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Encyclopedia > James Buchanan
James Buchanan
James Buchanan

In office
March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861
Vice President John C. Breckinridge
Preceded by Franklin Pierce
Succeeded by Abraham Lincoln

In office
March 10, 1845 – March 7, 1849
President James K. Polk
Preceded by John C. Calhoun
Succeeded by John M. Clayton

In office
December 6, 1834 – March 5, 1845
Preceded by William Wilkins
Succeeded by Simon Cameron

Born April 23, 1791(1791-04-23)
Mercersburg, Pennsylvania
Died June 1, 1868 (aged 77)
Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Political party Democratic
Spouse None (Bachelor)
Alma mater Dickinson College
Occupation Lawyer, Diplomat
Religion Presbyterian
Signature James Buchanan's signature

James Buchanan, Jr.[1] (April 23, 1791June 1, 1868) was the fifteenth President of the United States (1857–1861). To date he is the only President from Pennsylvania and the only President never to marry. As president he was a "doughface" who battled Stephen A. Douglas for control of the Democratic Party. As Southern states declared their secession in the lead-up to the American Civil War, he held that secession was illegal, but that going to war to stop it was also illegal. Taking his own advice, he did nothing. James Buchanan can mean: James Buchanan, 15th president of the United States James Buchanan, 1st Baron Woolavington, British businessman and whisky producer James M. Buchanan, American economist James S. Buchanan, educator and fourth president of the University of Oklahoma Category: ... Download high resolution version (627x682, 51 KB) c File links The following pages link to this file: James Buchanan User talk:Simplicius Categories: U.S. history images ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. President. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. ... John Middleton Clayton (July 24, 1796–November 9, 1856) was an American statesman from Delaware who served as a U.S. Senator and as the U.S. Secretary of State from 1849 to 1850. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the day. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... William Wilkins (1779–1865) was an American politician from Pennsylvania. ... Simon Cameron Simon Cameron (March 8, 1799 – June 26, 1889) was United States Secretary of War for Abraham Lincoln from 1861 to 1862. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Mercersburg is a borough located in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , Official name: City of Lancaster Nickname: The Red Rose City Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Location Penn Square  - coordinates , Highest point  - elevation 368 ft (112 m) Area 7. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... A bachelor is a man above the age of majority who has never been married (see single). ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... A mermaid sits atop Dickinson Colleges Old West. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Presbyterianism is a Christian denomination following Jesus which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Originally an actual mask made of dough, doughface is now a term used in a disparaging context for someone, especially a politician, who is pliable, moldable like dough. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short but was considered by many a giant in politics) was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early career

Buchanan was a Representative and a Senator from Pennsylvania. He was born in a log cabin at Cove Gap, near Mercersburg, Franklin County, Pennsylvania, on April 23, 1791, to James Buchanan and Elizabeth Speer as the second of ten children (two of whom did not survive past infancy). The Buchanan family claims direct descent from King James I of Scotland.[citation needed] In 1802, he moved to Mercersburg with his parents, where he was privately tutored. He later attended the village academy and graduated from Dickinson College, in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. At one point, he was expelled from Dickinson for wild behavior and bad conduct, but after pleading for a second chance he graduated with honors three years later on September 7, 1809.[2] Later that year he moved to Lancaster, Pennsylvania. For the next three years he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1812. He then opened a practice in Lancaster. A dedicated Federalist, he strongly opposed the War of 1812 on the grounds that it was an unnecessary conflict. Nevertheless, when the British invaded neighboring Maryland, he joined a volunteer light dragoon unit and served in the defense of Baltimore, Maryland. Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... For other uses, see Log cabin (disambiguation). ... Mercersburg is a borough located in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. ... Franklin County is a county located in the state of Pennsylvania. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) reigned as King of Scots from April 4, 1406 until February 21, 1437. ... A mermaid sits atop Dickinson Colleges Old West. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Cumberland Founded 1751 Government  - Mayor Kirk R. Wilson Area  - Borough  5. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... , Official name: City of Lancaster Nickname: The Red Rose City Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Location Penn Square  - coordinates , Highest point  - elevation 368 ft (112 m) Area 7. ... The label Federalist refers to two major groups in the history of the United States of America: (1. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Baltimore redirects here. ...

A Serviceable Garment or Reverie of a BachelorAn 1856 cartoon depicts Buchanan sitting in his room examining the "Cuba" patch he has sewn on his jacket. As Minister to Britain, he pressed unsuccessfully for the purchase of Cuba in what is known as the Ostend Manifesto.
A Serviceable Garment or Reverie of a Bachelor
An 1856 cartoon depicts Buchanan sitting in his room examining the "Cuba" patch he has sewn on his jacket. As Minister to Britain, he pressed unsuccessfully for the purchase of Cuba in what is known as the Ostend Manifesto.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 388 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (403 × 623 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 388 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (403 × 623 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... The office of United States Ambassador (or Minister) to the United Kingdom (also known as Ambassador to the Court of St. ... The Ostend Manifesto was a secret document written in 1854 by U.S. diplomats at Ostend, Belgium, describing a plan to acquire Cuba from Spain. ...

Political career

Buchanan started his political career in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from 1814–1816. He was elected to the Seventeenth and to the four succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1821March 4, 1831). He was chairman of the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary (Twenty-first Congress). He was not a candidate for renomination in 1830. Buchanan served as one of the managers appointed by the House of Representatives in 1830 to conduct the impeachment proceedings against James H. Peck, judge of the United States District Court for the District of Missouri. Buchanan served as ambassador to Russia from 1832 to 1834. is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly) the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... James H. Peck (12 January 1790 - 29 April 1836) served as a Judge on the Missouri Federal District Court. ... ...


With his original party of choice, the Federalists, long defunct, Buchanan was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate to fill a vacancy and served from December 1834; he was reelected in 1837 and 1843, and resigned in 1845. He was chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations (Twenty-fourth through Twenty-sixth Congresses). The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ...

Portrait of Buchanan as a younger man.
Portrait of Buchanan as a younger man.

After the death of Supreme Court Justice Henry Baldwin in 1844, Buchanan was nominated (and refused the nomination) by President Polk to serve as a Justice of the Supreme Court (the seat was filled by Robert Cooper Grier). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 472 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (640 × 813 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 472 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (640 × 813 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Henry Baldwin (January 14, 1780 - April 21, 1844) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from January 18, 1830, to April 21, 1844. ... Robert Cooper Grier (March 5, 1794-September 25, 1870), was an American jurist. ...


Buchanan served as Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President James K. Polk from 1845 to 1849, during which time he negotiated the 1846 Oregon Treaty establishing the 49th parallel as the northern boundary in the western U.S. No Secretary of State has become President since James Buchanan, although William Howard Taft, the 27th U.S. President of the United States, often served as Acting Secretary of State during the Theodore Roosevelt administration. Seal of the United States Department of State. ... This article is about the U.S. President. ... Map of the lands in dispute The Oregon Treaty, officially known as the Treaty with Great Britain, in Regard to Limits Westward of the Rocky Mountains, and also known as the Treaty of Washington, is a bilateral treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United... The 49th parallel of north latitude forms part of the International Boundary between Canada and the United States from Manitoba to British Columbia on the Canadian side and from Minnesota to Washington on the U.S. side. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ...


In 1852, Buchanan was named president of the Board of Trustees of Franklin and Marshall College in his hometown of Lancaster. He served in this capacity until 1866.[1] Franklin and Marshall College is a four-year private co-educational liberal arts college in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. ... , Official name: City of Lancaster Nickname: The Red Rose City Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Location Penn Square  - coordinates , Highest point  - elevation 368 ft (112 m) Area 7. ...


He served as minister to the Court of St. James's (Britain) from 1853 to 1856, during which time he helped to draft the Ostend Manifesto, which proposed the purchase of Cuba from Spain in order to extend slavery. The Manifesto was a major blunder for the Pierce administration, and greatly weakened support for Manifest Destiny. The office of United States Ambassador (or Minister) to the United Kingdom (also known as Ambassador to the Court of St. ... The Ostend Manifesto was a secret document written in 1854 by U.S. diplomats at Ostend, Belgium, describing a plan to acquire Cuba from Spain. ... Slave redirects here. ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ...

Chromolithograph campaign poster for James Buchanan
Chromolithograph campaign poster for James Buchanan

Image File history File links Buch_poster. ... Image File history File links Buch_poster. ... Folding Card, The Old Woman Who Lived in A Shoe, 6 April 1883. ...

Election of 1856

The Democrats nominated Buchanan in 1856 largely because he was in England during the Kansas-Nebraska debate and thus remained untainted by either side of the issue. He was nominated on the 17th ballot. Although he did not want to run he accepted the nomination. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This 1856 map shows slave states (grey), free states (red), and US territories (green) with Kansas in center (white). ...


Former president Millard Fillmore's "Know-Nothing" candidacy helped Buchanan defeat John C. Frémont, the first Republican candidate for president in 1856, and he served from March 4, 1857 to March 4, 1861. Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Fillmore/Donelson campaign poster The Know Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


With regard to the growing schism in the country, as President-elect, he intended to sit out the crisis by maintaining a sectional balance in his appointments and persuading the people to accept constitutional law as the Supreme Court interpreted it. The court was considering the legality of restricting slavery in the territories and two justices hinted to Buchanan what the decision would be.
A President-elect is a candidate who has officially been elected President, but who has not yet acceded to his Office, as it is still occupied by the out-going President. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...


Presidency 1857–1861

The Dred Scott case

Inauguration of James Buchanan, March 4, 1857.
Inauguration of James Buchanan, March 4, 1857.

In his inaugural address, besides promising not to run again, Buchanan referred to the territorial question as "happily, a matter of but little practical importance" since the Supreme Court was about to settle it "speedily and finally." Two days later, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (a fellow alumnus of Dickinson College) delivered the Dred Scott Decision, asserting that Congress had no constitutional power to exclude slavery in the territories. Much of Taney’s written judgment is widely interpreted as obiter dictum — statements made by a judge that are unnecessary to the outcome of the case, which in this case, while they delighted Southerners, created a furor in the North. Buchanan was widely believed to have been personally involved in the outcome of the case, with many Northerners recalling Taney whispering to Buchanan during Buchanan's inauguration. Buchanan wished to see the territorial question resolved by the Supreme Court. To further this, Buchanan personally lobbied his fellow Pennsylvanian Justice Robert Cooper Grier to vote with the majority in that case to uphold the right of owning slave property. Abraham Lincoln denounced him as an accomplice of the Slave Power, which Lincoln saw as a conspiracy of slave owners to seize control of the federal government and nationalize slavery. Image File history File links 2003001r. ... Image File history File links 2003001r. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority. ... Roger Brooke Taney (March 17, 1777 – October 12, 1864) was the fifth Chief Justice of the United States, from 1836 until his death in 1864, and the first Roman Catholic to hold that office. ... A mermaid sits atop Dickinson Colleges Old West. ... Holding States do not have the right to claim an individuals property that was fairly theirs in another state. ... Obiter Dictum is a remark or observation made by a judge while issuing a ruling. ... Robert Cooper Grier (March 5, 1794-September 25, 1870), was an American jurist. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ...


Bleeding Kansas

Buchanan, however, faced further trouble on the territorial question. Buchanan threw the full prestige of his administration behind congressional approval of the Lecompton Constitution in Kansas, which would have admitted Kansas as a slave state, going so far as to offer patronage appointments and even cash bribes in exchange for votes. The Lecompton government was unpopular to Northerners, as it was dominated by slaveholders who had enacted laws curtailing the rights of non-slaveholders. Even though the voters in Kansas had rejected the Lecompton Constitution, Buchanan managed to pass his bill through the House, but it was blocked in the Senate by Northerners led by Stephen A. Douglas. Eventually, Congress voted to call a new vote on the Lecompton Constitution, a move which infuriated Southerners. Buchanan and Douglas engaged in an all-out struggle for control of the party in 1859–60, with Buchanan using his patronage powers and Douglas rallying the grass roots; Buchanan lost control of the greatly weakened party. The Lecompton Constitution was one of four proposed Kansas state constitutions. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short but was considered by many a giant in politics) was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ...


Views on slavery

Buchanan personally favored the rights of slave owners and he sympathized with the slave-expansionists who coveted Cuba. Buchanan despised both abolitionists and free-soil Republicans, lumping the two together. Seeing no injustice in the slave system, and no problem with slaveowner control of the government, he fought the opponents of the Slave Power. In his third annual message Buchanan claimed that the slaves were "treated with kindness and humanity... Both the philanthropy and the self-interest of the master have combined to produce this humane result." Shortly after his election, he assured a southern Senator that the "great object" of his administration would be "to arrest, if possible, the agitation of the Slavery question at the North and to destroy sectional parties. Should a kind Providence enable me to succeed in my efforts to restore harmony to the Union, I shall feel that I have not lived in vain." As historian Kenneth Stampp concludes, "Buchanan was the consummate 'doughface', a northern man with southern principles."[3] The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... Originally an actual mask made of dough, doughface is now a term used in a disparaging context for someone, especially a politician, who is pliable, moldable like dough. ...


Financial Panic

President Buchanan and his CabinetFrom left to right: Jacob Thompson, Lewis Cass, John B. Floyd, James Buchanan, Howell Cobb, Isaac Toucey, Joseph Holt and Jeremiah S. Black, (c. 1859)
President Buchanan and his Cabinet
From left to right: Jacob Thompson, Lewis Cass, John B. Floyd, James Buchanan, Howell Cobb, Isaac Toucey, Joseph Holt and Jeremiah S. Black, (c. 1859)

Economic troubles also plagued Buchanan's administration with the outbreak of the Panic of 1857. The government suddenly faced a shortfall of revenue, partly because of the Democrats' successful push to lower the tariff. Buchanan's administration, at the behest of Treasury Secretary Howell Cobb, began issuing deficit financing for the government, a move which flew in the face of two decades of Democratic support for hard-money policies and allowed Republicans to attack Buchanan for financial mismanagement. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jacob Thompson (May 15, 1810–March 24, 1885) was a U.S. politician. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ... John Buchanan Floyd (June 1, 1806 – August 26, 1863), was a Virginia politician (legislator and governor), U.S. Secretary of War, and the Confederate general in the American Civil War who lost the crucial Battle of Fort Donelson. ... Howell Cobb (September 7, 1815–October 9, 1868) was an American political figure. ... Isaac Toucey (November 15, 1792–July 30, 1869) was an American statesman who served as a U.S. Senator, Secretary of the Navy, Attorney General of the United States and Governor of Connecticut. ... Joseph Holt (January 6, 1807–August 1, 1894) was U.S. Secretary of War and a U.S. Postmaster General under James Buchanan. ... Jeremiah Sullivan Black (January 10, 1810–August 19, 1883) was an American statesman and lawyer. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Panic of 1857 was a sudden downturn in the economy of the United States. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... Howell Cobb (September 7, 1815–October 9, 1868) was an American political figure. ...


Utah War

Main article: Utah War

After his inauguration, responding to reports that Governor Brigham Young was planning revolt, Buchanan sent the Army to oust the Mormon leader. Belligerents United States Utah Territory Commanders Pres. ...


1860–1861: The nation disintegrates

When Republicans lost a plurality in the House in 1856, every significant bill they passed fell before southern votes in the Senate or a Presidential veto. The Federal Government reached a stalemate. Bitter hostility between Republicans and Southern Democrats prevailed on the floor of Congress. 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


To make matters worse, Buchanan was dogged by the partisan Covode committee, which was investigating the administration for evidence of impeachable offenses. During the spring and summer of 1860, the Repubican 36th Congress through a select committee chaired by John Covode of Pennsylvania investigated the possible impeachment of President James Buchanan. ...

Sectional strife rose to such a pitch in 1860 that the Democratic Party split. Buchanan played little part as the national convention meeting in Charleston deadlocked. The southern wing walked out of the Charleston convention and nominated its own candidate for the presidency, incumbent Vice President John C. Breckinridge, whom Buchanan refused to support. The remainder of the party finally nominated Buchanan's archenemy, Douglas. Consequently, when the Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln, it was a foregone conclusion that he would be elected even though his name appeared on no southern ballot. Buchanan watched silently as South Carolina seceded on December 20, followed by six other cotton states, and by February, they formed the Confederate States of America. Eight slave states refused to join. Image File history File links BreckTT.jpg‎ From http://www. ... Image File history File links BreckTT.jpg‎ From http://www. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Historic Southern United States. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia...


In Buchanan's Message to Congress (December 3, 1860), he denied the legal right of states to secede but held that the Federal Government legally could not prevent them. He hoped for compromise, but secessionist leaders did not want it. is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...

Editorial cartoon in Republican newspapers, 1861.
Editorial cartoon in Republican newspapers, 1861.

Beginning in late December, Buchanan reorganized his cabinet, ousting Confederate sympathizers and replacing them with hard-line nationalists Jeremiah S. Black, Edwin M. Stanton, Joseph Holt and John A. Dix. These conservative Democrats strongly believed in American nationalism and refused to countenance secession. At one point, Treasury Secretary Dix ordered Treasury agents in New Orleans, "If any man pulls down the American flag, shoot him on the spot". Image File history File links Eagle. ... Image File history File links Eagle. ... GOP redirects here. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jeremiah Sullivan Black (January 10, 1810–August 19, 1883) was an American statesman and lawyer. ... The Running Machine An 1864 cartoon featuring Stanton, William Fessenden, Abraham Lincoln, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration. ... Joseph Holt (January 6, 1807–August 1, 1894) was U.S. Secretary of War and a U.S. Postmaster General under James Buchanan. ... John Adams Dix (July 24, 1798 – April 21, 1879) was an American politician from New York. ...


Before Buchanan left office, seven slave states seceded, the Confederacy was formed, all arsenals and forts in the seceded states were lost (except Fort Sumter and two remote ones), and a fourth of all federal soldiers surrendered to Texas troops. The government decided to hold on to Fort Sumter, which was located in Charleston harbor, the most visible spot in the Confederacy. On January 5, Buchanan sent a civilian steamer Star of the West to carry reinforcements and supplies to Fort Sumter. On January 9, 1861, South Carolina state batteries opened fire on the Star of the West, which returned to New York. Paralyzed, Buchanan made no further moves to prepare for war. A slave state is a U.S. state that had legal slavery (overwhelmingly the enslavement of African-Americans, although historically also the enslavement of Native Americans, and whites through indentured servitude) in the period before the American Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation. ... Fort Sumter, a Third System masonry coastal fortification located in Charleston harbor, South Carolina, was named after General Thomas Sumter. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Civilian ship used by James Buchanan to send supplies and reinforcements to Fort Sumpter before the Civil War. ... Fort Sumter, a Third System masonry coastal fortification located in Charleston harbor, South Carolina, was named after General Thomas Sumter. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the state. ...


On Buchanan's final day as president, he remarked to the incoming Abraham Lincoln, "If you are as happy in entering the White House as I shall feel on returning to Wheatland you are a happy man."[4] For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


Administration and Cabinet

Official White House portrait of James Buchanan
Official White House portrait of James Buchanan
The Buchanan Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President James Buchanan 1857 – 1861
Vice President John C. Breckinridge 1857 – 1861
Secretary of State Lewis Cass 1857 – 1860
Jeremiah S. Black 1860 – 1861
Secretary of Treasury Howell Cobb 1857 – 1860
Philip F. Thomas 1860 – 1861
John A. Dix 1861
Secretary of War John B. Floyd 1857 – 1860
Joseph Holt 1860 – 1861
Attorney General Jeremiah S. Black 1857 – 1860
Edwin M. Stanton 1860 – 1861
Postmaster General Aaron V. Brown 1857 – 1859
Joseph Holt 1859 – 1860
Horatio King 1861
Secretary of the Navy Isaac Toucey 1857 – 1861
Secretary of the Interior Jacob Thompson 1857 – 1861


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Supreme Court appointments

Buchanan appointed the following Justice to the Supreme Court of the United States: The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...

Nathan Clifford (August 18, 1803–July 25, 1881) was an American statesman, diplomat and jurist. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

States admitted to the Union

William Rufus DeVane King, thirteenth Vice President of the United States. A friend of James Buchanan with whom he shared his home.
William Rufus DeVane King, thirteenth Vice President of the United States. A friend of James Buchanan with whom he shared his home.

Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links King_the_Vice_President. ... Image File history File links King_the_Vice_President. ... William Rufus DeVane King William Rufus DeVane King (April 7, 1786–April 18, 1853) was a U.S. Representative from North Carolina, a Senator from Alabama, and the thirteenth Vice President of the United States. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ...

Personal relationships

In 1819 Buchanan was engaged to Ann Caroline Coleman, the daughter of a wealthy iron manufacturing businessman and sister-in-law of Philadelphia judge Joseph Hemphill, a colleague of Buchanan's from the House of Representatives. However, Buchanan spent little time with her during the courtship; Buchanan was extremely busy with his law firm and political projects at the time, taking him away from Coleman for weeks at a time. Conflicting rumors abounded, suggesting that he was marrying for her money as he came from a less affluent family, or that he was involved with other women. Buchanan, for his part, never publicly spoke of his motives or feelings, however, letters from Ann revealed she was paying heed to the rumors, and after Buchanan paid a visit to the wife of a friend, Ann broke off the engagement. Ann soon after died; the records of Dr. Chapman, who looked after Ann in her final hours, and who said just after her passing that this was "the first instance he ever knew of hysteria producing death," reveal that he theorized the woman's demise was caused by an overdose of laudanum.[5] His fiancée's death struck Buchanan. In a letter to her father – which was returned to him unopened – Buchanan said "It is now no time for explanation, but the time will come when you will discover that she, as well as I, have been much abused. God forgive the authors of it... I may sustain the shock of her death, but I feel that happiness has fled from me forever."[5] The Coleman family became bitter towards Buchanan, and denied him a place at Ann's funeral.[6] Buchanan vowed he would never marry, though he continued to be flirtatious, and some pressed him to seek a wife. In response he said "Marry he could not, for his affections were buried in the grave." He preserved Ann Coleman's letters, kept them with him throughout his life, and requested they be burned upon his death.[5] Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... One of the more interesting debates about a president may be the debate over the sexuality of the fifteenth president of the United States, James Buchanan. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Joseph Hemphill (January 10, 1770 - May 29, 1842) was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the medicine. ...


For fifteen years in Washington, D.C., prior to his presidency, Buchanan lived with his close friend, Alabama Senator William Rufus King[7]. King became Vice President under Franklin Pierce. He took ill and died shortly after Pierce's inauguration, and four years before Buchanan became President. Buchanan and King's close relation prompted Andrew Jackson to refer to King as "Miss Nancy" and "Aunt Fancy," while Aaron V. Brown spoke of the two as "Buchanan and his wife."[8][9] Further, some of the contemporary press also speculated about Buchanan and King's relationship. Buchanan and King's nieces destroyed their uncles' correspondence, leaving some questions as to what relationship the two men had, but the length and intimacy of surviving letters illustrate "the affection of a special friendship",[8] and Buchanan wrote of his "communion" with his housemate [10]. Such expression, however, was not necessarily unusual amongst men at the time. Though the circumstances surrounding Buchanan and King's close emotional ties have led some to speculate that he was America's first homosexual president, there is currently no evidence that King and Buchanan had a sexual relationship.[8] ... William Rufus de Vane King (April 7, 1786–April 18, 1853) was a U.S. Representative from North Carolina, a Senator from Alabama, and the thirteenth Vice President of the United States. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Aaron Venable Brown (August 15, 1795 _ March 8, 1859) was Governor of Tennessee from 1845 to 1847. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


The only President never to marry, Buchanan turned to Harriet Lane, an orphaned niece whom he had earlier adopted, to act as his First Lady. "I feel that it is not good for man to be alone", he wrote, "and [I] should not be astonished to find myself married to some old maid who can nurse me when I am sick, provide good dinners for me when I am well, and not expect from me any very ardent or romantic affection."[11][12] Harriet Rebecca Lane (May 9, 1830 - July 3, 1903), niece of perpetual bachelor James Buchanan, acted as First Lady of the United States from 1857 to 1861. ...


Post-presidency, death, and legacy

In 1866 Buchanan published Mr Buchanan's Administration on the Eve of the Rebellion — the first presidential memoir. He died June 1, 1868, at the age of 78 at his home at Wheatland. He was interred in Woodward Hill Cemetery, in Lancaster. On the day before his death, he predicted that "history will vindicate my memory." Nevertheless, historians continue to emphasize his failure to deal with secession. The policy of appeasement practiced by Buchanan and his predecessor, Franklin Pierce, toward the pro-slavery lobby is often criticized. There is no evidence, however, that Pierce and Buchanan taking a harder line against slavery would have done anything but provoke the Southern states to secede a few years earlier than they eventually did. Whether America's slide toward secession during his administration was Buchanan's fault, or whether it was simply his bad luck to have presided over it, remains a matter for debate. is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Wheatland is the historic estate of President James Buchanan, the only president from pennsylvania. ...


A bronze and granite memorial residing near the Southeast corner of Washington, D.C.'s Meridian Hill Park was designed by architect William Gorden Beecher and sculpted by Maryland artist Hans Schuler. Commissioned in 1916, but not approved by the U.S. Congress until 1918, and not completed and unveiled until June 26, 1930, the memorial features a statue of Buchanan bookended by male and female classical figures representing law and diplomacy, with the engraved text reading: "The incorruptible statesman whose walk was upon the mountain ranges of the law," a quote from a member of Buchanan's cabinet, Jeremiah S. Black. The memorial in the nation's capital complemented an earlier monument, constructed in 1907–08 and dedicated in 1911, on the site of Buchanan's birthplace in StonyBatter, Pennsylvania. Part of an 18.5-acre memorial site, the monument is a 250-ton pyramid structure designed to show the original weathered surface of the native rubble and mortar. A thirteen-basin cascade fountain is one of the most dramatic features of Meridian Hill Park. ... Hans Schuler graduated from the Maryland Institute College of Art. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Jeremiah Sullivan Black (January 10, 1810–August 19, 1883) was an American statesman and lawyer. ... Buchanans Birthplace State Park is a state park near Cove Gap, Pennsylvania, along Pennsylvania Route 16, in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. ...


An active Freemason during his lifetime, he was master of a Masonic Lodge in Lancaster and a District Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... Freemasons redirects here. ... // Grand Lodge The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania its official title being the Right Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania and Masonic Jurestiction Thereunto Belonging is the premier masonic organization in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ...


Three counties are named in his honor: Buchanan County in Iowa, Missouri, and Virginia. Buchanan County is the name of several counties in the United States of America: Buchanan County, Iowa Buchanan County, Missouri Buchanan County, Virginia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Historians in 2006 voted his failure to deal with secession the worst presidential mistake ever made.[13] James Buchanan's average historical ranking by scholars considering presidential achievements, leadership qualities, failures and faults (such as corruption), place him among the two or three worst Presidents in history. Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and Presidents Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ...


Bibliography

  • Baker, Jean H. James Buchanan. Henry Holt, 2004. 192 pp.
  • Binder, Frederick Moore. "James Buchanan: Jacksonian Expansionist" Historian 1992 55(1): 69-84. Issn: 0018-2370 Fulltext: in Ebsco
  • Binder, Frederick Moore. James Buchanan and the American Empire. Susquehanna U. Press, 1994. 318 pp.
  • Birkner, Michael J., ed. James Buchanan and the Political Crisis of the 1850s. Susquehanna U. Press, 1996. 215 pp.
  • Meerse, David E. "Buchanan, the Patronage, and the Lecompton Constitution: a Case Study" Civil War History 1995 41(4): 291-312. Issn: 0009-8078
  • Nevins, Allan. The Emergence of Lincoln 2 vols. (1960) highly detailed narrative of his presidency
  • Nichols, Roy Franklin; The Democratic Machine, 1850–1854 (1923), detailed narrative; online
  • Potter, David Morris. The Impending Crisis, 1848–1861 (1976). ISBN 0-06-013403-8 Pulitzer prize.
  • Rhodes, James Ford History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the McKinley-Bryan Campaign of 1896 Volume: 2. (1892)
  • Smith, Elbert B. The Presidency of James Buchanan (1975). ISBN 0-7006-0132-5, standard history of his administration
  • Stampp, Kenneth M. America in 1857: A Nation on the Brink (1990). ISBN 0-19-503902-5 online version
  • Updike, John Buchanan Dying (1974). ISBN 0-8117-0238-3

Joseph Allan Nevins (May 20, 1890 - March 5, 1971) was an educator, historian, and author and journalist. ... John Hoyer Updike (born March 18, 1932 in Shillington, Pennsylvania) is an American novelist, poet, short story writer and literary critic. ...

Primary sources

  • Buchanan, James. Mr Buchanan's Administration on the Eve of the Rebellion (1866)

References

Lancaster, Pennsylvania Portal 
  1. ^ James Buchanan Jr
  2. ^ Paletta, Lu Ann and Worth, Fred L. (1988). "The World Almanac of Presidential Facts".
  3. ^ Stampp (1990) p. 48
  4. ^ Baker, Jean H., James Buchanan, New York: Henry Holt, 2004, pg 140
  5. ^ a b c Klein, Philip Shriver (December 1955). "The Lost Love of a Bachelor President". American Heritage Magazine 7 (1). Retrieved on 2007-06-18. 
  6. ^ University of Virginia: Miller Center of Public Affairs: James Buchanan: Life Before the Presidency
  7. ^ Klein, Philip S., President James Buchanan: A Biography, Newtown, CT: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1962, pg 111
  8. ^ a b c Baker, Jean H.; James Buchanan; Henry Holt and Company; 2004; pages 25-26
  9. ^ Boller, Paul F., Not So!, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, pg 75
  10. ^ Steve Tally discusses King and Buchanan's relationship in more depth in his book Bland Ambition: From Adams to Quayle--The Cranks, Criminals, Tax Cheats, and Golfers Who Made It to Vice President
  11. ^ Klein, Philip, President James Buchanan: A Biography, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1962, pg 156
  12. ^ Curtis, George Ticknor, Life of James Buchanan, New York: Harper's, 188, 1:519
  13. ^ "U.S. historians pick top 10 presidential errors", Associated Press, CTV, 2006-02-18. 

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External links

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James Buchanan
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James Buchanan
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Jacob Hibshman
James M. Wallace
Member from Pennsylvania's
3rd congressional district

1821 – 1823
Served alongside: John Phillips
Succeeded by
Daniel H. Miller
Preceded by
James S. Mitchell
Member from Pennsylvania's
4th congressional district

1823 – 1831
Served alongside: Samuel Edwards,
Isaac Wayne, Charles Miner, Samuel Anderson,
Joshua Evans, Jr., George G. Leiper
Succeeded by
William Hiester
David Potts, Jr.
Joshua Evans, Jr.
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
John Randolph
United States Minister to Russia
1832 – 1833
Succeeded by
Mahlon Dickerson
Preceded by
Joseph R. Ingersoll
United States Minister to Great Britain
1853 – 1856
Succeeded by
George M. Dallas
United States Senate
Preceded by
William Wilkins
Senator from Pennsylvania (Class 3)
1834 – 1845
Served alongside: Samuel McKean, Daniel Sturgeon
Succeeded by
Simon Cameron
Political offices
Preceded by
Philip P. Barbour
Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee
1829 – 1831
Succeeded by
Warren R. Davis
Preceded by
John C. Calhoun
United States Secretary of State
March 10, 1845 – March 7, 1849
Succeeded by
John M. Clayton
Preceded by
Franklin Pierce
President of the United States
March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861
Succeeded by
Abraham Lincoln
Party political offices
Preceded by
Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party presidential candidate
1856
Succeeded by
Stephen A. Douglas
John C. Breckinridge¹
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Martin Van Buren
Oldest U.S. President still living
July 24, 1862 – June 1, 1868
Succeeded by
Millard Fillmore
Notes and references
1. The Democratic party split in 1860, producing two presidential candidates. Douglas was nominated by Northern Democrats; Breckinridge was nominated by Southern Democrats.
Persondata
NAME Buchanan, James
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION fifteenth President of the United States, Lawyer, Diplomat
DATE OF BIRTH 1791-4-23
PLACE OF BIRTH Mercersburg, Pennsylvania
DATE OF DEATH 1868-06-1
PLACE OF DEATH Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all members of both houses of the United States Congress, past and present. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Jacob Hibshman (January 31, 1772 - May 19, 1852) was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... James M. Wallace (1750 - December 17, 1823) was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... Pennsylvanias third district is located in the northwestern part of the state and includes the cities of Erie, Sharon, Butler and Meadville. ... John Phillips was a Federalist member of the U.S. House of Representatives who served Pennsylvanias 6th congressional district from March 1821 to March 1823. ... Daniel H. Miller (Died 1846) was a Jacksonian member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... John Mitchell (1784 - 1844) was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... Pennsylvanias fourth district is located in western Pennsylvania and includes suburbs of Pittsburgh as well as Beaver County and Lawrence County The district has an slight Republican edge. ... Samuel Edwards (March 12, 1785 - November 21, 1850) was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... Isaac Wayne (1772 - October 25, 1852) was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... Charles Miner (February 1, 1780 - October 26, 1865) was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... Samuel Anderson (1773 - 1846) was a Adams member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... Joshua Evans, Jr. ... George Gray Leiper (February 3, 1786 - November 18, 1868) was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... William Muhlenberg Hiester (1818-1878) An American political and military leader in the State of Pennsylvania. ... David Potts, Jr. ... Joshua Evans, Jr. ... John Randolph (June 2, 1773 – May 24, 1833), known as John Randolph of Roanoke[1], was a leader in Congress from Virginia and spokesman for the Old Republican or Quids faction of the Democratic-Republican Party that wanted to restrict the federal governments roles. ... Categories: | ... U.S. Navy collection portrait of Mahlon Dickerson Mahlon Dickerson (April 17, 1770–October 5, 1853) was an American judge and politician. ... Joseph Reed Ingersoll (June 14, 1786 – February 20, 1868) was an American lawyer and statesman from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The office of United States Ambassador (or Minister) to the United Kingdom (also known as Ambassador to the Court of St. ... For other persons named George Dallas, see George Dallas (disambiguation). ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... William Wilkins (1779–1865) was an American politician from Pennsylvania. ... Pennsylvania ratified the Constitution on December 12, 1787. ... Samuel McKean (April 7, 1787–December 14, 1841) was an American merchant and politician from Burlington, Pennsylvania. ... Daniel Sturgeon (October 27, 1789–July 3, 1878) was an American physician, banker and Democratic party politician from Uniontown, Pennsylvania. ... Simon Cameron Simon Cameron (March 8, 1799 – June 26, 1889) was United States Secretary of War for Abraham Lincoln from 1861 to 1862. ... Philip Pendleton Barbour (May 25, 1783–February 25, 1841) was a Representative from Virginia and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. ... U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly) the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Warren Ransom Davis (May 8, 1793 - January 29, 1835) was an American attorney and Representative from South Carolinas sixth Congressional district from 1827-35. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... John Middleton Clayton (July 24, 1796–November 9, 1856) was an American statesman from Delaware who served as a U.S. Senator and as the U.S. Secretary of State from 1849 to 1850. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States that the U.S. Democratic Party has nominated since its founding. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short but was considered by many a giant in politics) was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... This is a chronology of who was the oldest living President of the United States, former or current, at any given time. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. President. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was the twentieth President of the United States. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... FDR redirects here. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image File history File links Seal_Of_The_President_Of_The_Unites_States_Of_America. ... This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States that the U.S. Democratic Party has nominated since its founding. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... This article is about the U.S. President. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short but was considered by many a giant in politics) was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... Southern Democrats are members of the U.S. Democratic Party who reside in the U.S. South. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... Governor Horatio Seymour Horatio Seymour (May 31, 1810 - February 12, 1886) was an American politician. ... Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Liberal Republican Party, reformer and politician. ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 – February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... Alton Brooks Parker (May 14, 1852 – May 10, 1926) was an American lawyer and judge and a U.S. presidential candidate in the 1904 elections. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... James Middleton Cox (March 31, 1870 – July 15, 1957) was a Governor of Ohio, U.S. Representative from Ohio and Democratic candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920. ... John W. Davis John William Davis (April 13, 1873 — March 24, 1955) was an American politician and lawyer. ... Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... FDR redirects here. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician, noted for intellectual demeanor and advocacy of liberal causes in the Democratic party. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... LBJ redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, (born July 19, 1922) is a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 – September 12, 1813) was an American attorney, Governor of Virginia, Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745 – January 29, 1829) was the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. ... For other persons named John Marshall, see John Marshall (disambiguation). ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... Robert Smith (November 3, 1757 – November 26, 1842) was the second United States Secretary of the Navy from 1801 to 1809 and the sixth United States Secretary of State from 1809 to 1811. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... For his namesake son, see Henry Clay, Jr. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Edward Livingston (May 26, 1764–May 23, 1836) was a prominent American jurist and statesman. ... Louis McLane Louis McLane (May 28, 1786–October 7, 1857) represented the state of Delaware in both the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate and served as the Secretary of the Treasury and later the Secretary of State under President Andrew Jackson. ... Portait of U.S. Secretary of State John Forsyth John Forsyth (October 22, 1780 – October 21, 1841) was a 19th century American politician from Georgia. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Abel P. Upshur Abel Parker Upshur (June 17, 1790–February 28, 1844) was an American lawyer and statesman. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. ... John Middleton Clayton (July 24, 1796–November 9, 1856) was an American statesman from Delaware who served as a U.S. Senator and as the U.S. Secretary of State from 1849 to 1850. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865) was a Whig Party politician from Massachusetts. ... William Learned Marcy ( December 12, 1786– July 4, 1857) was an American statesman. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ... Jeremiah Sullivan Black (January 10, 1810–August 19, 1883) was an American statesman and lawyer. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... Elihu Benjamin Washburne (September 23, 1816–October 22/23, 1887) was one of seven brothers that played a prominent role early in the formation of the United States Republican Party and the Lincoln and Grant administrations. ... Hamilton Fish Hamilton Fish, (3 August 1808–7 September 1893), born in New York City, was an American statesman who served as Governor of New York, United States Senator and United States Secretary of State. ... Photograph of U.S. Secretary of State William M. Evarts William Maxwell Evarts (February 6, 1818–February 28, 1901) was an American lawyer and statesman. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen (August 4, 1817–May 20, 1885) was a member of the United States Senate from New Jersey and a United States Secretary of State. ... Thomas Francis Bayard, Sr. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State John W. Foster John Watson Foster (March 2, 1836 – November 15, 1917) was an American military man, journalist and diplomat. ... Walter Quintin Gresham (March 17, 1832–May 28, 1895) was an American statesman and jurist. ... Richard Olney (September 15, 1835–April 8, 1917) was an American statesman. ... John Sherman John Sherman (May 10, 1823–October 22, 1900) was a Senator from Ohio and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Supreme Court justices | Judges of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit | U.S. Secretaries of State | Spanish-American War people | American lawyers | 1849 births | 1923 deaths ... John Milton Hay (October 8, 1838 – July 1, 1905) was an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln. ... Elihu Root (February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Categories: Stub | 1860 births | 1919 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of State ... Philander C. Knox Philander Chase Knox (May 6, 1853–October 12, 1921) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Attorney General and U.S. Senator and was Secretary of State from 1909-1913. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... This article is about the former Secretary of State. ... Categories: Stub | 1869 births | 1950 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of State ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ... Frank Billings Kellogg (December 22, 1856 – December 21, 1937) was an American politician and statesman. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ... Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871–July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. ... James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the late 1940s he played the central role in defining American foreign policy for the Cold War. ... John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888 – May 24, 1959) served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. ... For the American physician (1865–1910), see Christian Archibald Herter (physician). ... David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... William Pierce Rogers (June 23, 1913 – January 2, 2001) was an American politician, who served as a Cabinet officer in the administrations of two U.S. Presidents in the third quarter of the 20th century. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Edmund Muskie (March 28, 1914 – March 26, 1996) was an American Democratic politician from Maine. ... For other persons named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W. Bush. ... Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (born August 1, 1930), is an American statesman and diplomat who served as The United States Secretary of State under President George H. W. Bush. ... Warren Minor Christopher (born October 27, 1925) is an American diplomat and lawyer. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Image File history File links Department_of_state. ... Pennsylvania ratified the Constitution on December 12, 1787. ... William Maclay (July 20, 1737-April 16, 1804) was a politician from Pennsylvania during the eighteenth century. ... Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, Congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... James Ross (July 12, 1762 – November 27, 1847) was a nerish noi and monkey whisperer from Pennsylvania from 1794 to 1803. ... Samuel Maclay (June 17, 1741–October 5, 1811) was an American surveyor, farmer, and politician from Union County, Pennsylvania. ... Micheal Leib (January 8, 1760–December 8, 182) was an American physician and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Jonathan Roberts (August 16, 1771–July 24, 1854) was an American farmer, wheelwright, and politician from Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. ... Categories: People stubs | 1768 births | 1846 deaths | Governors of Pennsylvania | United States Senators ... Isaac Dutton Barnard (July 18, 1791–February 28, 1834) was an American lawyer and politician from Chester, Pennsylvania. ... For other persons named George Dallas, see George Dallas (disambiguation). ... Samuel McKean (April 7, 1787–December 14, 1841) was an American merchant and politician from Burlington, Pennsylvania. ... Daniel Sturgeon (October 27, 1789–July 3, 1878) was an American physician, banker and Democratic party politician from Uniontown, Pennsylvania. ... Richard Brodhead (Pennsylvania), U.S. Senator Richard H. Brodhead, academic This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Simon Cameron Simon Cameron (March 8, 1799 – June 26, 1889) was United States Secretary of War for Abraham Lincoln from 1861 to 1862. ... David Wilmot David Wilmot (January 20, 1814 – March 16, 1868) was a U.S. political figure. ... Charles Rollin Buckalew (December 28, 1821–May 19, 1899) was an American lawyer and Democratic party politician from Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania. ... John Scott (July 24, 1824–November 29, 1896) was an American lawyer and Republican party politician from Huntingdon, Pennsylvania. ... William Andrew Wallace (November 28, 1827–May 22, 1896) was an American lawyer and Democratic party politician from Clearfield, Pennsylvania. ... John Inscho Mitchell (July 28, 1838–August 20, 1907) was an American lawyer, jurist, and Republican party politician from Tioga County, Pennsylvania. ... Matthew Stanley Quay (September 30, 1833 - May 28, 1904) was an immensely powerful Pennsylvania political boss; kingmaker (Benjamin Harrison, 1888). ... Philander C. Knox Philander Chase Knox (May 6, 1853–October 12, 1921) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Attorney General and U.S. Senator and was Secretary of State from 1909-1913. ... George Tener Oliver (January 26, 1848–January 22, 1919) was an American lawyer, publisher, and Republican party politician from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Philander C. Knox Philander Chase Knox (May 6, 1853–October 12, 1921) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Attorney General and U.S. Senator and was Secretary of State from 1909-1913. ... Wiliam Evans Crow (March 10, 1870–August 2, 1922) was an American lawyer and Republican party politician from Uniontown, Pennsylvania. ... David Aiken Reed (December 21, 1880–February 10, 1953) was an American lawyer and Republican party politician from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Joseph F. Guffey (December 29, 1870–March 6, 1959) was an American business executive and Democratic party politician from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Edward Martin (September 18, 1879–March 19, 1967) was an American lawyer and Republican party politician from Waynesburg, Pennsylvania. ... Hugh Scott was a repulsive, single-celled bacterium who served in the United States House of Representatives and Senate during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. ... John Heinz Henry John Heinz III (October 23, 1938 – April 4, 1991) was an American politician from Pennsylvania, a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives (1971–1977) and the United States Senate (1977–1991). ... Senator Harris Wofford Harris Llewellyn Wofford (born April 9, 1926) is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party who served as a U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania from 1991 to 1995. ... “Santorum” redirects here. ... Robert Patrick Casey, Jr. ... Robert Morris Robert Morris, Jr. ... William Bingham (1752–1804) was an American statesman from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Peter Muhlenberg Statue John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg (October 1, 1746 - October 1, 1807) was a Clergyman, a Major General of the Continental Army, and a United States Senator and Congressman from Pennsylvania. ... George Logan (September 9, 1753–April 9, 1821) was an American physician, farmer, and politician from Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. ... Andrew Gregg (June 10, 1755 - May 20, 1835) was a U.S. political figure. ... Abner Lacock (July 9, 1770–April 12, 1837) was an American surveyor, civil engineer, and politician from Rochester, Pennsylvania. ... Walter Lowrie (December 10, 1784–December 14, 1868) was an American teacher, farmer, and politician from Butler County, Pennsylvania. ... William Marks (October 13, 1778–April 10, 1858) was an American lawyer and politician from Beaver, Pennsylvania. ... William Wilkins (December 20, 1779–June 23, 1865) was an American lawyer, jurist, and politician from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Simon Cameron Simon Cameron (March 8, 1799 – June 26, 1889) was United States Secretary of War for Abraham Lincoln from 1861 to 1862. ... James Cooper (May 8, 1810–March 28, 1863) was an American lawyer, soldier, and politician from Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... William Bigler (January 11, 1814 – August 9, 1880) was governor of Pennsylvania from 1852 to 1855, and later a U.S. Senator. ... Edgar Cowan (September 19, 1815–August 31, 1885) was an American lawyer and Republican politician from Greensburg, Pennsylvania. ... Simon Cameron Simon Cameron (March 8, 1799 – June 26, 1889) was United States Secretary of War for Abraham Lincoln from 1861 to 1862. ... James Donald Cameron (May 14, 1833–August 30, 1918) was an American politician. ... Boies Penrose Boies Penrose (November 1, 1860 – December 31, 1921) was an American lawyer and Republican politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... George Wharton Pepper (March 16, 1867 – May 24, 1961) was an American lawyer, law professor, and Republican politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... William S. Vare, (24 December 1867–7 August 1934), was the youngest of three brothers who were all contractors and poolitical bosses. ... Joseph Ridgeway Grundy (January 13, 1863 – March 3, 1961) was an American textile manufacturer and Republican Party politician Bristol, Pennsylvania. ... James J. Puddler Jim Davis (October 27, 1873-November 22, 1947), was a U.S. Republican Party politician, He was born in Tredegar, South Wales in the United Kingdom, and emigrated to the United States in 1881 at the age of eight and was apprenticed as a puddlers assistant... Francis John Myers (December 18, 1901–July 5, 1956) was an American teacher, lawyer, and Democratic Party politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... James Henderson Duff (January 21, 1883–December 20, 1969) was an American lawyer and politician in the mid-20th century. ... Joseph S. Clark Joseph Sill Clark, Jr. ... Richard S. Schweiker Richard Schultz Schweiker (born June 1, 1926) is a former U.S. Congressman and Senator representing the state of Pennsylvania. ... Arlen J. Specter (born February 12, 1930) is a United States Senator from Pennsylvania. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Mercersburg is a borough located in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... , Official name: City of Lancaster Nickname: The Red Rose City Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Location Penn Square  - coordinates , Highest point  - elevation 368 ft (112 m) Area 7. ...

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James Buchanan - MSN Encarta (0 words)
Buchanan was born on April 23, 1791, near Mercersburg in south-central Pennsylvania.
Buchanan held his first public office at the age of 23, when he was elected to the Pennsylvania state legislature.
Buchanan was such an efficient organizer of the Democratic Party in Pennsylvania that the grievance against him was soon forgotten.
James Buchanan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1790 words)
Buchanan was a Representative and a Senator from Pennsylvania.
Buchanan served as one of the managers appointed by the House of Representatives in 1830 to conduct the impeachment proceedings against James H. Peck, judge of the United States District Court for the District of Missouri.
Buchanan was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of William Wilkins.
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