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Encyclopedia > James Boswell
James Boswell


Born October 29, 1740(1740-10-29)
Edinburgh, Scotland
Died May 19, 1795 (aged 54)
London, England
Occupation Lawyer, Diarist, Author

James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck and 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He was the eldest son of a judge, Alexander Boswell, 8th Laird of Auchinleck and his wife Euphemia Erskine, Lady Auchinleck. Boswell's mother was a strict Calvinist, and he felt that his father was cold to him. Boswell, who is best known as Samuel Johnson’s biographer, inherited his father’s estate Auchinleck in Ayrshire. His name has passed into the English language as a term (Boswell, Boswellian, Boswellism) for a constant companion and observer. Image File history File links JamesBoswell. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... See Diary (novel) for the novel by Chuck Palahniuk. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Alexander Boswell (1706-1782), lord of Auchinleck, was a judge of the supreme courts of Scotland. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Boswell is also known for the detailed and frank journals that he wrote for long periods of his life, which remained undiscovered until the 1920s. These included voluminous notes on the grand tour of Europe that he took as a young nobleman and, subsequently, of his tour of Scotland with Johnson. His journals also record meetings and conversations with eminent individuals belonging to The Club, including Lord Monboddo, David Garrick, Edmund Burke, Joshua Reynolds and Oliver Goldsmith. His written works focus chiefly on others, but he was admitted as a good companion and accomplished conversationalist in his own right. For other uses, see Grand Tour (disambiguation). ... The Club was a London dining club founded in 1764 by essayist Samuel Johnson, and Joshua Reynolds, the painter. ... James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds in a self-portrait Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney, The Archers, 1769. ... Oliver Goldsmith Oliver Goldsmith (November 10, 1730 or 1728 – April 4, 1774) was an Irish writer and physician known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770) (written in memory of his brother), and his plays The Good-naturd Man (1768) and...

Contents

Early life

Boswell was born near St Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh on 29 October 1740. As a child, he was delicate and suffered from some type of nervous ailment. He was educated at James Mundell's academy, followed by a string of private tutors before being enrolled at 13 into the arts course at the University of Edinburgh, studying there from 1753 to 1758. Midway in his studies he suffered a serious depression and nervous illness, but when he recovered he had thrown off all signs of delicacy and attained robust health. Boswell had swarthy skin, black hair, and dark eyes; he was of average height, and he tended to plumpness. His appearance was alert and masculine, and he had an ingratiating sense of good humour. St Giles Cathedral A prominent feature of the Edinburgh skyline, St Giles Cathedral decorates the midpoint of the Royal Mile with its rounded hollow-crown tower. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Upon turning nineteen he was sent to continue his studies at the University of Glasgow, where he was taught by Adam Smith. While at Glasgow, Boswell decided to convert to Catholicism and become a monk. Upon learning of this, Boswell's father ordered him home. Instead of obeying, Boswell ran away to London. Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Boswell spent three months in London, where he lived the life of a libertine before he was taken back to Scotland by his father. Upon returning, he was re-enrolled at Edinburgh University and was forced by his father to sign away most of his inheritance in return for an allowance of £100 a year. On July 30, 1762 Boswell took his oral law exam, which he passed with some skill. Upon this success, Lord Auchinleck decided to raise his son's allowance to £200 a year and allowed him to return to London. It was during this spell in London that Boswell wrote his London Journal and met Johnson for the first time, on May 16, 1763; the pair became friends almost immediately. Boswell was eventually nicknamed Bozzy by Johnson. Libertine has come to mean one free from restraint, particularly from social and religious norms and morals. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Boswells London Journal is his second most popular work, after his Life of Johnson. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The first conversation between Johnson and Boswell is frequently quoted as follows:


Boswell: "Mr. Johnson, I do indeed come from Scotland, but I cannot help it."


Johnson: "That, Sir, I find, is what a very great many of your countrymen cannot help."


It is widely believed that Johnson despised the Scots; however, on being specifically asked the question, he also admitted that this prejudice was without basis.


James Boswell, aka "Jamie slobwell", was born and bred in Keighley, 1984. Now studying at Newcastle University, where he is a right prick. His pathetic hair style is the butt of most people jokes, however, this detracts from his un-symmetrical face. After a footballing accident in 1999, where he received a twisted nut-sack, little Jimbo is now the proud owner of a "third knacker". Matt sucks balls.


European travels

It was around three months after this first encounter with Johnson that Boswell departed for Europe with the initial goal of continuing his law studies at Utrecht University. He spent a year there and although desperately unhappy the first few months, he quite enjoyed his time in Utrecht. He befriended and fell in love with Belle van Zuilen, a Dutch intellect and writer. After this, Boswell spent most of the next two years travelling around the continent. During this time he met Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau and made a pilgrimage to Rome. Boswell also travelled to Corsica to meet one of his heroes, the independence leader Pasquale Paoli. His well observed diaries of this time have been compiled into two books Boswell in Holland and Boswell and the Grand Tour Utrecht University (Universiteit Utrecht in Dutch) is a university in Utrecht, The Netherlands. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Rousseau redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Pasquale Paoli (April 6, 1725 – February 5, 1807), was a Corsican patriot and military leader, most famous for being the chief rival of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. ...


Mature life

Boswell returned to London in February 1766 accompanied by Rousseau's mistress, with whom he may have had a brief affair on the journey home. After spending a few weeks in the capital, he returned to Scotland to take his final law exam. He passed the exam and became an advocate. He practiced for over a decade, during which time he spent no more than a month every year with Johnson. Nevertheless, he returned to London each year in order to mingle with Johnson and the rest of the London literary crowd, and to escape his mundane existence in Scotland. He found enjoyment in playing the intellectual rhyming game crambo with his peers. 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... An advocate is one who speaks on behalf of another, especially in a legal context. ...


Boswell married his cousin, Margaret Montgomerie, in November 1769. She remained faithful to Boswell, despite his frequent liaisons with prostitutes, until her death of tuberculosis in 1789. After his infidelities he would deliver tearful apologies to her and beg her forgiveness, before again promising her, and himself, that he would reform. James and Margaret had four sons and three daughters. Two sons died in infancy; the other two were Alexander (1775-1822) and James (1778-1822). Their daughters were Veronica (1773-1795), Euphemia (1774-ca. 1834) and Elizabeth (1780-1814). Boswell also had at least two illegitimate children, Charles (1762-1764) and Sally (1767-1768?). 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sir Alexander Boswell, 1st Baronet, 10th Laird of Auchinleck, (1775–1822), grandson of Alexander Boswell, Lord of Auchinleck, was an antiquary and song writer, son of James Boswell of Auchinleck, Johnsons biographer, was interested in old Scottish authors, some of whose works he reprinted at his private press. ...


Despite his relative literary success with accounts of his European travels, Boswell was an unsuccessful advocate. By the late 1770s he descended further and further into alcoholism and gambling addiction. Throughout his life, from childhood until death, he was beset by severe swings of mood. His depressions frequently encouraged, and were exacerbated by, his various vices. His happier periods usually saw him relatively vice-free. His character mixed a superficial Enlightenment sensibility for reason and taste with a genuine and somewhat Romantic love of the sublime and a propensity for occasionally puerile whimsy. The latter, along with his tendency for drink and other vices, caused many contemporaries and later observers to regard him as being too lightweight to be an equal in the literary crowd that he wanted to be a part of. However, his humour and innocent good nature won him many lifelong friends. The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... Romantics redirects here. ...


Boswell was a frequent guest of Lord Monboddo at Monboddo House, a setting where he gathered significant observations for his writings by association with Samuel Johnson, Robert Burns, Lord Kames, Lord Monboddo and other luminaries. Monboddo House as restored at the year 2006 Monboddo House () is a historically famous mansion in The Mearns, Scotland. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696 - December 27, 1782) was a Scottish philosopher of the 18th century. ...


After Johnson's death in 1784, Boswell moved to London to try his luck at the English Bar, which proved even more unsuccessful than his career in Scotland. He also offered to stand for Parliament but failed to get the necessary support, and he spent the final years of his life writing his Life of Johnson. During this time his health began to fail due to venereal disease and his years of drinking. Boswell died in London in 1795. 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A bar association is a body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ... In English literature, The Life of Samuel Johnson, L.L.D. was a biography of Dr. Samuel Johnson by James Boswell, published in 1791. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ...


Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson

Dr Johnson - Dictionary writer Boswell - Biographer Sir Joshua Reynolds - Host David Garrick - actor Edmund Burke - statesman Pasqual Paoli - Corsican independent Charles Burney - music historian Thomas Warton - poet laureate Oliver Goldsmith - writer prob.The Infant Academy 1782 unknown painting An unknown portrait servant - poss. Dr Johnson's hier Use button to enlarge or use hyperlinks

A literary party at Sir Joshua Reynolds - 1781. The painting shows the friends of Reynolds including Boswell at left - use cursor to identify others.
A literary party at Sir Joshua Reynolds - 1781. The painting shows the friends of Reynolds including Boswell at left - use cursor to identify others.

When the Life of Johnson was published in 1791 it at once commanded the admiration that Boswell had sought for so long, and it has suffered no diminution since. Its style was revolutionary - unlike other biographies of that era it directly incorporated conversations that Boswell had noted down at the time for his journals. He also included far more personal and human details than contemporary readers were accustomed to. Instead of writing a respectful and dry record of Johnson's public life, in the style of the time, he painted a vivid portrait of the complete man. It is still often said to be the greatest biography yet written, and the longevity of Dr. Johnson's fame perhaps owes much to the work. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In English literature, The Life of Samuel Johnson, L.L.D. was a biography of Dr. Samuel Johnson by James Boswell, published in 1791. ...


The question has often been asked of how a man such as Boswell could have produced so remarkable a work as the Life of Johnson. Among those who attempted an answer were Macaulay and Carlyle: the former arguing, paradoxically, that Boswell's uninhibited folly and triviality were his greatest qualifications; the latter, with deeper insight, replying that beneath such traits were a mind to discern excellence and a heart to appreciate it, aided by the power of accurate observation and considerable dramatic ability. (Macaulay's venomous condemnation of Boswell's personality may have had a political foundation: Boswell was a Tory, and as such a target for Whig historian Macaulay's attacks. In addition, Macaulay's grandfather was the victim of one of Johnson's sharpest rebukes: "Sir, are you so grossly ignorant of human nature, as not to know that a man may be very sincere in good principles, without having good practice?").[1] Thomas Macaulay Thomas Babington Macaulay at the age of forty-nine — after an engraving by W. Holl, from a drawing by George Richmond Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a nineteenth-century English poet, historian and Whig politician. ... Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish essayist, satirist, and historian, whose work was hugely influential during the Victorian era. ...


Slavery

Boswell was present at the meeting of the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade in May 1787 set up to persuade William Wilberforce to lead the abolition movement in Parliament. However, the abolitionist Thomas Clarkson records that by 1788 Boswell "after having supported the cause... became inimical to it." The Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade was formed on May 22, 1787, when twelve men gathered together at a printing shop in London, England, and committed themselves to founding the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade. ... William Wilberforce (24 August 1759–29 July 1833) was a British politician and philanthropist. ... Thomas Clarkson by Carl Frederik von Breda Thomas Clarkson (28 March 1760 – 26 September 1846), abolitionist, was born at Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England, and became a leading campaigner against the slave trade in the British Empire. ...


Boswell's most prominent display of support for the slavery movement was his 1791 poem 'No Abolition of Slavery; or the Universal Empire of Love,' which lampooned Clarkson, Wilberforce and Pitt. The poem also supports the common suggestion of the pro-slavery movement, that the slaves actually enjoyed their lot: "The cheerful gang! - the negroes see / Perform the task of industry." William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ...


Quotations

"I do not recollect having had any other valuable principle impressed upon me by my father except a strict regard for truth, which he impressed upon my mind by a hearty beating at an early age when I lied, and then talking of the dishonour of lying."


"My heart warmed to my countrymen, and my Scotch blood boiled with indignation. I jumped from the benches, roared out 'Damn you, you rascals!', hissed and was in the greatest rage ... I hated the English; I wished from my soul that the Union was broke and that we might give them another battle of Bannockburn" recounting a situation where Londoners had been openly mocking two Highland officers and he had jumped to their defence.[2] The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Robert Bruce Edward II Strength about 6,500 20,000 Casualties unknown but light about 9,000 The Battle of Bannockburn (Blàr Allt a Bhonnaich in Gaelic) (June 24, 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ...


"For my own part I think no innocent species of wit or pleasantry should be suppressed: and that a good pun may be admitted among the smaller excellencies of lively conversation." Look up Wit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ... For the film, see The Conversation. ...


In a poem about himself: "Boswell is pleasant and gay, / For frolic by nature designed; / He heedlessly rattles away / When company is to his mind."


"We cannot tell the precise moment when friendship is formed. As in filling a vessel drop by drop, there is at last a drop which makes it run over. So in a series of kindnesses there is, at last, one which makes the heart run over." Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ...


On his last meeting with Johnson: "We bade adieu to each other affectionately in the carriage. When he had got down upon the foot pavement he called out 'Fare you well'; and without looking back, sprung away with a kind of pathetic briskness, if I may use that expression, which seemed to indicate a struggle to conceal uneasiness, and impressed me with a foreboding of our long, long separation."


Samuel Johnson once criticised Boswell for the Scottish habit of eating oats for breakfast: "In England we wouldn't think of eating oats. We only feed them to Horses." to which Boswell replied: "Well, maybe that's why in England you have better horses, and in Scotland we have better men"


Discovery of papers

In the 1920s a great part of Boswell's private papers, including intimate journals for much of his life, were discovered at Malahide Castle, north of Dublin. These provide a hugely revealing insight into the life and thoughts of the man. They were sold to the American collector Ralph H. Isham and have since passed to Yale University, which has published general and scholarly editions of his journals and correspondence. A second cache was discovered soon after and also purchased by Isham. A substantially longer edition of A Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides was published in 1936 based on his original manuscript. His London Journal 1762-63, the first of the Yale journal publications, appeared in 1950. The last, The Great Biographer, 1789-1795, was published in 1989. Malahide Castle lies close to the village of Malahide 9 miles north of Dublin in Ireland. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Yale redirects here. ...


Works

Year 1767 (MDCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides with Samuel Johnson, LL.D. is a travel journal by Scotsman James Boswell published in 1785. ... Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... In English literature, Life of Johnson was a biography of Dr. Samuel Johnson written by James Boswell in 1791. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Everymans Library is a series of reprinted classic literature currently published by Alfred A. Knopf (a division of Random House) in the United States, and Weidenfeld and Nicolson in the United Kingdom. ...

Published journals

  • Boswell's London Journal, 1762-1763
  • Boswell in Holland, 1763-1764, including his correspondence with Belle de Zuylen (ZeÌlide)
  • Boswell on the Grand Tour: Germany and Switzerland, 1764
  • Boswell on the Grand Tour: Italy, Corsica, and France, 1765-1766
  • Boswell in Search of a Wife, 1766-1769
  • Boswell for the Defence, 1769-1774
  • Boswell: the Ominous Years, 1774-1776
  • Boswell in Extremes, 1776-1778
  • Boswell: Laird of Auchinleck 1778-1782
  • Boswell, the Applause of the Jury, 1782-1785
  • Boswell, the English Experiment, 1785-1789
  • Boswell: The Great Biographer, 1789-1795

Boswells London Journal is his second most popular work, after his Life of Johnson. ...

References

  1. ^ A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature by John W. Cousin - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/13)
  2. ^ Ruaridh Nicoll: As a Scot, I hate this idea of a neutered nation| Comment is free| The Observer
  • Purdie, D.W. (2002). The Maladies of James Boswell, Advocate. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 32, 197-202.
  • Clarkson, Thomas (1808). The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-Trade by the British Parliament.
  • Boswell, James (1791). No Abolition of Slavery; or the Universal Empire of Love
  • A Short Biographical Dictionary of English [1]

External links

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James Boswell
Persondata
NAME Boswell, James
ALTERNATIVE NAMES 9th Laird of Auchinleck
SHORT DESCRIPTION Scottish Lawyer, Diarist, Author
DATE OF BIRTH October 29, 1740
PLACE OF BIRTH Edinburgh, Scotland
DATE OF DEATH May 19, 1795
PLACE OF DEATH London, England
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... 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János Batsányi by Friedrich Heinrich Füger, 1808 (Hungarian National Museum, Budapes) Batsányi János (May 11, 1763 - May 12, 1845) was a Hungarian poet, born in Tapolca. ... Mihály Fazekas (1766-1828) is a famous Hungarian writer from Debrecen. ... Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Franciscus van den Enden (Antwerp ca. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... 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Rigas Feraios Rigas Feraios or Rigas Velestinlis (Greek: Ρήγας Βελεστινλής-Φεραίος, born Αντώνιος Κυριαζής, Antonios Kyriazis; also known as Κωνσταντίνος Ρήγας, Konstantinos or Constantine Rhigas; Serbian: Рига од Фере, Riga od Fere; 1757—June 13, 1798) was a Greek revolutionary and poet, remembered as a Greek national hero, the forerunner and first victim of the uprising against the Ottoman Empire... Reign From 1704 until 1709 and from 1733 until 1736 Elected In 1704 and 1733 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On October 4, 1705 in the St. ... Stanislaw Konarski StanisÅ‚aw Konarski, real name: Hieronim Konarski (b. ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... Noble Family KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Coat of Arms Kotwica Parents Antoni KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Marianna MierzeÅ„ska Consorts None Children None Date of Birth April 1, 1750 Place of Birth NiecisÅ‚owice Date of Death February 28, 1812 Place of Death Warsaw Hugo KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj (1750-1812) was a Polish Roman Catholic... Noble Family Potocki Coat of Arms Piława Parents Eustachy Potocki Marianna Kątska Consorts Elżbieta Lubomirska Children with Elżbieta Lubomirska Krystyna Potocka Date of Birth February 28, 1750 Place of Birth Radzyn Podlaski Date of Death August 30, 1809 Place of Death Vienna Count Roman Ignacy Franciszek Potocki (generally known as... StanisÅ‚aw Staszic. ... Jan Åšniadecki Jan Åšniadecki (August 28, 1756 in Å»nin - November 9, 1830 in Jaszuny near Wilno), greatest Polish mathematician, philosopher and astronomer at the turn of the 18th century. ... Categories: 1758 births | 1841 deaths | Polish writers | Polish nobility | People stubs ... JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki (1768 - 1838) was a Polish writer, physician, chemist and biologist. ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... For other uses, see Lomonosov (disambiguation). ... Ivan Shuvalov in 1760, as painted by Fyodor Rokotov. ... Portrait of Ivan Betskoy, by Alexander Roslin (1777). ... Portrait of Princess Dashkova by Dmitry Levitzky Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Russian: ) (March 17, 1744–January 4, 1810) was the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. ... Portrait of Nikolay Novikov, by Dmitry Levitzky. ... Portrait of Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov Prince Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov (July 22, 1733 - December 12, 1790) was a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov. ... Portrait and signature of Alexander Radishchev Aleksandr Nikolaevich Radishchev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Ради́щев) (September 2, 1749 – September 24, 1802) was a Russian author and social critic who was arrested and exiled under... Dositej Obradović Dositej (Dositheus) Dimitrije Obradović (Доситеј Обрадовић) (February 17, 1742 - 1811) was a Serbian author, writer and translator. ... Richard Arkwright Sir Richard Arkwright, born (23 December 1732 – 3 August 1792) to Ellen and Thomas Arkwright, was an Englishman credited for inventing the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Hobbes redirects here. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (February 26, 1671 – February 4, 1713), was an English politician, philosopher and writer. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... Rt Rev Beilby Porteus, DD, Bishop of London (May 8, 1731 _ May 13, 1809) was a leading evangelical churchman and abolitionist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was a British writer, philosopher and feminist. ... For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP). ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... For other uses, see John Toland (disambiguation). ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... Joseph Black Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Adam Ferguson, also known as Ferguson of Raith (June 20, 1723 (O.S.) - February 22, 1816) was a philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Francis Hutcheson (August 8, 1694–August 8, 1746) was an Irish philosopher and one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... James Hutton, painted by Abner Lowe. ... Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696 - December 27, 1782) was a Scottish philosopher of the 18th century. ... James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ... For the Scottish footballer, see Thomas Reid (footballer). ... This article is about the Scottish historian. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Dugald Stewart. ... George Turnbull (1698-1748) was a Scottish philosopher and writer on education. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... Pierre Bayle. ... For other uses of Fontenelle, see Fontenelle (disambiguation). ... Montesquieu redirects here. ... François Quesnay (June 4, 1694 - December 16, 1774) was a French economist of the Physiocratic school. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, by François-Hubert Drouais (1727-1775). ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Claude Adrien Helvétius (February 26, 1715 - December 26, 1771) was a French philosopher and litterateur. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Baron dHolbach Paul-Henri Thiry, baron dHolbach (1723 – 1789) was a German-French author, philosopher and encyclopedist. ... Portrait of the Marquis de Sade by Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo (c. ... “Condorcet” redirects here. ... Lavoisier redirects here. ... Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (September 30, 1715 – August 3, 1780) was a French philosopher. ... Olympe de Gouges (born Marie Gouze; December 31, 1745, – November 3, 1793) was a playwright and journalist whose feminist writings reached a large audience. ... Tocqueville redirects here. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria-Bonesana (March 15, 1738 – November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of criminology. ... Detail of Pietro Verri monument in Milan. ... Alessandro Verri (November 9, 1741 - September 23, 1816) was an Italian author. ... Giuseppe Parini (Bosisio, now in Lecco province, May 23, 1729 - Milan, 1799) was an Italian satirist and poet. ... Carlo Goldoni Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (25 February 1707 - 6 February 1793) was a celebrated Italian playwright, whom critics today rank among the European theatres greatest authors. ... Vittorio Alfieri painted by Davids pupil François-Xavier Fabre, in Florence 1793. ... Giuseppe MarcAntonio Baretti (April 24, 1719 - May 5, 1789) was an Italian critic. ... Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal, by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1766) Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Count of Oeiras, 1st Marquis of Pombal (in Portuguese, Marquês de Pombal, pron. ... John V, King of Portugal (Portuguese João pron. ... Joseph I (Portuguese José, pron. ... Ienăchiţă Văcărescu (1740-1797) Romanian poet and boyar of Phanariote origin. ... Anton Pann (in the 1790s, Sliven, in Rumelia—November 2, 1854, Bucharest) born Antonie Pantoleon-Petroveanu (also mentioned as Anton Pantoleon), was a Wallachian poet and composer. ... Gheorghe Åžincai Gheorghe Åžincai (February 28, 1754 – November 2, 1816) was an ethnic Romanian Transylvanian historian, philologist, translator, poet, and representative of the Enlightenment-influenced Transylvanian School. ... Jovellanos painted by Goya Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (5 January 1744 - 27 November 1811), Spanish statesman and author, was born at Gijón in Asturias, Spain. ... Leandro Fernández de Moratín, born March 10, 1760 – died June 21, 1828, was a Spanish dramatist and neoclassical poet. ... Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro (8 October 1676 - 26 September 1764) was a Spanish monk and scholar noted for encouraging scientific thought in Spain. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jorge Juan y Santacilia Jorge Juan y Santacilia (January 5, 1713–June 21, 1773) was a Spanish mathematician, scientist, naval officer, and mariner. ... Antonio de Ulloa (January 12, 1716 _ July 3, 1795) was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. ... José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca, painted by Goya José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca Don José Moñino y Redondo, Count of Floridablanca (es: José Moñino y Redondo, conde de Floridablanca) (October 21, 1728 - December 30, 1808), Spanish statesman. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Jens Schielderup Sneedorff Jens Schielderup Sneedorff (22 August 1724–5 June 1764) was a Danish author, professor of political science and royal teacher and a central figure in Denmark-Norway in the Age of Enlightenment. ... Johann Friedrich Struensee By Jens Juel, 1771, Collection of Bomann Museum, Celle, Germany. ... {{unreferenced|article|date=March 2007]] Copper engraving depicting Eggert Ólafssons death. ... Anders Chydenius Anders Chydenius (26 February 1729 – 1 February 1803) was the leading classical liberal of Nordic history. ... Peter ForsskÃ¥l (sometimes also Pehr ForsskÃ¥l, Peter Forskaol, Petrus ForskÃ¥l or Pehr ForsskÃ¥hl) (born in Helsinki, 11 January 1732, died in Yemen, 11 July 1763), Swedish explorer, orientalist and naturalist. ... Gustav III, King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends, etc. ... Field Marshal and Count Arvid Bernhard Horn (April 6, 1664 â€“ April 17, 1742) was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish empire during the period of Sweden-Finland). ... Johan Henrik Kellgren Johan Henrik Kellgren (1 December 1751-1795), Swedish poet and critic, was born at Floby in West Gothland. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities — particularly rationality. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... Rationality as a term is related to the idea of reason, a word which following Websters may be derived as much from older terms referring to thinking itself as from giving an account or an explanation. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about secularism. ... The Encyclopédistes were a group of 18th century writers in France who compiled the Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia) edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond dAlembert. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature is a collection of biographies of writers by John W. Cousin, published around 1910. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... See Diary (novel) for the novel by Chuck Palahniuk. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

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James Boswell - MSN Encarta (307 words)
Boswell was born in Edinburgh, and educated at the universities of Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Utrecht.
Boswell was admitted to both the Scottish and English bars and practiced law but devoted himself primarily to the pursuit of a literary career.
Boswell's accounts covered periods of daily association with Johnson in London and also described a trip that the two friends made through Scotland to the Hebrides in 1773.
Biography of James Boswell - at James Boswell - a guide (1158 words)
James Boswell was born on October 29, 1740, probably in a house in Blair's Land, Parliament Close, the Edinburgh home of his parents Alexander and Euphemia Boswell.
Boswell often frequented the playhouses in this period, and he mingled with high society (at Lord Eglinton's and Lady Northumberland's) and the litterati (at Sheridan's, Garrick's and Davies').
Boswell was born near St Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh, and at the age of thirteen was sent to the city's University by his father to study law.
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