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Encyclopedia > James Forrestal
James Vincent Forrestal


In office
May 19, 1944 – September 17, 1947
Preceded by Frank Knox
Succeeded by John L. Sullivan

In office
September 17, 1947 – March 28, 1949
Preceded by (none)
Succeeded by Louis A. Johnson

Born February 15, 1892(1892-02-15)
Matteawan, New York, U.S.
Died May 22, 1949 (aged 57)
Montgomery County, Maryland, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse Josephine Ogden Forrestal
Profession Politician

James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense. Forrestal's death resulted from a fall out of a Bethesda Naval Hospital window which has led to speculation and much controversy. He was a supporter of naval battle groups centered on aircraft carriers. In 1954, the Navy's first supercarrier was named the USS Forrestal in his honor. Picture of James Forrestal Official US Navy Photo. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... John L. Sullivan (June 16, 1899–August 8, 1982), Served in the United States Navy and was the first Department of Defense Secretary of the Navy in the Truman Administration. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Louis Arthur Johnson (January 10, 1891 - April 24, 1966) was the second United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman from March 28, 1949 to September 19, 1950. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Location in the state of New York Country United States State New York County Dutchess Government  - Mayor Clara Lou Gould (R) Area  - City  4. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Montgomery County of the U.S. state of Maryland is situated just north of Washington, D.C. and Southwest of Baltimore. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... The National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, also known as the Bethesda Naval Hospital, is considered the flagship of the United States Navys system of medical centers. ... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... USS Enterprise, a supercarrier, and the conventionally-sized aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle A Supercarrier is a ship belonging to the largest class of aircraft carrier. ... USS Forrestal (CVA/CV/AVT-59) was a United States Navy aircraft carrier, the lead ship of her class of supercarriers, named after Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal. ...

Contents

Early life and career

Forrestal was born in Matteawan, now Beacon, New York, the son of an Irish immigrant who dabbled in politics. After graduating from high school at the age of 16 in 1908, he spent the next three years working for a trio of newspapers: the Matteawan Evening Journal, the Mount Vernon Argus and the Poughkeepsie News Press. Nickname: Location in the state of New York Country United States State New York County Dutchess Government  - Mayor Clara Lou Gould (R) Area  - City  4. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ...


Forrestal entered Dartmouth College in 1911, but transferred to Princeton University the following year. At the latter school, he served as an editor for The Daily Princetonian and was voted by the senior class as "Most Likely to Succeed", but left just prior to completing work on a degree. Dartmouth College is a private, coeducational university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, in the United States. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... The Daily Princetonian is the daily student newspaper of Princeton University. ...


After college, Forrestal went to work as a bond salesman for William A. Read and Company (also known as Dillon, Read and Company). When World War I broke out, he enlisted in the Navy and ultimately became a Naval Aviator, training with the Royal Flying Corps in Canada. During the final year of the war, Forrestal spent much of his time in Washington, D.C., at the office of Naval Operations, while completing his flight training. He eventually reached the rank of Lieutenant Junior Grade. For alternative meanings, see bond (a disambiguation page). ... Sales are the activities involved in providing products or services in return for money or other compensation. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Aerial warfare be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... A Lieutenant, Junior Grade, is a division officer in the United States Navy. ...


Following the war, Forrestal served as a publicist for the Democratic Party committee in Dutchess County, New York helping politicians from the area win elections at both the state and national level. One of those individuals aided by his work was a neighbor, Franklin D. Roosevelt. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Dutchess County is a county located in the state of New York. ... FDR redirects here. ...


Forrestal then returned to William A. Read and Company, earning a partnership, in 1923, before eventually becoming president of the company in 1937. President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ...


By most accounts, Forrestal was a compulsive workaholic who was very cold and neglectful towards his family. One instance of this trait came when Forrestal, while working in England, received a phone call from his two sons, ages eight and six. The two had missed their plane in Paris, but Forrestal simply told the boys to work out the problem themselves and meet him in London. His wife, the former Josephine Ogden, a Vogue writer whom he married in 1926, also was a victim of this treatment and eventually developed alcohol and mental problems inherited from her mother. It has been suggested that List of visitor attractions in Paris be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


Government Work

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt appointed Forrestal as an administrative assistant on June 22, 1940, then nominated him as Undersecretary of the Navy six weeks later. In the latter post, Forrestal would prove to be very effective at mobilizing industrial production for the war effort. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Assistant Secretary of the Navy (abbrev. ...


He became Secretary of the Navy on May 19, 1944, following the death of his immediate supervisor Frank Knox from a heart attack. Forrestal then led the Navy through the closing year of the war and the demobilization that followed. What might have been his greatest legacy as Navy Secretary was an attempt that came to nought. He, along with Secretary of War Henry Stimson and Under Secretary of State Joseph Grew, in the early months of 1945, strongly advocated a softer policy toward Japan that would permit a negotiated face-saving surrender. His primary concern was "the menace of Russian Communism and its attraction for decimated, destabilized societies in Europe and Asia", and, therefore, keeping the Soviet Union out of the war with Japan. Had his advice been followed, Japan might well have surrendered before August 1945, precluding the use of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [1]. So strongly did he feel about this matter that he cultivated negotiation attempts that bordered closely on insubordination toward the President [1]. Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 - October 20, 1950) was an American politician. ... Joseph Grew was born in Boston, Massachusetts on May 27, 1880. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The Japanese city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the ChÅ«goku region of western HonshÅ«, the largest of Japans islands. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...



Forrestal opposed the unification of the services, but even so helped develop the National Security Act of 1947 that created the National Military Establishment (the Department of Defense was not created as such until August 1949), and with the former Secretary of War Robert P. Patterson retiring to private life, Forrestal was the next choice. President Truman signs the National Security Act Amendment of 1949 with guests in the Oval Office. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Robert Porter Patterson was the United States Secretary of War under United States President Harry S. Truman from the 27th of September 1945 to the 18th of July, 1947. ...


His 18 months at Defense came at an exceptionally difficult time for the U.S. military establishment: Communist governments came to power in Czechoslovakia and China; West Berlin was blockaded, necessitating the Berlin Airlift to keep it going; the war between the Arab states and Israel after the establishment of Israel in Palestine; and negotiations were going on for the formation of NATO. His reign was also hampered by intense interservice rivalries. Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... The Soviet Union blocked Western rail and road access to West Berlin from June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Interservice rivalry is a military term referring to rivalries that can arise between different branches of a countrys armed forces, such as between a nations land forces (army) and naval forces. ...


In addition, President Harry Truman constrained military budgets billions of dollars below what the services were requesting, putting Forrestal in the middle of the tug-of-war. Forrestal was also becoming more and more worried about the Soviet threat [2]. Internationally, the takeover by the Communists of Eastern Europe, their threats to the governments of Greece, Italy, and France, their impending takeover of China, and the invasion of South Korea by North Korea would demonstrate the legitimacy of his concerns on the international front as well.


Forrestal is alleged to be an original member of a group formed in 1947 with the purported code name of Majestic 12. Majestic-12 (sometimes written simply as MJ-12 or MJ-XII) is the codename of a secret committee, supposedly formed in 1952 to investigate UFO activity. ...


Forrestal's Death

Although Forrestal had told associates he had decided to resign, when Truman abruptly asked for his resignation he was shattered. His letter of resignation was tendered after Truman's dismissal on March 28, 1949. On the day of his removal from office, he went into a sort of strange daze and was flown on a Navy airplane to the estate of Under Secretary of State Robert A. Lovett in Hobe Sound, Florida, where Forrestal's wife, Josephine, was vacationing. He was checked into the Bethesda Naval Hospital five days later. The condition was officially announced as "nervous and physical exhaustion"; his lead doctor, Captain George Raines, diagnosing his condition as "depression" or "reactive depression." is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Robert A. Lovett Robert Abercrombie Lovett (14 September 1895 - 7 May 1986) was the fourth United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman from 1951 to 1953 and in this capacity, directed the Korean War. ... The National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, also known as the Bethesda Naval Hospital, is considered the flagship of the United States Navys system of medical centers. ...


A chief reason for Forrestal's fragile mental state was that his high-profile position was in sharp contrast to his personality[citation needed]. As a person who prized anonymity and once stated that his hobby was "obscurity", he and his policies had been the constant target of attacks from columnists, including Drew Pearson and Walter Winchell. Pearson's protege, Jack Anderson, later asserted that Pearson "hectored Forrestal with innuendos and false accusations." [3] Drew Pearson Drew Pearson (December 13, 1897–September 1, 1969), born in Evanston, Illinois was one of the most prominent American newspaper and radio journalists of his day. ... Walter Winchell (April 7, 1897 – February 20, 1972), an American newspaper and radio commentator, invented the gossip column at the New York Evening Graphic. ... jack donald anderson (september 156, 1995 and wasted himself with a gun; december19, 1999) was an American newspaper columnist and is considered one of the fathers of modern investigative journalism. ...

Forrestal seemed to be on the road to recovery, having regained 12 pounds since his entry into the hospital. However, in the early morning hours of May 22, his body was found on a third-floor roof below the 16th-floor kitchen across the hall from his room. The Montgomery County, Maryland, county coroner called it a suicide within hours of the death. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x843, 82 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): National Naval Medical Center ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x843, 82 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): National Naval Medical Center ... The National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, also known as the Bethesda Naval Hospital, is considered the flagship of the United States Navys system of medical centers. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Montgomery County of the U.S. state of Maryland is situated just north of Washington, D.C. and Southwest of Baltimore. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


The official Navy review board, which completed hearings on May 31, waited until October 12, 1949, to release only a brief summary of its findings. The announcement stated only that Forrestal had died from his fall from the window. It did not say what might have caused the fall, nor did it make any mention of the bathrobe sash that was tied around his neck. There were reports of paranoia and of involuntary commitment to the hospital, as well as suspicions about the detailed circumstances of his death, which have fed a variety of conspiracy theories, some of which are described below. One of Forrestal's statements described as "paranoid" was his prediction that the United States would soon be at war; a few months later the US was indeed at war in Korea.[3] is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders...


His alleged suicide note was part of a poem from Sophocles' tragedy Ajax: A suicide note is a message left by someone who later attempts or commits suicide. ... Sophocles (ancient Greek: ; 495 BC - 406 BC) was the second of three great ancient Greek tragedians. ... Ajax is a play by Sophocles. ...

Fair Salamis, the billows’ roar,
Wander around thee yet,
And sailors gaze upon thy shore
Firm in the Ocean set.
Thy son is in a foreign clime
Where Ida feeds her countless flocks,
Far from thy dear, remembered rocks,
Worn by the waste of time–
Comfortless, nameless, hopeless save
In the dark prospect of the yawning grave....
Woe to the mother in her close of day,
Woe to her desolate heart and temples gray,
When she shall hear
Her loved one’s story whispered in her ear!
“Woe, woe!’ will be the cry–
No quiet murmur like the tremulous wail
Of the lone bird, the querulous nightingale–

The actual note [2] was not released by the Department of the Navy until April 2004.


James Forrestal is buried in section 30 of Arlington National Cemetery. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


A Conspiracy?

Doubts have existed from the beginning about that Forrestal's alleged suicide. These were fueled by the fact that the Navy did not release the transcript of its official hearing.[citation needed] The early doubts are detailed in the book The Death of James Forrestal (1966) by Cornell Simpson, which received virtually no publicity.


Among the discrepancies between the report and the accounts given in the principal Forrestal biographies are that the transcription of the poem by Sophocles appears to many to have been written in a hand other than Forrestal's, and there was broken glass found on Forrestal's bed, a fact that had not been previously reported. Theories as to who might have murdered Forrestal range from Soviet agents -- a view championed by Joseph McCarthy -- to U.S. government operatives sent to silence him for what he knew about UFOs. Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin between 1947 and 1957. ... “UFO” redirects here. ...


Forrestal himself maintained that he was being tracked and bugged by Zionist operatives. As Forrestal biographer Arnold Rogow puts it: Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is...

"...Forrestal, during his last months in office, harbored a conviction that he was under day-and-night surveillance by Zionist agents; and when he resigned as Secretary of Defense in March, 1949, he was convinced that his resignation was not unrelated to pressures brought to bear on the Administration by American Jewish organizations." For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ...

Arnold Rogow, James Forrestal, A Study of Personality, Politics, and Policy, p.181

Rogow footnotes this passage, noting:

"While those beliefs reflect the fact that Forrestal was a very ill man in March 1949, it is entirely possible that he was 'shadowed' by Zionist agents in 1947 and 1948. A close associate of his at the time recalls that at the height of the Palestine controversy, his (the associate's) official limousine was followed to and from his office by a blue sedan containing two men. When the police were notified and the sedan apprehended, it was discovered that the two men were photographers employed by a Zionist organization. They explained to the police that they had hoped to obtain photographs of the limousine's occupant entering or leaving an Arab embassy in order to demonstrate that the official involved was in close contact with Arab representatives." The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ...

Arnold Rogow, James Forrestal, A Study of Personality, Politics, and Policy, p.181

New light was shed on Forrestal's concerns in March 2006 when The Times of London, referencing newly declassified documents, revealed that a serious attempt by Menachem Begin's Irgun Gang to assassinate Britain's anti-Zionist counterpart to Forrestal, Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin, had been thwarted by British intelligence in 1946. Forrestal had been the most conspicuous and forceful anti-Zionist in the Truman administration. The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 - 14 April 1951) was a British labour leader, politician, and statesman best known for his time as Minister of Labour in the war-time coalition government, and as Foreign Secretary in the post-war Labour government. ...


There was also a press campaign against Forrestal, led by columnist Drew Pearson. The campaign tried to make it appear that he was paranoid. Paranoia, however, was never mentioned in the official evaluations of his psychiatric state. One of Pearson's most spectacular claims was that while Forrestal was at Hobe Sound, Florida, shortly before he was hospitalized, he was awakened by a siren in the middle of the night and ran out into the street exclaiming, "The Russians are attacking." This claim has not been confirmed by anyone who was there that night, and was described as a fabrication by Captain George Raines, the Navy doctor in charge of Forrestal's treatment[4] Sunset from the Intracoastal Waterway in Hobe Sound, Florida. ...


References

  1. ^ Hoopes and Brinkley, pp. 205-214. The quoted line is from p. 208
  2. ^ See Whittaker Chambers to confirm that his concerns on the domestic front were quite legitimate
  3. ^ a b Akashah, Mary; Donald Tennant (1980). "Madness and Politics: The Case of James Forrestal" (PDF). Proceeding of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 60: 89-92. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. 
  4. ^ Hopes and Brinkley, pp. 455-456

Whittaker Chambers, 1948 Jay Vivian (David Whittaker) Chambers (April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961) was an American writer, editor, Communist party member and spy for the Soviet Union who defected and became an outspoken opponent of communism. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
James Forrestal
  • Townsend Hoopes and Douglas Brinkley, Driven Patriot, the Life and Times of James Forrestal ISBN 0-7366-2520-8 (1992)
  • Cornell Simpson The Death of James Forrestal (Western Islands Publishers, 1966)
  • Arnold Rogow, James Forrestal, A Study of Personality, Politics, and Policy (MacMillan, 1963)
  • David Martin, Who Killed James Forrestal?, (2002-ongoing)
  • Walter Millis ed., The Forrestal Diaries (New York: Viking, 1951)
  • Jeffrey M. Dorwart, Eberstadt and Forrestal, A National Security Partnership, 1909-1949 (College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press 1991)
  • Mary Akashah and Donald Tennant (1980). "Madness and Politics: The Case of James Forrestal" (PDF). Proceeding of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 60: 89-92. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. Refutes the idea that Forrestal's "policies and positions were somehow the products of a diseased mind."

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Townsend Walter Hoopes II was an American who reached the height of his career as Under Secretary of Defense for the Air Force from 1967 to 1969. ... Douglas Brinkley (born December 14, 1960) is a prolific author and a professor of history at Tulane University, where he also serves as director of the Theodore Roosevelt Center for American Civilization. ... Walter Millis (1899-1968), married to Norah Thompson Millis, was an editorial and staff writer for the New York Herald-Tribune from 1924 to 1954. ...

External links

Preceded by
Frank Knox
United States Secretary of the Navy
(cabinet)

1944–1947
Succeeded by
John L. Sullivan
(DoD)
Preceded by
None
United States Secretary of Defense
1947–1949
Succeeded by
Louis A. Johnson

  Results from FactBites:
 
James Forrestal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1461 words)
James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892 – May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense (September 17, 1947–March 28, 1949).
Forrestal was born in Matteawan, now Beacon, New York, the son of an Irish immigrant who dabbled in politics.
Forrestal opposed the unification of the services, but even so helped develop the National Security Act of 1947 that created the National Military Establishment (the Department of Defense was not created as such until August 1949), and with the former Secretary of War Robert P. Patterson retiring to private life, Forrestal was the next choice.
James Forrestal - definition of James Forrestal in Encyclopedia (621 words)
James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892–May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense (1947 - 1949).
Forrestal opposed the unification of the services, but even so helped develop the National Security Act of 1947 that created the National Military Establishment (the Department of Defense was not created as such until August 1949), and with the former Secretary of War Robert Patterson retiring to private life, Forrestal was the next choice.
Forrestal resigned on March 28, 1949, due to a "mental breakdown" and was checked into the Bethesda Naval Hospital.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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