Prince James
Prince of Wales; Jacobite Pretender
James Francis Edward Stuart, "The Old Pretender"
James Francis Edward Stuart, "The Old Pretender"
Predecessor James II and VII
Successor Charles Edward Stuart
Spouse Maria Klementyna Sobieska
Issue
Charles Edward Stuart
Henry Benedict Stuart
Full name
James Francis Edward Stuart
Titles and styles
James Stuart
The Prince of Wales
The Duke of Cornwall
Royal house House of Stuart
Father James II and VII
Mother Mary of Modena
Born 10 June 1688(1688-06-10)
St. James's Palace, London
Died 1 January 1766 (aged 77)
Palazzo Muti, Rome
Burial St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City

The Prince James, Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart; "The Old Pretender" or "The Old Chevalier"; 10 June 16881 January 1766) was the son of the deposed James II and VII. As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones (as James III and VIII) from the death of his father in 1701, when he was proclaimed king of England, Scotland and Ireland by his cousin Louis XIV of France. Image File history File links Pretend3. ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... Charles Edward Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788), known in Scots Gaelic as Teàrlach Eideard Stiùbhairt, was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and is now commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. ... Noble Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jakub Ludwik Sobieski Hedwig Elisabeth Amelia Consorts James Francis Edward Stuart Children with James Francis Edward Stuart Bonnie Prince Charlie Stuart Henry Benedict Stuart Date of Birth July 18, 1702 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death January 18, 1735 Place of Death... Charles Edward Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788), known in Scots Gaelic as Teàrlach Eideard Stiùbhairt, was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and is now commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. ... Henry Benedict Cardinal Stuart (March 11, 1725 – July 13, 1807) was the fourth and last Jacobite to publicly claim the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Palazzo Muti should not be confused with the Palazzo Muti Papazzurri in the Piazza della Pilotta which was designed by Mattia de Rossi in 1660. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ...

Contents

Birth and childhood

James Francis Edward, about 1703, portrait in the Royal Collection attributed to Alexis Simon Belle
James Francis Edward, about 1703, portrait in the Royal Collection attributed to Alexis Simon Belle

From the moment of his birth, on 10 June 1688, at St. James's Palace, the prince was the subject of controversy. He was born to the reigning king, James II of England and VII of Scots, and his Roman Catholic second wife, Mary of Modena, and as such was automatically Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay among other titles. Shaped by the personal tastes of kings and queens over more than 500 years, the Royal Collection includes paintings, drawings and watercolours, furniture, ceramics, clocks, silver, sculpture, jewellery, books, manuscripts, prints and maps, arms and armour, fans, and textiles. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... The Dukedom of Cornwall was the first dukedom created in the peerage of England. ... Banner of the Duke of Rothesay, the quarterings represent the Great Steward of Scotland and the Lord of the Isles. ...


James II had two adult daughters from his first marriage who had been brought up in the Protestant faith. As long as there was a possibility of one of them succeeding him directly, his opponents saw his rule as only a temporary setback. When people began to fear that Mary would produce a son and heir, a movement grew to replace James by force with his elder daughter Princess Mary & son-in-law/nephew, William of Orange. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from...


When the young prince was born, a false rumour was immediately spread that the call for a "warming-pan" had been the pretext for a substitution, the real baby having allegedly been born dead. On 10 December, within six months of his birth, Mary of Modena left London and took him to France for safety, while his father continued to fight (unsuccessfully) to retain his crown. is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


With his sister Louisa Maria, the prince was brought up in France. There, recognised by King Louis XIV of France as the rightful heir to the English and Scottish thrones, he became the focus for the Jacobite movement. Louis XIV redirects here. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ...


Struggle for the throne

James Stuart, the "Old Pretender."

On his father's death in 1701, he declared himself King, with the title of James III and VIII and recognised as such by France, Spain, the Papal States and Modena. All of these states refused to recognise William III, Mary II or Queen Anne as the legitimate British sovereign. As a result of this, he was attainted for treason, 2 March 1702, and his titles forfeited under British law.[1] Image File history File links James Stuart File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links James Stuart File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... -1... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...


Jacobite rising

Having been delayed in France by an attack of measles, James attempted an invasion, trying to land at the Firth of Forth on 23 March 1708. His French ships were driven back by the fleet of Admiral Sir George Byng. The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in the British Isles occurring between 1688 and 1746. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington, KB PC (1668 – 17 January 1733) was a British Admiral and statesman of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ...


Had he renounced his Roman Catholic faith, he might have succeeded to the throne after the death of his half-sister Anne,[citation needed] but he refused to do so. As a result, in 1714, a German Protestant became King—George I of Great Britain. George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ...


French forces were defeated, and Louis XIV of France was forced to accept peace with England and her allies. He signed the Treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, that, amongst other conditions, required him to expel James from France. Louis XIV redirects here. ... The Treaties of Utrecht (April 11, 1713) were signed in Utrecht, a city of the United Provinces. ...


The Fifteen

In the following year, the Jacobites instigated "The 'Fifteen" Jacobite rising in Scotland, aimed at restoring "James III and VIII" to the throne. In 1715, James finally set foot on Scottish soil, following the indecisive Battle of Sheriffmuir, but he was disappointed by the strength of support he found. Instead of carrying through the plans for a coronation at Scone, he returned to France, sailing from Montrose. He was not welcomed back, because his patron, Louis XIV, was dead and the government found him an embarrassment. The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in the British Isles occurring between 1688 and 1746. ... The Battle of Sheriffmuir was an engagement in 1715 at the height of the Jacobite rebellion in England and Scotland. ... , Montrose is a port, tourist resort and royal burgh in Angus, on the east coast of Scotland. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ...


Life as the "Pretender"

Pope Clement XI offered James the Palazzo Muti in Rome as his residence, and he accepted. Innocent XIII, like his predecessor, showed much support. Thanks to the mediation of a close friend of his, Cardinal Filippo Antonio Gualterio, James was granted a life annuity of eight thousand Roman scudi. Such help enabled him to organise a Roman Jacobite court, where the Pope's cousin, Francesco Maria Conti of Siena, was the Gentiluomo di camera (Chamberlain). Clement XI, né Giovanni Francesco Albani (July 23, 1649 - March 19, 1721) was pope from 1700 to 1721. ... The Palazzo Muti should not be confused with the Palazzo Muti Papazzurri in the Piazza della Pilotta which was designed by Mattia de Rossi in 1660. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Innocent XIII, né Michael Angelo Conti (Poli, near Rome, May 13, 1655 - Rome, March 7, 1724), pope from 1721 to 1724, became cardinal under Clement XI in 1706. ... The scudo was a coin used in Italy in past times, whose name derives from the French golden écu, created during the reign of Louis IX. From the 18th century, the name was used in Italy for large silver coins sporting the sovereigns insignas. ... For the Catholic Liberal Arts College in New York, see Siena College. ...


Marriage

On 3 September 1719, James Francis Edward Stuart married Maria Clementina Sobieska (1702–35), granddaughter of the Polish king, John III Sobieski. They had two sons: is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... Noble Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jakub Ludwik Sobieski Hedwig Elisabeth Amelia Consorts James Francis Edward Stuart Children with James Francis Edward Stuart Bonnie Prince Charlie Stuart Henry Benedict Stuart Date of Birth July 18, 1702 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death January 18, 1735 Place of Death... Reign From May 21, 1674, until June 17, 1696 Elected On May 21, 1674 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On February 2, 1676 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Nobel Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jakub Sobieski Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz Consorts Marie Casimire Louise Children...

  1. Charles Edward Stuart, (31 December 172031 January 1788), aka "Bonnie Prince Charlie"
  2. Henry Benedict Stuart, (11 March 172513 July 1807), Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church

Charles Edward Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788), known in Scots Gaelic as Teàrlach Eideard Stiùbhairt, was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and is now commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Henry Benedict Cardinal Stuart (March 11, 1725 – July 13, 1807) was the fourth and last Jacobite to publicly claim the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...

Bonnie Prince Charlie

Following James's failure, attention turned to his handsome and charismatic son, "Bonnie Prince Charlie", whose rebellion of 1745 came closer to success than his father's. With the failure of this second rebellion, however, the Stuart hopes of regaining the British throne were effectively destroyed. Charles Edward Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788), known in Scots Gaelic as Teàrlach Eideard Stiùbhairt, was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and is now commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. ...

Tomb of James Francis Edward Stuart
Tomb of James Francis Edward Stuart

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2449x1801, 1093 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): James Francis Edward Stuart Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2449x1801, 1093 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): James Francis Edward Stuart Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner...

Death

James died in Rome on 1 January 1766, and was buried in St. Peter's Basilica at the Vatican. From 14 January the Papacy recognized the Hanoverian dynasty as the legitimate rulers of Britain and Ireland. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


Titles and honours

Titles

James's full titles before his father's deposition were: Prince James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland, Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... -1... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... -1... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Upon his father's deposition he lost his automatic titles as eldest son of the Sovereign (i.e. Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland). Thus he was Prince James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter until his attainture for treason[citation needed]


Honours

The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... -1... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...

Arms

As Prince of Wales, James bore a coat of arms consisting of those of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points[3] A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...


Ancestry

Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, king consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who also succeded Elizabeth I of England. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Hans Knieper: Königin Sophie von Dänemark For other uses, see Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (disambiguation). ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... Antoine de Bourbon (1560) Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme (22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562), was head of the House of Bourbon from 1537 to 1562, and King-consort of Navarre from 1555 to 1562. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Jeanne dAlbret Jeanne dAlbret (January 7, 1528 - June 9, 1572) was Queen of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome and mother of Henry IV of France. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... Francesco I of Tuscany. ... Portrait of Marie de Medici. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Alfonso III dEste (1591 - May 26, 1644) was Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1628 to 1629. ... Francesco I dEste. ... Alfonso IV dEste, by Justus Sustermans Alfonso IV dEste (1634 - July 16, 1662) was Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1658 until his death. ... Ranuccio Farnese (March 28, 1569 — March 5, 1622) or Ranuccio I, was the fourth Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1592 until his death. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... Laura Martinozzi (May 27, 1639 in Fano-July 19, 1687 in Rome) was one of the Mazarinettes - the seven nieces Cardinal Mazarin brought to France from Italy so that he might arrange advantageous marriages for them. ...

See also

Monument to the royal Stuarts, Rome The Monument to the Royal Stuarts is a memorial in St. ... Touch Pieces are coins and medalets that have attracted superstitious beliefs, such as those with holes in them or those with particular designs. ... The Correspondence with James the Pretender (High Treason) Act 1701 (13 & 14 Will. ...

Notes and sources

  1. ^ Complete Peerage. "Duke of Cornwall".
  2. ^ The Prince of Wales – Previous Princes
  3. ^ Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family
James Francis Edward Stuart
Born: 10 June 1688 Died: 1 January 1766
British royalty
Preceded by
Mary II
Heir to the English, Scottish and Irish thrones Succeeded by
William III and Mary II
as mutual co-heirs
Preceded by
Charles II of England
Prince of Wales Vacant
Title next held by
George II of Great Britain
Titles in pretence
Glorious Revolution — TITULAR —
Prince of Wales
(Jacobite succession)

1688–1701
Vacant
Preceded by
James II & VII
(deposed from throne)
— TITULAR —
King of England, Scotland, France & Ireland
(Jacobite succession)

1701–1766
Succeeded by
Charles III

 
 

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