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Encyclopedia > James Cook
(Captain) James Cook

James Cook, portrait by Nathaniel Dance, c. 1775, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich
Born October 27, 1728(1728-10-27)
Marton, England
Died February 14, 1779 (aged 50)
Hawaii
Nationality British
Education Postgate School, Great Ayton
Occupation Explorer, navigator, cartographer
Title Captain
Spouse Elizabeth Batts
Children James Cook, Nathaniel Cook, Elizabeth Cook, Joseph Cook, George Cook, Hugh Cook
Parents James Cook, Grace Pace
Blue plaque for Captain James Cook
Blue plaque for Captain James Cook

Captain James Cook FRS RN (27 October 1728 (O.S.) – 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator and cartographer. Ultimately rising to the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy, Cook was the first to map Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean during which he achieved the first European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands as well as the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.[1] James Cook may refer to: James Cook (1728 O.S.–1779), British explorer, navigator, and map maker James Cook University, in Queensland, Australia James Cook University Hospital, a teaching hospital in Marton, Middlesbrough UK RRS James Cook, a British research ship James Nemo (né Cook) of UK band Nemo. ... Image File history File links Captain James Tiberius Cook official portrait from the National Maritime Museum, United Kingdom File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland (8 May 1735-15 October 1811) was a notable English portrait painter (and later a politician). ... The National Maritime Museum, Greenwich The National Maritime Museum (NMM) is the leading maritime museum of the United Kingdom, and one of the most important in the world. ... This article is about Greenwich in England. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala The founding of the University of Havana (Universidad de la Habana), Cubas most well-established university. ... Map sources for Marton at grid reference NZ5115 Marton is a small town outside Middlesbrough in Cleveland, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Great Ayton is a village and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire on the edge of the North York Moors in England. ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (733x716, 273 KB) Summary Blue plaque for Captain James Cook on The Highway Photographer Richard Allen Technical information Digital photograph from 2m above ground, taken near corner of Edward VII Memorial Park, on 17 September 2005 in sunny weather. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (733x716, 273 KB) Summary Blue plaque for Captain James Cook on The Highway Photographer Richard Allen Technical information Digital photograph from 2m above ground, taken near corner of Edward VII Memorial Park, on 17 September 2005 in sunny weather. ... A blue plaque showing information about The Spanish Barn at Torre Abbey in Torquay. ... Captain Sir Arthur Henry Rostron receiving a loving cup from Margaret Brown for his rescue of RMS Titanic survivors Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks Captain is the traditional customary title given to the person in charge of a ship at sea. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala The founding of the University of Havana (Universidad de la Habana), Cubas most well-established university. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... See also explorations, sea explorers, astronaut, conquistador, travelogue, the History of Science and Technology and Biography. ... A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ... . Captain, is the name most often given in naval circles to the NATO rank code of OF-5. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... “Round the world” redirects here. ...


Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager[2], and joined the Royal Navy in 1755. He saw action in the Seven Years' War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec. This allowed General Wolfe to make his famous stealth attack on the Plains of Abraham, and helped to bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This notice came at a crucial moment both in his personal career and in the direction of British overseas exploration, and led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Merchant Marine. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... a broat veiew of the St LAwrence River, with a Quebec City on a background The Saint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large south west-to-north east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Major General Wolfe. ... The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, fought September 13, 1759, was a decisive battle during the French and Indian War, the U.S. name for the North American phase of the Seven Years War. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... HMB Endeavour was a small 18th century British sailing ship, famous for being the vessel commanded by Lt. ...


Cook accurately charted many areas and recorded several islands and coastlines on Europeans' maps for the first time. His achievements can be attributed to a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, courage in exploring dangerous locations to confirm the facts (for example dipping into the Antarctic circle repeatedly and exploring around the Great Barrier Reef), an ability to lead men in adverse conditions, and boldness both with regard to the extent of his explorations and his willingness to exceed the instructions given to him by the Admiralty.[2] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Map (disambiguation). ... Seamanship is the art of operating a ship or boat. ... Zoomable PDF of the map this is based on The Antarctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ... The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of over 2 900 individual reefs[3] and 900 islands stretching for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (132,974 sq mi). ...


Cook died in Hawaii in a fight with Hawaiians during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779. This article is about the U.S. State. ... Native Hawaiians (in Hawaiian, kānaka ōiwi or kānaka maoli) are member[s] or descendant[s] of the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands.[2] Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the first Marquesan and Tahitian settlers of Hawaii (possibly as early as AD 400), before the...

Contents

Early life

Cook was born in relatively humble circumstances in the village of Marton in North Yorkshire, today a suburb belonging to the town of Middlesbrough. He was baptised in the local church of St. Cuthberts where today his name can be seen in the church register. Cook was one of five children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer, and his locally-born wife Grace.[2][3] As a child, Cook moved with his family to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where he was educated at the local school (now a museum), his studies financed by his father's employer. At 13 he began work with his father, who managed the farm. Cook's Cottage, his parents' last home and which he may have visited, is now in Melbourne having been moved brick by brick from England.[3] Map sources for Marton at grid reference NZ5115 Marton is a small town outside Middlesbrough in Cleveland, England. ... North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county, located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county in that region and also partly in North East England. ... Middlesborough redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... Great Ayton is a village and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire on the edge of the North York Moors in England. ... Cooks Cottage in the Fitzroy Gardens, Melbourne. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ...


In 1745, when he was 16, Cook left home to be apprenticed in a grocery/haberdashery in the fishing village of Staithes. According to legend, Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window.[2] A grocer is a dealer in staple foodstuffs, such as meats, produce or dairy products, and other household supplies. ... A haberdasher is a person who sells small items via retail, commonly items used in clothing, such as ribbons and buttons, or completed accessories, such as hats or gloves. ... Staithes is a village in North Yorkshire, in the district of Scarborough. ... This article is about the body of water. ...


After a year and a half in Staithes, William Sanderson, the shop's owner, found Cook unsuited to the trade. Sanderson took Cook to the nearby port town of Whitby and introduced him to John and Henry Walker.[3] The Walkers were prominent local ship-owners and Quakers, and were in the coal trade. Their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum . Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels plying coal along the English coast. His first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, and he spent several years on this and various other coasters sailing between the Tyne and London. , For other uses, see Whitby (disambiguation). ... Quaker redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Merchant Marine. ... For other uses, see Collier. ... Coastal trading vessels, also known as coasters, are shallow-hulled ships used for trade between locations on the same island or continent. ... The Tyne looking west and upstream from the Newcastle bank towards the Gateshead Millennium Bridge The Tyne Bridge across the River Tyne between Newcastle and Gateshead. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


For this new apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, navigation, astronomy, skills he would need one day to command his own ship.[2] This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Trigonometry The Canadarm2 robotic manipulator on the International Space Station is operated by controlling the angles of its joints. ... This article is about determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the earth. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...


His three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea. He soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his 1752 promotion to Mate (officer in charge of navigation) aboard the collier brig Friendship. In 1755 he was offered command of this vessel, but within the month he volunteered for service in the British Royal Navy.[3] For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Brigantine. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


In 1755, the Kingdom of Great Britain was re-arming for what was to become the Seven Years' War. Cook saw that his career could advance more quickly in military service. However, this required starting again in the naval hierarchy, and on June 17 he began as able seaman aboard HMS Eagle under the command of Captain Hugh Palliser. He was very quickly promoted to Master's Mate. By 1757, within two years of joining the Royal Navy, he passed his master's examination qualifying him to navigate and handle a ship of the King's fleet.[4] For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // In the Royal Navy in the middle of the 18th century, the term Able Seaman referred to a seaman with at least two years experience at sea. ... Sir Hugh Palliser (22 February 1722 or 1723 – 19 March 1796) was a British naval officer and the Governor of Newfoundland (a Commodore-Governor) from 1764 – 1768. ...


Family life

Cook married Elizabeth Batts (1742-1835), the daughter of Samuel Batts, keeper of the Bell Inn, Wapping[5] and one of his mentors, on December 21, 1762 at St. Margaret's Church, Barking, Essex. The couple had six children: James (1763-1794), Nathaniel (1764-1781), Elizabeth (1767-1771), Joseph (1768-1768), George (1772-1772) and Hugh (1776-1793). When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London. He attended St. Paul's Church, Shadwell, where his son James was baptised. Wapping Old Stairs, one of many points of access to the foreshore in the area. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Barking (disambiguation). ... The East End of London, known locally as the East End, is an area, with no formal authority or boundaries, that spans a number of administative districts of London in England. ... St. ...


Start of Royal Navy career

James Cook's 1775 Chart of Newfoundland
James Cook's 1775 Chart of Newfoundland

During the Seven Years' War, as master of Pembroke (his second command, after Solebay),[6] Cook participated in the siege of Quebec City before the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759. He showed a talent for surveying and cartography and was responsible for mapping much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege, allowing General Wolfe to make his famous stealth attack on the Plains of Abraham. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1462, 520 KB) Description: A general chart of the island of Newfoundland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1462, 520 KB) Description: A general chart of the island of Newfoundland. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... At least six ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Pembroke. ... Seven ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Solebay after the battle of Solebay on 7 June 1672, the first battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War. ... Motto: « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Québec Official logo Provincial region Province Country Capitale-Nationale Québec Canada Gentilé Québécois, Québécoise Mayor Jean-Paul LAllier 1989-Dec. ... Combatants Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of France Commanders James Wolfe â€  Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm â€  Strength 4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars 300 militia Casualties 658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded The Battle of the Plains of Abraham was a pivotal battle in the North American theatre... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... a broat veiew of the St LAwrence River, with a Quebec City on a background The Saint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large south west-to-north east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Major General Wolfe. ... The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, fought September 13, 1759, was a decisive battle during the French and Indian War, the U.S. name for the North American phase of the Seven Years War. ...

Captain Cook monument, Corner Brook, Newfoundland
Captain Cook monument, Corner Brook, Newfoundland

Cook's surveying skills were put to good use in the 1760s, mapping the jagged coast of Newfoundland. Cook surveyed the northwest stretch in 1763 and 1764, the south coast between the Burin Peninsula and Cape Ray in 1765 and 1766, and the west coast in 1767. Cook’s five seasons in Newfoundland produced the first large-scale and accurate maps of the island’s coasts; they also gave Cook his mastery of practical surveying, achieved under often adverse conditions, and brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society at a crucial moment both in his personal career and in the direction of British overseas discovery. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1333x1569, 973 KB) A plaque on Captain Cooks monument detailing his exploration of the Bay of Islands and surrounding area, Corner Brook, Newfoundland. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1333x1569, 973 KB) A plaque on Captain Cooks monument detailing his exploration of the Bay of Islands and surrounding area, Corner Brook, Newfoundland. ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Burin Peninsula is a peninsula located near Burin—St. ... Cape Ray (, NST) is a headland located at the southwestern extremity of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...


Following on from his exertions in Newfoundland, it was at this time that Cook wrote, he intended to go not only:

"... farther than any man has been before me, but as far as I think it is possible for a man to go."[7]

First voyage (1768–71)

Captain Cook landing place plaque.
Captain Cook landing place plaque.

In 1766, the Royal Society hired Cook to travel to the Pacific Ocean to observe and record the transit of Venus across the Sun.[1] He sailed from England in 1768, rounded Cape Horn and continued westward across the Pacific to arrive at Tahiti on April 13, 1769, where the observations were to be made. However, the result of the observations were not as conclusive or accurate as had been hoped. Cook later mapped the complete New Zealand coastline, making only some minor errors. He then sailed west, reaching the south-eastern coast of the Australian continent on 19 April 1770, and in doing so his expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered its eastern coastline. On 23 April he made his first recorded direct observation of indigenous Australians at Brush Island near Bawley Point, noting in his journal "...and were so near the Shore as to distinguish several people upon the Sea beach they appear'd to be of a very dark or black Colour but whether this was the real colour of their skins or the C[l]othes they might have on I know not."[8] On April 29 Cook and crew made their first landfall on the mainland of the continent at a place now known as Kurnell, which he named Botany Bay after the unique specimens retrieved by the botanists Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander. He continued northwards, and a mishap occurred when Endeavour ran aground on a shoal of the Great Barrier Reef, on June 11. The ship was seriously damaged and his voyage was delayed almost seven weeks while repairs were carried out on the beach (near the docks of modern Cooktown, at the mouth of the Endeavour River).[2] Once repairs were complete the voyage continued, sailing through Torres Strait and on 22 August he landed on Possession Island, where he claimed the entire coastline he had just explored as British territory. He returned to England via the Cape of Good Hope and Saint Helena, arriving on 12 July 1771. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 1. ... Route of the first voyage of James Cook The First voyage of James Cook was the initial voyage of James Cook. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... This article is about the astronomical phenomenon. ... Sol redirects here. ... Cape Horn from the South. ... Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of the French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... Bawley Point is a small coastal hamlet in New South Wales, Australia, in the Shoalhaven. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kurnell is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. ... For other Botany Bays see Botany Bay (disambiguation) Bicentennial Monument at Botany Bay Botany Bay is a bay in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, a few kilometers south of the central business district. ... For clothing store, see JoS. A. Bank Clothiers. ... Daniel Carlsson Solander (February 19, 1733 – May 16, 1782) was a Swedish botanist. ... HMB Endeavour was a small 18th century British sailing ship, famous for being the vessel commanded by Lt. ... The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of over 2 900 individual reefs[3] and 900 islands stretching for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (132,974 sq mi). ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cooktown is the northernmost town on the East coast of Australia, located at 15°28′ S 145°17′ E on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia. ... Endeavour River locator map The Endeavour River 15°28′S 145°17′E on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia, was named in 1770 by Lt. ... Torres Strait and islands The Torres Strait - Cape York Peninsula is at the bottom; several of the Torres Strait Islands can be seen strung out towards Papua New Guinea to the north. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Possession Island is a national park in Queensland (Australia), 2168 km northwest of Brisbane. ... For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Interlude

Cook's journals were published upon his return, and he became something of a hero among the scientific community. Among the general public, however, the aristocratic botanist Joseph Banks was a bigger hero.[2] Banks even attempted to take command of Cook's second voyage, but removed himself from the voyage before it began, and Johann Reinhold Forster and his son Georg Forster were taken on as scientists for the voyage. Cook's son George was born five days before he left for his second voyage.[9] This article is about the journal as a written medium. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For clothing store, see JoS. A. Bank Clothiers. ... Johann Reinhold Forster Johann Reinhold Forster and Georg Forster in Tahiti, by John Francis Rigaud (1742-1810), 1780. ... Image:Georg Forster masterbator. ...

The south-Pacific routes of Captain James Cook's voyages. The first voyage is shown in red, second voyage in green, and third voyage in blue.
The south-Pacific routes of Captain James Cook's voyages. The first voyage is shown in red, second voyage in green, and third voyage in blue.

Image File history File links Cookroutes. ...

Second voyage (1772–75)

James Cook's 1777 South-Up map of South Georgia
James Cook's 1777 South-Up map of South Georgia
Statue of Captain James Cook at Admiralty Arch, London
Statue of Captain James Cook at Admiralty Arch, London

Shortly after his return, Cook was promoted from Master to Commander. Then once again he was commissioned by the Royal Society to search for the mythical Terra Australis. On his first voyage, Cook had demonstrated by circumnavigating New Zealand that it was not attached to a larger landmass to the south; and although by charting almost the entire eastern coastline of Australia he had shown it to be continental in size, the Terra Australis being sought was supposed to lie further to the south. Despite this evidence to the contrary Dalrymple and others of the Royal Society still believed that this massive southern continent should exist. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1269x888, 539 KB) Summary James Cook, Chart of the Discoveries made in the South Atlantic Ocean, in His Majestys Ship Resolution, under the Command of Captain Cook, in January 1775, W. Strahan and T. Cadel, London, 1777 (fragment) Licensing File links... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1269x888, 539 KB) Summary James Cook, Chart of the Discoveries made in the South Atlantic Ocean, in His Majestys Ship Resolution, under the Command of Captain Cook, in January 1775, W. Strahan and T. Cadel, London, 1777 (fragment) Licensing File links... Terra Australis is the large continent on the bottom of the map Terra Australis (also: Terra Australis Incognita, Latin for the unknown land of the South) was an imaginary continent, appearing on European maps from the 15th to the 18th century. ...


Cook commanded HMS Resolution on this voyage, while Tobias Furneaux commanded its companion ship, HMS Adventure. Cook's expedition circumnavigated the globe at a very high southern latitude, becoming one of the first to cross the Antarctic Circle on January 17, 1773, reaching 71°10' south. He also surveyed, mapped and took possession for Britain of South Georgia explored by Anthony de la Roché in 1675, and navigated the South Sandwich Islands. In the Antarctic fog, Resolution and Adventure became separated. Furneaux made his way to New Zealand, where he lost some of his men following a fight with Māori, and eventually sailed back to Britain, while Cook continued to explore the Antarctic. Resolution and Adventure with fishing craft in Matavai Bay by William Hodges, painted 1776, shows the two ships at anchor in Tahiti in August 1773. ... Tobias Furneaux (August 21, 1735 - September 19, 1781) was an french star Gazer and Royal french Navy officer, who accompanied the ships Cook on his second voyage of exploration. ... Resolution and Adventure with fishing craft in Matavai Bay by William Hodges, painted 1776, shows the two ships at anchor in Tahiti. ... “Round the world” redirects here. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Zoomable PDF of the map this is based on The Antarctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ... Voyage of the English merchant Anthony de la Roché in 1675 Anthony de la Roché (spelled also Antoine de la Roché, Antonio de la Roché or Antonio de la Roca in some sources) was an English merchant born in London to French Huguenot father and English mother. ... South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ...


Cook almost encountered the mainland of Antarctica, but turned back north towards Tahiti to resupply his ship. He then resumed his southward course in a second fruitless attempt to find the supposed continent. On this leg of the voyage he brought with him a young Tahitian named Omai, who proved to be somewhat less knowledgeable about the Pacific than Tupaia had been on the first voyage. On his return voyage, in 1774 he landed at the Friendly Islands, Easter Island, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, and Vanuatu. His reports upon his return home put to rest the popular myth of Terra Australis. Theodore von Holsts 1838 painting Omai was a young Tahitian who was picked up on Captain Cooks second voyage of discovery by Captain Furneaux on the HMS Adventure. ... Tupaia (c. ... The Kingdom of Tonga is an archipelago in the southern Pacific Ocean, about a third of the way between New Zealand and Hawaii. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Terra Australis is the large continent on the bottom of the map Terra Australis (also: Terra Australis Incognita, Latin for the unknown land of the South) was an imaginary continent, appearing on European maps from the 15th to the 18th century. ...


Another accomplishment of the second voyage was the successful employment of the Larcum Kendall K1 chronometer, which enabled Cook to calculate his longitudinal position with much greater accuracy. Cook's log was full of praise for the watch and the charts of the southern Pacific Ocean he made with its use were remarkably accurate - so much so that copies of them were still in use in the mid 20th century.[10] Larcum Kendall (21 September 1719 in Charlesbury, Oxfordshire to 22 November 1790 in London) was a British Clockmaker. ... A marine chronometer is a timekeeper precise enough to be used as a portable time standard, used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ...


Upon his return, Cook was promoted to the rank of Captain and given an honorary retirement from the Royal Navy, as an officer in the Greenwich Hospital. His fame now extended beyond the Admiralty and he was also made a Fellow of the Royal Society and awarded the Copley Gold Medal, painted by Nathaniel Dance-Holland, dined with James Boswell and described in the House of Lords as "the first navigator in Europe".[4] But he could not be kept away from the sea. A third voyage was planned to find the Northwest Passage. Cook travelled to the Pacific and hoped to travel east to the Atlantic, while a simultaneous voyage travelled the opposite way. For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... The Greenwich Hospital was founded in 1694 as the Royal Naval Hospital for Seamen. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland (8 May 1735-15 October 1811) was a notable English portrait painter (and later a politician). ... James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleckand 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... For other uses, see Northwest Passage (disambiguation). ...


Third voyage (1776–79)

A statue of James Cook stands in Waimea, Kauai commemorating his first contact with the Hawaiian Islands at the town's harbour on January 1778
A statue of James Cook stands in Waimea, Kauai commemorating his first contact with the Hawaiian Islands at the town's harbour on January 1778
The inscription on the back of the Captain James Cook memorial in Waimea, Kauai
The inscription on the back of the Captain James Cook memorial in Waimea, Kauai
Waimea on the island of Kauai, as seen from the ocean. Waimea was Captain James Cook's first landing point in Hawaii in 1778.
Waimea on the island of Kauai, as seen from the ocean. Waimea was Captain James Cook's first landing point in Hawaii in 1778.

On his last voyage, Cook once again commanded HMS Resolution, while Captain Charles Clerke commanded HMS Discovery. Ostensibly the voyage was planned to return Omai to Tahiti; this is what the general public believed, as he had become a favourite curiosity in London. Principally the purpose of the voyage was an attempt to discover the famed Northwest Passage. After returning Omai, Cook travelled north and in returning from forrays on the Alaskan coast (see below) in 1778 became the first European to visit the Hawaiian Islands. In passing and after initial landfall in January 1778 at Waimea harbour, Kauai, Cook named the archipelago the "Sandwich Islands" after the fourth Earl of Sandwich, the acting First Lord of the Admiralty. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (870x1898, 1902 KB) Summary Statue of James Cook (by John Tweed (original on Whitby, England)) at the town of Waimea, Kauai, honoring his first contact with the Hawaiian islands at the Waimea Harbor on January 1778 with his ships Resolution and... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (870x1898, 1902 KB) Summary Statue of James Cook (by John Tweed (original on Whitby, England)) at the town of Waimea, Kauai, honoring his first contact with the Hawaiian islands at the Waimea Harbor on January 1778 with his ships Resolution and... Resolution and Adventure with fishing craft in Matavai Bay by William Hodges, painted 1776, shows the two ships at anchor in Tahiti in August 1773. ... Charles Clerke (1741-1779) was an officer in the Royal Navy who sailed with of four voyages of exploration. ... HMS Discovery was the name of a number of vessels in the Royal Navy. ... For other uses, see Northwest Passage (disambiguation). ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... Waimea is a census-designated place located in Kauai County, Hawaii. ... Kauai (Hawaiian IPA pron. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... The Sandwich Islands was the name given to Hawaii by Captain James Cook on his discovery of the islands on January 18, 1778. ... The Earl of Sandwich is a title in the peerage of England, created by Charles II and bestowed upon Sir Edward Montagu. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ...


From the South Pacific he travelled northeast to explore the west coast of North America, landing near the First Nations village at Yuquot in Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island, although he unknowingly sailed past the Strait of Juan de Fuca. He explored and mapped the coast from California all the way to the Bering Strait, on the way identifying what came to be known as Cook Inlet in Alaska. It has been said that, in a single visit, Cook charted the majority of the North American North West coastline on world maps for the first time, determined the extent of Alaska and closed the gaps in Russian (from the West) and Spanish (from the South) exploratory probes of the Northern limits of the Pacific.[4] North American redirects here. ... First Nations is the current title used by Canada to describe the various societies of the indigenous peoples, called Native Americans in the U.S. They have also been known as Indians, Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, Amer-Indians, or Aboriginals, and are officially called Indians in the Indian Act, which... This small settlement of less than 20 is known as the birthplace of British Columbia. ... Nootka Sound is an inlet of the Pacific Ocean and a natural harbour on the rugged west coast of Vancouver Island, in British Columbia, Canada. ... Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... The Strait of Juan de Fuca separates Vancouver Island of British Columbia from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05... Cook Inlet, showing Knik and Turnagain Arms The Cook Inlet or Nuti Inlet is a large inlet of the Gulf of Alaska in south-central Alaska. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


The Bering Strait proved to be impassable, although he made several attempts to sail through it. He became increasingly frustrated on this voyage, and perhaps began to suffer from a stomach ailment; it has been speculated that this led to irrational behaviour towards his crew, such as forcing them to eat walrus meat, which they found inedible.[11] Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Walrus Subspecies Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ...


Cook returned to Hawaii in 1779. After sailing around the archipelago for some eight weeks, he made landfall at Kealakekua Bay, on what is now the 'Big Island' of Hawaii. Cook's arrival may have coincided with the Makahiki, a Hawaiian harvest festival of worship for the Polynesian god Lono. Indeed the form of Cook's ship, HMS Resolution, or more particularly the mast formation, sails and rigging, resembled certain significant artifacts that formed part of the season of worship.[2][11] Similarly, Cook's clockwise route around the islands before making landfall resembled the processions that took place in a clockwise direction around the island during the Lono festivals. It has been argued (most extensively by Marshall Sahlins) that such coincidences were the reasons for Cook's (and to a limited extent, his crew's) initial deification by some Hawaiians who treated Cook as an incarnation of Lono (as was first suggested by members of Cook's expedition, although the idea that any Hawaiians took Cook to be Lono and the evidence presented in support of it was strongly challenged in 1992 [11]). Image of Hawai‘i (island) taken by NASA. The Island of Hawai‘i is the largest of the Hawaiian Islands. ... The Island of Hawaii (called the Big Island or Hawaii Island) is a volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean and one of the eight main islands that comprise the U.S. state of Hawaii. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Makahiki season was the Hawaiian Thanksgiving, in honor of the god Lono. ... In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. ... In Polynesian mythology (specifically: Hawaii), Lono (or Lono-i-ka-makahiki) is a fertility and music god who descended to Earth on a rainbow to marry Laka. ... Marshall Sahlins (born 1930) is a prominent American anthropologist. ... Apotheosis - the posthumous transformation of a Roman emperor into a god, Theosis - being unified with God in East Orthodox theology of salvation, Assigning divine qualities to any mortal and, usually, worshipping that person as if they were a supernatural being. ...

The original painting by Cleveley was discovered in 2004 and depicts Captain Cook as a violent man.
The original painting by Cleveley was discovered in 2004 and depicts Captain Cook as a violent man.
One of the most famous reproductions of Cleveley's Death of Cook hangs at the Honolulu Academy of Arts. It depicts Captain Cook as a peacemaker.
One of the most famous reproductions of Cleveley's Death of Cook hangs at the Honolulu Academy of Arts. It depicts Captain Cook as a peacemaker.
The death of Captain James Cook at Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii. In: "A Collection of Voyages round the World ... Captain Cook's First, Second, Third and Last Voyages ...." Volume VI, London, 1790. Archival Photograph by Mr. Sean Linehan, NOS, NGS
The death of Captain James Cook at Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii. In: "A Collection of Voyages round the World ... Captain Cook's First, Second, Third and Last Voyages ...." Volume VI, London, 1790. Archival Photograph by Mr. Sean Linehan, NOS, NGS

After a month's stay, Cook got under sail again to resume his exploration of the Northern Pacific. However, shortly after leaving the Big Island, the foremast of the Resolution broke and the ships returned to Kealakekua Bay for repairs. It has been hypothesized that the return to the islands by Cook's expedition was not just unexpected by the Hawaiians but unwelcome because the season of Lono had recently ended; in any case, tensions rose and a number of quarrels broke out between the Europeans and Hawaiians. On February 14 at Kealakekua Bay, some Hawaiians took one of Cook's small boats. Normally, as thefts were quite common in Tahiti and the other islands, Cook would have taken hostages until the stolen articles were returned.[2] Indeed, he attempted to take hostage the Chief of Hawaii, Kalaniopu'u. The Hawaiians prevented this, and Cook's men had to retreat to the beach. As Cook turned his back to help launch the boats, he was struck on the head by the villagers and then stabbed to death as he fell on his face in the surf.[12] The Hawaiians dragged his body away. Four of the Marines with Cook were also killed and two wounded in the confrontation. Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 451 pixelsFull resolution (1584 × 892 pixel, file size: 420 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 451 pixelsFull resolution (1584 × 892 pixel, file size: 420 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ...


Some scholars suggest that Cook's return to Hawaii outside the season of worship for Lono, which was synonymous with 'peace', and thus in the season of 'war' (being dedicated to Kū, god of war) may have upset the equilibrium and fostered an atmosphere of resentment and aggression from the local population. Coupled with a jaded grasp of native diplomacy and a burgeoning but limited understanding of local politics, Cook may have inadvertently contributed to the tensions that ultimately conspired in his demise.


The esteem in which he was nevertheless held by the Hawaiians resulted in his body being retained by their chiefs and elders (possibly, as some claim, for partial human consumption, though this remains contentious) and the flesh cut and roasted from his bones. Some of Cook's remains, disclosing some corroborating evidence to this effect, were eventually returned to the British for a formal burial at sea following an appeal by the crew.[13] Burial at Sea for two victims of a Japanese submarine attack on the US aircraft carrier Liscome Bay, November 1943 Burial at sea describes the procedure of disposing of human remains in the ocean. ...


Clerke took over the expedition and made a final attempt to pass through the Bering Strait. Following the death of Clerke Resolution and Discovery returned home in October 1780 commanded by John Gore, a veteran of Cook's first voyage, and Captain James King. Cook's account of his third and final voyage was completed upon their return by King. Captain King, A total gangster that rips apart the fetus of jews. ...


Cook's protégés

A number of the junior officers who served under Cook went on to distinctive accomplishments of their own.

1814 portrait of William Bligh Vice-Admiral William Bligh FRS RN (9 September 1754 – 7 December 1817) was an officer of the British Royal Navy and colonial administrator. ... for other meaning see Mutiny on the Bounty (disambiguation) The mutineers turning Lt Bligh and some of the officers and crew adrift from HMAV Bounty, 29 April 1789 The Mutiny on the Bounty was a historical event in the late 18th century, most widely known through fiction, of an officer... Binomial name Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg The Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a tree and fruit native to the Malay Peninsula and western Pacific islands. ... Mutiny AKA. Matt Daye Is A conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change or overthrow an existing authority. ... For other uses, see Mutiny on the Bounty (disambiguation). ... NSW redirects here. ... Captain George Vancouver RN (June 22, 1757 – May 12, 1798) was an officer of the British Royal Navy, best known for his exploration of North America, including the Pacific coast along the modern day Canadian province of British Columbia and the American states of Alaska, Washington and Oregon. ... For the fishes called midshipman, see Midshipman fish In the navies of English-speaking countries, a midshipman is a low-ranking commissioned officer, usually the lowest rank. ... The Vancouver Expedition (1791-1795) was a five-year voyage of exploration and diplomacy, commanded by Captain George Vancouver. ... George Dixon (1755?-1800) was an English sea captain and explorer. ...

Legacy

A statue of James Cook in Greenwich, London, England
A statue of James Cook in Greenwich, London, England
Captain Cook memorial statue at the Catani Gardens St Kilda, Victoria, Australia
Captain Cook memorial statue at the Catani Gardens St Kilda, Victoria, Australia

Cook's 12 years sailing around the Pacific Ocean contributed much to European knowledge of the area. Several islands such as Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) were encountered for the first time by Europeans, and his more accurate navigational charting of large areas of the Pacific was a major achievement. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (861x2000, 456 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): James Cook Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (861x2000, 456 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): James Cook Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... This article is about Greenwich in England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Captain_cook_statue_st_kilda. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Captain_cook_statue_st_kilda. ... St Kilda is a inner city suburb of the Victorian capital of Melbourne, Australia. ... The Sandwich Islands was the name given to Hawaii by Captain James Cook on his discovery of the islands on January 18, 1778. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the earth. ...


To create accurate maps, latitude and longitude need to be known. Navigators had been able to work out latitude accurately for centuries by measuring the angle of the sun or a star above the horizon with an instrument such as a backstaff or quadrant. But longitude was more difficult to measure accurately because it requires precise knowledge of the time difference between points on the surface of the earth. Earth turns a full 360 degrees relative to the sun each day. Thus longitude corresponds to time: 15 degrees every hour, or 1 degree every 4 minutes. This article is about the geographical term. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Sol redirects here. ... The backstaff, or back-quadrant, is a navigational tool that was used to determine latitude. ... A quadrant is an instrument that is used to measure angles up to 90°. // There are several types of quadrants: Mural quadrants used for measuring the altitudes of astronomical objects. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article describes the unit of angle. ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... A minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds. ...


Cook gathered accurate longitude measurements during his first voyage due to his navigational skills, the help of astronomer Charles Green and by using the newly published Nautical Almanac tables, via the lunar distance method — measuring the angular distance from the moon to either the sun during daytime or one of eight bright stars during nighttime to determine the time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and comparing that to his local time determined via the altitude of the sun, moon, or stars. On his second voyage Cook used the K1 chronometer made by Larcum Kendall, which was the shape of a large pocket watch, 13 cm (5 inches) in diameter. It was a copy of the H4 clock made by John Harrison, which proved to be the first to keep accurate time at sea when used on the ship Deptford's journey to Jamaica, 1761-1762. Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... Charles Green (1735-January 29, 1771) was a British astronomer, noted for his assignment by the Royal Society in 1768 to the expedition sent to the Pacific Ocean in order to observe the transit of Venus, aboard James Cooks Endeavour. ... A nautical almanac is a publication describing the positions and movements of celestial bodies, including the sun, moon, planets, and 57 stars chosen for their ease of identification and wide spacing. ... Finding Greenwich time while at sea using a lunar distance. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Royal Observatory, Greenwich. ... Larcum Kendall (21 September 1719 in Charlesbury, Oxfordshire to 22 November 1790 in London) was a British Clockmaker. ... This article is about the portable timepiece. ... For other uses, see Clock (disambiguation). ... John Harrison John Harrison (March 24, 1693–March 24, 1776) was an English clockmaker, who designed and built the worlds first successful chronometer (maritime clock), one whose accuracy was great enough to allow the determination of longitude over long distances. ... This article is about the body of water. ...


There were several artists on the first voyage. Sydney Parkinson was involved in many of the drawings, completing 264 drawings before his death near the end of the voyage. They were of immense scientific value to British botanists.[2] Cook's second expedition included the artist William Hodges, who produced notable landscape paintings of Tahiti, Easter Island, and other locations. Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Hodges painting of HMS Resolution and HMS Adventure in Matavai Bay, Tahiti William Hodges (October 28, 1744 - March 6, 1797) was a British painter. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of the French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ...


Cook was accompanied by many scientists, whose observations and discoveries added to the importance of the voyages. Joseph Banks, a botanist, went on the first voyage along with fellow botanist Daniel Solander from Sweden. Between them they collected over 3,000 plant species. Banks became one of the strongest promoters of the settlement of Australia by the British, based on his own personal observations. For clothing store, see JoS. A. Bank Clothiers. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Daniel Carlsson Solander (February 19, 1733 – May 16, 1782) was a Swedish botanist. ...


Ever the observer, Cook was the first European to have extensive contact with various people of the Pacific. He correctly concluded there was a relationship among all the people in the Pacific, despite their being separated by thousands of miles of ocean (see Malayo-Polynesian languages). In New Zealand the coming of Cook is often used to signify the onset of colonisation.[3][2] The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ...


The first tertiary education institution in North Queensland, Australia was named after him, with James Cook University opening in Townsville in 1970. Numerous other institutions, landmarks and place names reflect the importance of Cook's contribution to knowledge of geography. These also include the Cook Islands, the Cook Strait, and Cook crater. James Cook University (JCU) is a university based in Townsville, Queensland, Australia and was founded in 1970 as the first tertiary education institution in North Queensland (although the first may have been the local TAFE college instead). ... A view of from the summit of Mount Victoria, Wellington - Cook Strait stretches to the right (west). ... Cook is a lunar crater that lies in the western part of the Mare Fecunditatis, just to the southeast of the prominent Colombo crater. ...


The site where he was killed in Hawaii is marked by a white obelisk and about 25 square feet of land around it is chained off. This land, though in Hawaii, has been given to the United Kingdom. Therefore, the site is officially a part of the UK.[3] With the jurisdictions reversed exactly the same sort of situation exists at Runnymede where the U.S. has extraterritorial jurisdiction over a monument to John F. Kennedy. Location of Runnymede at grid reference SU998727 in the United Kingdom Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the county of Surrey, England, associated with the signing of the Magna Carta and today the site of a collection of memorials. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


Cook appeared on a United States coin, the 1928 Hawaiian Sesquicentennial half dollar. Minted during the celebration marking the 150th anniversary of his discovery of the islands, its low mintage (10,008) has made this example of Early United States commemorative coins both scarce and expensive. The Half Dollar of the United States has been produced nearly every year since the inception of the United States Mint in 1793. ... The Early period of Commemorative Coins of the United States of America traditionally begins with the 1892 Colombian Half dollar and extends through the 1954 Booker T. Washington issue. ...


Tributes also abound in post-industrial Middlesbrough, England, and include a primary school[14], shopping square[15] and Claes Oldenburg public artwork, the Bottle 'O Notes, while the James Cook University Hospital, a teaching hospital in Marton, was also named after him. Marton is also the location of the Captain Cook Birthplace Museum. The Royal Research Ship RRS James Cook was built in 2006 to replace the RRS Charles Darwin in the UK's Royal Research Fleet. Middlesborough redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is a sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of everyday objects. ... The James Cook University Hospital is a 1010 bed major tertiary hospital in Marton, Middlesbrough. ... Map sources for Marton at grid reference NZ5115 Marton is a small town outside Middlesbrough in Cleveland, England. ... The Captain Cook Birthplace Museum is a free-entry public museum located in Marton, Middlesbrough within the borough of Middlesbrough and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. ... The RRS James Cook is a research ship belonging to the British Natural Environment Research Council. ... The RRS Charles Darwin is a research ship belonging to the British Natural Environment Research Council. ...


His contributions were recognized during his era. In 1779, when the American colonies were at war with Britain in their war for independence, Benjamin Franklin wrote to captains of American warships at sea,[16] recommending that if they came into contact with Cook's vessel, to: Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ...

...not consider her an enemy, nor suffer any plunder to be made of the effects contained in her, nor obstruct her immediate return to England by detaining her or sending her into any other part of Europe or to America; but that you treat the said Captain Cook and his people with all civility and kindness, . . . as common friends to mankind.

Notes

  1. ^ a b James Cook at the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k per Collingridge (2002)
  3. ^ a b c d e f per Horwitz (2003)
  4. ^ a b c G. Williams (2002)
  5. ^ Famous 18th century people of Barking and Dagenham Info Sheet #22, LB Barking & Dagenham
  6. ^ Dean & Kemp, Oxford Companion of Ships and the Sea (Oxford U Press, 2005)
  7. ^ Williams, Glyn (2002-08-01). Captain Cook: Explorer, Navigator and Pioneer. Empire and Seapower. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  8. ^ Cook's journal: daily entry for 22 April 1770 National Library of Australia
  9. ^ Captain Cook: Obsession and Discovery TV documentary, Part 2
  10. ^ Captain James Cook: His voyages of exploration and the men that accompanied him (National Maritime Museum) accessed 10 Oct 2007
  11. ^ a b c G. Obeyesekere, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook (1992)
  12. ^ V. Collingridge (2003) page 410 et seq. Obsession and Betrayal
  13. ^ V. Collingridge (2003) page 413 Obsession and Betrayal
  14. ^ Profile of Capatin Cook Primary School at BBC News
  15. ^ Captain Cook Shopping Square
  16. ^ Worldly Ways, Cook Islands. Benjamin Franklin. Twin Cities Public Television (2002). Retrieved on 2007-06-11. Unknown to Franklin, Cook had met his death a month before this "passport" was written.

Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Maritime Museum, Greenwich The National Maritime Museum (NMM) is the leading maritime museum of the United Kingdom, and one of the most important in the world. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Aughton, Peter. 2002, Endeavour: The Story of Captain Cook's First Great Epic Voyage. Cassell & Co., London.
  • John Cawte Beaglehole, biographer of Cook and editor of his Journals.
  • Collingridge, Vanessa. Feb. 2003 Captain Cook: The Life, Death and Legacy of History's Greatest Explorer, Ebury Press, ISBN 0-09-188898-0
  • Edwards, Philip, ed. 2003, James Cook: The Journals. Prepared from the original manuscripts by J. C. Beaglehole 1955-67. Penguin Books, London.
  • Horwitz, Tony. Oct. 2003, Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before, Bloomsbury, ISBN 0-7475-6455-8
  • Andrew Kippis, The Life and Voyages of Captain James Cook, Westminster 1788, George Newnes, London/Charles Scribner's Sons, New York 1904.
  • Obeyesekere, Gananath. 1992, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook: European Mythmaking in the Pacific Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05752-4.
  • Richardson, Brian. 2005. Longitude and Empire: How Captain Cook's Voyages Changed the World University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-1190-0.
  • Sydney Daily Telegraph. 1970, Captain Cook: His Artists - His Voyages. The Sydney Daily Telegraph Portfolio of Original Works by Artists who sailed with Captain Cook. Australian Consolidated Press, Sydney.
  • Thomas, Nicholas. 2003, The Extraordinary Voyages of Captain James Cook. Walker & Co., New York. ISBN 0-8027-1412-9
  • Williams, Glyndwr, ed. 1997, Captain Cook's Voyages: 1768-1779. The Folio Society, London.
  • Williams, G (Prof.), 2002 Captain Cook: Explorer, Navigator and Pioneer, BBC History 2002
  • Villiers, Alan John, 1903-. Captain James Cook. Newport Beach, CA : Books on Tape, 1983.

Professor John Cawte Beaglehole OM CMG (June 13, 1901–October 10, 1971) was born in Wellington, New Zealand. ... Vanessa Collingridge is a Scottish author and broadcaster. ... Tony Horwitz is a reporter and author of the acclaimed books Confederates In The Attic and Baghdad Without A Map. ... Andrew Kippis (March 28, 1725 - October 8, 1795), was an English nonconformist clergyman and biographer. ... Sir George Newnes (1851-1910) was a publisher and editor in Britain. ... Charles Scribners Sons is a publisher that was founded in 1846 at the Brick Church Chapel on New Yorks Park Row. ... Gananath Obeyesekere is one of the worlds leading anthropologists, who has done much work in his home country of Sri Lanka. ... Captain Alan John Murray Villiers (1903-1982); Author, Adventurer, Photographer and Master Mariner. ...

See also

Atlas Portal 
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External links

Awards
Preceded by
Nevil Maskelyne
Copley Medal
1776
Succeeded by
John Mudge
Persondata
NAME Cook, James
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION British explorer, navigator and cartographer
DATE OF BIRTH October 27, 1728(1728-10-27) (O.S.)
PLACE OF BIRTH Marton, North Yorkshire, United Kingdom
DATE OF DEATH February 14, 1779
PLACE OF DEATH Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii

The Dictionary of Australian Biography is a reference work containing information on notable people associated with Australian history. ... Melbourne University Publishing (MUP) is the book publishing arm of the University of Melbourne (Australia). ... National Library of Australia National Library of Australia as viewed from Lake Burley Griffin The National Library of Australia is located in Canberra, Australia. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... WorldCat is the worlds largest bibliographic database, the merged catalogs of over 50,000 OCLC member libraries in over 90 countries. ... Nevil Maskelyne. ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... John Mudge was an 18th century English physician and amateur creator of telescope mirrors who won the Copley Medal in 1777 for a paper on reflecting telescopes. ... A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala The founding of the University of Havana (Universidad de la Habana), Cubas most well-established university. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Map sources for Marton at grid reference NZ5115 Marton is a small town outside Middlesbrough in Cleveland, England. ... North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county, located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county in that region and also partly in North East England. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Image of Hawai‘i (island) taken by NASA. The Island of Hawai‘i is the largest of the Hawaiian Islands. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Antarctic Explorers: James Cook (1714 words)
James Cook was born in the Yorkshire village of Marton on October 27, 1728.
Cook's skill as a seaman and navigator cannot be challenged...through heavy storms and dangerous seas filled with huge icebergs the RESOLUTION survived without the loss of a single man. On January 30 he reached his furthest south but could go no further.
Cook's reputation was unchallenged and with his conclusion one can assume that all further exploration would have been unnecessary except for one detail...he kept thorough records of his sailing.
James Cook - MSN Encarta (1205 words)
Although Cook is best known as the discoverer of the Hawaiian Islands (see Hawaii), his greatest achievements were the broad scope of his exploration and his detailed, careful documentation of his discoveries.
The son of a farm worker, Cook was born in the rural village of Marton, in what was then the county of Yorkshire, England.
Cook’s aptitude for this work was evident to his superiors, and as a result he spent the rest of the war mapping Québec and the St. Lawrence River.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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