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Encyclopedia > James Eastland
James Oliver Eastland
James Eastland

In office
June 30, 1941 – September 28, 1941
January 3, 1943 - December 28, 1978
Preceded by Pat Harrison (1941)
Wall Doxey (1943)
Succeeded by Wall Doxey (1941)
Thad Cochran (1978)

In office
July 28, 1972 – December 28, 1978
Deputy Hubert Humphrey (1977-1978)
Preceded by Allen J. Ellender
Succeeded by Warren G. Magnuson

In office
1956 – 1978
Preceded by Harley M. Kilgore
Succeeded by Ted Kennedy

Born November 28, 1904(1904-11-28)
Doddsville, Mississippi
Died February 19, 1986 (aged 81)
Doddsville, Mississippi
Political party Democratic
Spouse Elizabeth Coleman
Children 4
Profession Cotton planter
Religion Methodist

James Oliver Eastland (November 28, 1904February 19, 1986) was an American politician from Mississippi who served in the United States Senate as a Democrat briefly in 1941 and again from 1943 until his resignation December 27, 1978. From 1947 to 1978, he served alongside John Stennis, also a Democrat. Eastland and Stennis were the second longest-serving Senate duo in American history, behind only Strom Thurmond and Fritz Hollings of South Carolina (who served together for 38 years). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... James Eastland may refer to: James Eastland, U.S. Senator from Mississippi James Eastland (Texas politician) Category: ... Download high resolution version (610x903, 301 KB)James Eastland by Herbert Elmer Abrams Oil on canvas, 2001 Sight measurement Height: 43. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Bryon Patton Pat Harrison (August 29, 1881 - June 22, 1941) was a Mississippi politician who served as a Democrat in the United States House of Representatives from 1911 to 1919 and in the United States Senate from 1919 until his death. ... Wall Doxey (August 8, 1892–March 2, 1962) was an American politician from Mississippi. ... Wall Doxey (August 8, 1892–March 2, 1962) was an American politician from Mississippi. ... William Thad Cochran (born December 7, 1937) is the senior United States Senator from Mississippi. ... Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Allen Joseph Ellender (September 24, 1890 - July 27, 1972) was a U.S. political figure from Houma, Louisiana who served as a Democratic United States Senator from Louisiana from 1937 until his death in 1972. ... Warren G. Magnuson Warren Grant Maggie Magnuson (April 12, 1905–May 20, 1989) was a United States Senator of the Democratic Party from Washington from 1944 until 1981. ... The U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary (informally Senate Judiciary Committee) is a standing committee of the United States Senate, the upper house of the United States Congress. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... U.S. Senator, born in Brown, West Virginia. ... Edward Moore Ted Kennedy (born February 22, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Doddsville is a town located in Sunflower County, Mississippi. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Doddsville is a town located in Sunflower County, Mississippi. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major United States political parties. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... John Cornelius Stennis (August 3, 1901 - April 23, 1995) was a Senator from the state of Mississippi. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... Ernest Frederick Fritz Hollings (born January 1, 1922) was a Democratic United States Senator from South Carolina from 1966 to January 3, 2005. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...

Contents

Early life

Eastland was born in Doddsville, the son of a cotton planter. In 1905 he moved with his parents to Forest where he attended public schools. A lawyer in rural Mississippi, he served one term in the state House of Representatives from 1928 to 1932. In the 1930s, he took over the family's Sunflower County plantation, which eventually grew to nearly 6,000 acres (24 km²). Even after entering politics, he considered himself first and foremost a cotton planter. Doddsville is a town located in Sunflower County, Mississippi. ... Forest is a city located in Scott County, Mississippi. ... Sunflower County is a county located in the state of Mississippi. ...


Political career

Eastland was first appointed to the Senate in 1941 following the death of Senator Pat Harrison, but did not run in the special election for the seat later in the year; it was won by 2nd District Representative Wall Doxey. In 1942, Eastland was one of three candidates who challenged Doxey for a full term. Even though Doxey had the support of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Mississippi's senior U.S. Senator Theodore Bilbo, Eastland defeated him in the Democratic primary, which at that time was tantamount to election in Mississippi. Bryon Patton Pat Harrison (August 29, 1881 - June 22, 1941) was a Mississippi politician who served as a Democrat in the United States House of Representatives from 1911 to 1919 and in the United States Senate from 1919 until his death. ... Wall Doxey (August 8, 1892–March 2, 1962) was an American politician from Mississippi. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Theodore Gilmore Bilbo (October 13, 1877–August 21, 1947) was an American politician. ...


Eastland established a working relationship with FDR, as he did with presidents of both parties during his tenure in the Senate. As a result he was able to provide federal largess for Mississippi (including the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway and federal relief after Hurricane Camille) throughout his career.


He was reelected five times, facing substantive Republican opposition only twice. In 1966, 4th District Representative Prentiss Walker, the first Republican to represent Mississippi at the federal level since Reconstruction, ran against him. Walker ran well to Eastland's right, accusing him of not doing enough to keep integration-friendly judges from being confirmed by the Senate. As is often the case when a one-term congressman runs against a popular incumbent senator, Walker was handidly defeated. The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Prentiss Lafayette Walker (August 23, 1917 - June 5, 1998) was a Mississippi politician. ...


In 1972, Eastland was reelected with 58% of the vote in his "closest" contest ever. His Republican opponent, Gil Carmichael, might have been aided by President Richard Nixon's landslide reelection in 49 states, including 78% of Mississippi's popular vote. However, Nixon worked "under the table" to support Eastland who was a long-time personal friend and supporter. Nixon and other Republicans provided little support for Carmichael to avoid alienating conservative Southern Democrats. Eastland recognized that Nixon would handily carry Mississippi, and did not endorse the national Democratic candidate, George McGovern. Four years later, Eastland supported the candidacy of fellow Southern Democrat Jimmy Carter. Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, Ph. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


Views on civil rights, race

Eastland is best known for his strong support of racial segregation. He was a bitter opponent of the American Civil Rights Movement. Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ...


When the Supreme Court issued its decision in the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas 347 US 483 (1954), Eastland, like most southern politicians, denounced it. In a speech given in Senatobia, Mississippi on August 12, 1955, he said: "On May 17, 1954, the Constitution of the United States was destroyed because of the Supreme Court's decision. You are not obliged to obey the decisions of any court which are plainly fraudulent [and based on] sociological considerations." Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... This article is about the state capital of Kansas. ... Senatobia is a city in Tate County, Mississippi, United States. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


Moreover, Eastland called Brown illegal and proclaimed that "resistance to tyranny is obedience to God," a position held at the time by most white southerners.


Eastland did not mince words when it came to his feelings about the races mingling. He testified to the Senate 10 days after the Brown decision came down: “The Southern institution of racial segregation or racial separation was the correct, self-evident truth which arose from the chaos and confusion of the Reconstruction period. Separation promotes racial harmony. It permits each race to follow its own pursuits, and its own civilization. Segregation is not discrimination… Mr. President, it is the law of nature, it is the law of God, that every race has both the right and the duty to perpetuate itself. All free men have the right to associate exclusively with members of their own race, free from governmental interference, if they so desire.”


When three civil rights workers Mickey Schwerner, James Chaney, and Andrew Goodman went missing in Mississippi on June 21, 1964, he reportedly told President Lyndon Johnson that the incident was a hoax and there was no Ku Klux Klan in the state, surmising that the three had gone to Chicago [1]: Michael Schwerner (1939 - June 21, 1964), called Mickey by friends and colleagues, was a CORE field worker kidnapped and killed in Philadelphia, Mississippi, by the Ku Klux Klan in response to the civil-rights work he coordinated, which included promoting registration to vote among Mississippi African Americans. ... James Chaney James Earl Chaney (May 30, 1943 – June 21, 1964) was a civil rights worker who was murdered (along with Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman) by members of the Ku Klux Klan. ... Andrew Goodman Andrew Goodman (November 23, 1943 – June 21, 1964) was an American civil rights activist who was murdered by gunshot in 1964 by members of the Ku Klux Klan. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ...


President Johnson: Jim, we’ve got three kids missing down there. What can I do about it?

Eastland: Well, I don’t know. I don’t believe there’s . . . I don’t believe there’s three missing.

President Johnson: We’ve got their parents down here.

Eastland: I believe it’s a publicity stunt. . . .

(Johnson once said that, "Jim Eastland could be standing right in the middle of the worst Mississippi flood ever known, and he'd say 'The niggers caused it, helped out some by the Communists.")


Despite this position, Eastland was a behind-the-scenes player in efforts to defuse potential violence during the desegration of the University of Mississippi in 1962 and in protecting the safety of Freedom Riders who traveled through Mississippi. Typifying Eastland's approach to racial issues, the Freedom Riders were arrested on arrival in Mississippi.


Eastland also served as a director of the Pioneer Fund, a foundation dedicated to "improving the race." (Eastland would some years later stare coldly down a committee table at Senator Jacob Javits of New York, who was Jewish and say, "I don't like you — or your kind.") Eastland, along with Senators Robert Byrd, John McClellan, Olin D. Johnston, Sam Ervin and Strom Thurmond, made unsuccessful attempts to block Thurgood Marshall's confirmation to the Federal Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court. The Pioneer Fund is a foundation that claims to have played a significant role in research on heredity and human personality differences since its 1937 founding, particularly in intelligence. ... Jacob Koppel Javits (May 18, 1904–March 7, 1986) was an American politician. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ... John Little McClellan (25 February 1896 – 28 November 1977) was a member of the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives from Arkansas. ... Olin DeWitt Talmadge Johnston (November 18, 1896 - April 18, 1965) was a Politician from the U.S. State of South Carolina. ... Samuel James Ervin Jr. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an American jurist and the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the...


Given Eastland's reputation as a segregationist, observers sometimes attribute racist anecdotes or statements to him without substantiation. Contrary to oft-published accounts, for example, Eastland and Judge Harold Cox, a notoriously racist judge, were not college roommates; they were friends, but Cox was in law school at the University of Mississippi while Eastland was an undergraduate (Eastland never graduated from college and did not attend law school).


Other widely-repeated but inaccurate rumors attributed offensive statements to Eastland during this period. Often, racist statements were attributed to Eastland, even though they may have been made by other speakers. Although Eastland was a staunch segregationist, he refrained from the most extreme rhetoric that characterized other civil rights opponents.


Eastland was appointed as chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee in 1956. Under the Senate's seniority rules, he was next in line for the chairmanship and there was no significant effort to deny him the post. He was chairman until his retirement. Ironically, his committee considered the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which Eastland bitterly opposed. Its passage caused many Mississippi Democrats to openly support Barry Goldwater's presidential bid that year, but Eastland did not publicly oppose the election of Lyndon Johnson. Although Goldwater was heavily defeated by incumbent Lyndon Johnson, he carried Mississippi with 87% of the popular vote (his best showing in any state [2]) due to his opposition to federal civil rights legislation, such as the Civil Rights Act. Four years earlier, Eastland had supported John F. Kennedy, who also took a strong stand in support of civil rights for African-Americans. The U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary (informally Senate Judiciary Committee) is a standing committee of the United States Senate, the upper house of the United States Congress. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


Eastland was often at odds with Johnson's policy on civil rights, but their friendship remained close and LBJ often sought Eastland's support and guidance on other issues. In the 1950s, Johnson was one of three senators from the South who didn't sign the Southern Manifesto, as did Eastland and most southern senators. The Southern Manifesto was a document written in 1956 by legislators in the United States Congress opposed to racial integration in public places. ...


Contrary to many rumors, Eastland did not use the appointment of Harold Cox to a federal judgeship as leverage against John F. Kennedy's appointment of Thurgood Marshall to a federal judgeship. Cox was nominated by Kennedy more than a year before Marshall even came up for consideration, and his nomination resulted from a personal conversation between Cox and Kennedy. The president, not wanting to upset the powerful chairman of the Judiciary Committee, generally acceded to Eastland's requests on judicial confirmations in Mississippi — Eastland's power, not his racism, was the determining factor.


During his last Senate term, he served as president pro tempore of the Senate since he was the longest-serving Democrat in the Senate. Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ...


Anti-communist efforts

James Eastland

During the 1950s, Eastland was among many legislators who used an imagined threat of Communism for his own political agenda. He was a racist segrgationist version of Senator Joseph McCarthy. Eastland served on a subcommittee investigating the Communist Party. As chairman of the Internal Security Subcommittee, he subpoenaed a some employees of The New York Times, which was at the time taking a strong position on its editorial page that Mississippi should adhere to the Brown decision. The Times countered in its January 5, 1956 editorial: [v http://bioguide. ... This article is about the U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957). ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"Our faith is strong that long after Senator Eastland and his present subcommittee are gone, long after segregation has lost its final battle in the South, long after all that was known as McCarthyism is a dim, unwelcome memory, long after the last Congressional committee has learned that it cannot tamper successfully with a free press, The New York Times will be speaking for (those) who make it, and only for (those) who make it, and speaking, without fear or favor, the truth as it sees it."

Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ...

Later years

In his last years in the Senate, Eastland was recognized by most senators as one who knew how to wield the legislative powers he had accumulated. Many senators, including liberals who opposed many of his conservative positions acknowledged the fairness with which he chaired the Judiciary Committee, sharing staff and authority that other chairmen had held for themselves. He maintained personal ties with stalwart liberal Democrats such as Ted Kennedy, Joe Biden and Phil Hart, even though they disagreed on many issues. Edward Moore Ted Kennedy (born February 22, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Biden redirects here. ... Philip Aloysius Hart (December 10, 1912–December 26, 1976) was a Democratic senator from Michigan. ...


During his later years, he avoided associating himself with racist stands in the face of increasing black political power in Mississippi. In fact, during this period Eastland hired black Mississippians to serve on the staff of the Judiciary Committee. Eastland noted to aides that his earlier position on race was due primarily to the political realities of the times, ie, as a major political figure in a southern state in the 1950s and 1960s. He considered running for reelection in 1978, and sought to win black support. He won the support of civil rights leader and NAACP president Aaron Henry, but he ultimately decided not to seek reelection in 1978. Due in part to an independent black candidate siphoning off votes from the Democratic candidate, Republican 4th District Representative Thad Cochran won the race to succeed him. Eastland resigned two days after Christmas, giving Cochran a leg up in seniority. After his retirement, he remained friends with Aaron Henry and sent contributions to the NAACP, but he publicly stated that he "didn't regret a thing" in his public career. He died on February 19, 1986. William Thad Cochran (born December 7, 1937) is the senior United States Senator from Mississippi. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


The law library at Ole Miss is named after Eastland. This has caused a some controversy in Mississippi given Eastland's earlier racist positions, but the University benefited financially from Eastland's many friends and supporters, as it has done from other political figures of Eastland's era.


Twice as Senate President

James Eastland was, as of 2007, the last President pro tempore who served as the permanent Senate President during a vacancy of the Vice Presidency. He actually did so twice during the tumultuous 1970's, first in 1973 between Spiro Agnew's resignation and the swearing in of Gerald Ford as Vice President, and then one year later when Ford became President and Nelson Rockefeller was sworn in as Vice President. Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ...


Further reading

Preceded by
Pat Harrison
United States Senator (Class 2) from Mississippi
June 30, 1941September 28, 1941
Served alongside: Theodore G. Bilbo
Succeeded by
Wall Doxey
Preceded by
Wall Doxey
United States Senator (Class 2) from Mississippi
January 3, 1943December 27, 1978
Served alongside: Theodore G. Bilbo, John C. Stennis
Succeeded by
Thad Cochran
Preceded by
Allen J. Ellender
Louisiana
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
1972–1978
Succeeded by
Warren G. Magnuson
Washington
Preceded by
Spiro Agnew
Vice President of the United States
President of the United States Senate
October 10, 1973December 6, 1973
Succeeded by
Gerald Ford
Vice President of the United States
Preceded by
Gerald Ford
Vice President of the United States
President of the United States Senate
August 9, 1974December 19, 1974
Succeeded by
Nelson Rockefeller
Vice President of the United States
Preceded by
Harley M. Kilgore
West Virginia
Chairman of Senate Judiciary Committee
1956–1978
Succeeded by
Edward Kennedy
Massachusetts
Preceded by
George Aiken
Vermont
Dean of the United States Senate
January 3, 1975November 28, 1977
with John L. McClellan
Arkansas
Succeeded by
Himself
Preceded by
Himself and
John L. McClellan
Arkansas
Dean of the United States Senate
November 28, 1977January 3, 1979
Succeeded by
Warren G. Magnuson
Washington

  Results from FactBites:
 
James Eastland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1228 words)
Eastland was determined to win an appointment for Harold Cox, his former roommate at Ole Miss, and campaigned shamelessly on his behalf.
Eastland was appointed as chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee in 1956 and held that post until his retirement.
Eastland was an ally of Joseph McCarthy and served on the Committee investigating many Americans' connections to the Communist Party.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: James O. Eastland (581 words)
James Oliver Eastland (November 28, 1904–February 19, 1986) was an American politician from Mississippi who served in the U.S. Senate briefly in 1941 and again from 1943 to 1978.
A Democrat, Eastland was first appointed to the Senate in 1941 following the death of Senator Pat Harrison, but did not run in the special election for the seat later in the year; it was won by Wall Doxey.
Eastland served as a director of the infamous Pioneer Fund, a foundation dedicated to improving the race.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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