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Encyclopedia > James Baldwin (writer)
James Arthur Baldwin
200
James Baldwin, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1955

Born August 2, 1924(1924-08-02)
New York, New York, U.S.
Died November 30, 1987 (aged 63)
Saint-Paul de Vence, France
Occupation Writer, Novelist, Essayist, Poet, Playwright,
Nationality American
Genres Fiction, non-fiction

James Arthur Baldwin (August 2, 1924November 30, 1987) was an American novelist, writer, playwright, poet, essayist, and civil rights activist. James Baldwin photographed by Carl Van Vechten, September 13, 1955 From the collection of the Library of Congress and in the public domain: http://memory. ... Carl Van Vechten (June 17, 1880 – December 21, 1964) was an American writer and photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Saint-Paul or Saint-Paul de Vence is a commune of the Alpes-Maritimes département, in southeastern France. ... This article is about work. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... For other persons of the same name, see Richard Wright. ... Suzan-Lori Parks (1964 - ) is an African-American playwright and novelist. ... For the Louisiana politician, see deLesseps Morrison, Jr. ... Gloria Jean Watkins (born on September 25, 1952), better known as bell hooks, is an African-American intellectual, feminist, and social activist. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ...


Most of Baldwin's work deals with racial and sexual issues in the mid-20th century United States. His novels are notable for the personal way in which they explore questions of identity as well as for the way in which they mine complex social and psychological pressures related to being black and homosexual well before the social, cultural or political equality of these groups could be assumed.[1] Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...

Contents

Inspiration and relationships

One source of support came from an admired older writer Richard Wright, whom he called "the greatest black writer in the world for me." Wright and Baldwin became friends for a short time and Wright helped him to secure the Eugene F. Saxon Memorial Award. Baldwin titled a collection of essays Notes of a Native Son, in clear reference to Wright's novel Native Son. However, Baldwin's 1949 essay "Everybody's Protest Novel" ended the two authors' friendship[2] because Baldwin asserted that Wright's novel Native Son, like Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, lacked credible characters and psychological complexity. However, during an interview with Julius Lester, [3] Baldwin explained that his adoration for Wright remained: "I knew Richard and I loved him. I was not attacking him; I was trying to clarify something for myself." For other persons of the same name, see Richard Wright. ... James Baldwin, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1955 James Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was an African-American novelist, short story writer, and essayist, known for his novel Go Tell it on the Mountain. ... For other uses, see Native Son (disambiguation). ... Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was an American author and abolitionist, whose novel Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential, even in Britain. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ...


Another major influence on Baldwin's life was the African-American painter Beauford Delaney. In The Price of the Ticket (1985), Baldwin describes Delaney as "the first living proof, for me, that a black man could be an artist. In a warmer time, a less blasphemous place, he would have been recognized as my teacher and I as his pupil. He became, for me, an example of courage and integrity, humility and passion. An absolute integrity: I saw him shaken many times and I lived to see him broken but I never saw him bow." Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Beauford Delaney (December 30, 1901 – March 25, 1979) African-American artist / modernist painter. ...


Baldwin was a close friend of the singer, pianist and civil rights activist Nina Simone. Together with Langston Hughes and Lorraine Hansberry, Baldwin is responsible for making Simone aware of the civil rights movement that was forming at that time to fight racial inequality. He also provided her with literary references that influenced her later work. Eunice Kathleen Waymon, better known by her stage name Nina Simone (February 21, 1933 – April 21, 2003), was an American singer, songwriter, pianist, arranger and civil rights activist. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... Lorraine Hansberry (May 19, 1930 - January 12, 1965) was an American playwright and litigant in the United States Supreme Court case, Hansberry v. ...


Literary career

In 1953, Baldwin's first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain, an autobiographical bildungsroman, was published. Baldwin's first collection of essays, Notes of a Native Son, appeared two years after. Baldwin continued to experiment with literary forms throughout his career, publishing poetry and plays as well as the fiction and essays for which he was known. Go Tell It on the Mountain is a 1953 autobiographical novel by James Baldwin. ... A Bildungsroman (IPA: /, German: novel of self-cultivation) is a novelistic form which concentrates on the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the protagonist usually from childhood to maturity. ...


Baldwin's second novel, Giovanni's Room, stirred controversy when it was first published in 1956 due to its explicit homoerotic content.[4] Baldwin was again resisting labels with the publication of this work:[5] despite the reading public's expectations that he would publish works dealing with the African American experience, Giovanni's Room is exclusively about white characters.[5] Baldwin's next two novels, Another Country and Tell Me How Long the Train's Been Gone, are sprawling, experimental works[citation needed] dealing with black and white characters and with heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual characters.[6] These novels struggle to contain the turbulence of the 1960s:[citation needed] they are saturated with a sense of violent unrest and outrage.[citation needed]


Baldwin's lengthy essay Down at the Cross (frequently called The Fire Next Time after the title of the book in which it was published)[7] similarly showed the seething discontent of the 1960s in novel form. The essay was originally published in two oversized issues of The New Yorker and landed Baldwin on the cover of Time magazine in 1963 while Baldwin was touring the South speaking about the restive Civil Rights movement. The essay talked about the uneasy relationship between Christianity and the burgeoning Black Muslim movement. Baldwin's next book-length essay, No Name in the Street, also discussed his own experience in the context of the later 1960s, specifically the assassinations of three of his personal friends: Medgar Evers, Malcolm X, and Martin Luther King, Jr. For other uses, see New Yorker. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... Medgar Wiley Evers (July 2, 1925 – June 12, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist from Mississippi. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ...


Baldwin's writings of the 1970s and 1980s have been largely overlooked by critics. The assassinations of black leaders in the 1960s, Eldridge Cleaver's vicious homophobic attack on Baldwin in Soul on Ice, and Baldwin's return to southern France contributed to the sense that he was not in touch with his readership. Always true to his own convictions rather than to the tastes of others, Baldwin continued to write what he wanted to write. His two novels written in the 1970s, If Beale Street Could Talk and Just Above My Head, placed a strong emphasis on the importance of black families, and he concluded his career by publishing a volume of poetry, Jimmy's Blues, as well as another book-length essay, The Evidence of Things Not Seen, which was an extended meditation inspired by the Atlanta Child Murders of the early 1980s.he died from stomach cancer This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Atlanta child murders, known locally simply as the missing and murdered children case, were a series of murders committed in Atlanta, Georgia from the summer of 1979 until the spring of 1981. ...


Legacy

Baldwin's influence on other writers has been profound: Toni Morrison edited the Library of America two volume editions of Baldwin's fiction and essays, and a recent collection of critical essays links these two writers. For the Louisiana politician, see deLesseps Morrison, Jr. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ...


In 1987, Kevin Brown, a photo-journalist from Baltimore, MD founded the National James Baldwin Literary Society. The group organizes free public events celebrating Baldwin's life and legacy.


In 2005 the USPS created a First-Class Postage Stamp dedicated to him which featured him on the front, and on the back of the peeling paper had a short biography. One of Baldwin's richest short stories, "Sonny's Blues," appears in many anthologies of short fiction used in introductory college literature classes. USPS and Usps redirect here. ...


Bibliography

Baldwin (right of center) with Hollywood actors Charlton Heston and Marlon Brando at the 1963 Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Sidney Poitier (rear) and Harry Belafonte (right of Brando) can also be seen in the crowd.
Baldwin (right of center) with Hollywood actors Charlton Heston and Marlon Brando at the 1963 Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Sidney Poitier (rear) and Harry Belafonte (right of Brando) can also be seen in the crowd.

Together with others: Image File history File links Heston_Baldwin_Brando_Civil_Rights_March_1963. ... Image File history File links Heston_Baldwin_Brando_Civil_Rights_March_1963. ... Charlton Heston (born October 4, 1924) is an US-american film actor, known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments, Colonel George Taylor in Planet of the Apes, and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. ... Not to be confused with Sydney Tamiia Poitier. ... Harold George Belafonete, Jr. ... Go Tell It on the Mountain is a 1953 autobiographical novel by James Baldwin. ... The Amen Corner is a three-act play by James Baldwin, which addresses themes of the role of the church in the African-American family and the effect of a poverty born of racial prejudice on the African-American community. ... James Baldwin, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1955 James Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was an African-American novelist, short story writer, and essayist, known for his novel Go Tell it on the Mountain. ... Giovannis Room is a novel by James Baldwin about a gay relationship. ... Another Country is a 1962 novel by James Baldwin. ... The Fire Next Time, by James Baldwin, originally published by Dial Press in America, in 1963. ... Going to Meet the Man, published in 1965, is a short-story collection by American writer James Baldwin. ... If Beale Street Could Talk, James Baldwins twelfth novel is a love story set in Harlem in the early 70s. ... The Devil Finds Work is a book length essay by writer James Baldwin. ... The Evidence of Things Not Seen is a 1985 book by James Baldwin about the Wayne Williams Atlanta child murders of the early 80s. ... The Price of a Ticket is a collection of James Baldwins writing that was published in 1985. ...

  • Nothing personal (with Richard Avedon (photogr.)) (1964)
  • A Rap on Race (with Margaret Mead) (1971)
  • One day when I was lost (orig.: A. Haley; 1972)
  • A Dialogue (with Nikki Giovanni) (1973)
  • Little Man Little Man: A Story of Childhood (with Yoran Cazac, 1976)

Cover of Richard Avedons In the American West photo book. ... Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901, Philadelphia – November 15, 1978, New York City) was an American cultural anthropologist. ... Yolande Cornelia Nikki Giovanni (born June 7, 1943 in Knoxville, Tennessee) is a Grammy-nominated American poet, activist and author. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Jean-François Gounardoo, Joseph J. Rodgers (1992). The Racial Problem in the Works of Richard Wright and James Baldwin. Greenwood Press.  p 158 p 148-200
  2. ^ Michelle M. Wright '"Alas, Poor Richard!": Transatlantic Baldwin, The Politics of Forgetting, and the Project of Modernity', James Baldwin Now, ed. Dwight A. McBride, New York University Press, 1999, page 208
  3. ^ Baldwin Reflections. New York Times.
  4. ^ Field, Douglas. Passing as a Cold War novel : anxiety and assimilation in James Baldwin's Giovanni's room. In: American Cold War culture / edited by Douglas Field. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, 2005.
  5. ^ a b Lawrie Balfour (2001). The Evidence of Things Not Said: James Baldwin and the Promise of American Democracy. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8698-2.  page 51
  6. ^ Paul Goodman. "Not Enough of a World to Grow In (review of Another Country)", The New York Times, 1962-06-24. 
  7. ^ Sheldon Binn. "Reivew of The Fire Next Time", The New York Times, 1963-01-31. 

Published as

  • Early Novels & Stories: Go Tell It on the Mountain, Giovanni's Room, Another Country, Going to Meet the Man (Toni Morrison, ed.) (Library of America, 1998) ISBN 978-1-88301151-2.
  • Collected Essays: Notes of a Native Son, Nobody Knows My Name, The Fire Next Time, No Name in the Street, The Devil Finds Work, Other Essays (Toni Morrison, ed.) (Library of America, 1998) ISBN 978-1-88301152-9

For the Louisiana politician, see deLesseps Morrison, Jr. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... For the Louisiana politician, see deLesseps Morrison, Jr. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
James Baldwin
Persondata
NAME Baldwin, James
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Baldwin, James Arthur
SHORT DESCRIPTION American writer, novelist
DATE OF BIRTH August 2, 1924
PLACE OF BIRTH New York, New York, U.S.
DATE OF DEATH 1987-11-30
PLACE OF DEATH Saint-Paul de Vence, France
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Go Tell It on the Mountain is a 1953 autobiographical novel by James Baldwin. ... Giovannis Room is a novel by James Baldwin about a gay relationship. ... Another Country is a 1962 novel by James Baldwin. ... If Beale Street Could Talk, James Baldwins twelfth novel is a love story set in Harlem in the early 70s. ... The Amen Corner is a three-act play by James Baldwin, which addresses themes of the role of the church in the African-American family and the effect of a poverty born of racial prejudice on the African-American community. ... Going to Meet the Man, published in 1965, is a short-story collection by American writer James Baldwin. ... Sonny’s Blues (1957) is a short story by James Baldwin. ... James Baldwin, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1955 James Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was an African-American novelist, short story writer, and essayist, known for his novel Go Tell it on the Mountain. ... The Fire Next Time, by James Baldwin, originally published by Dial Press in America, in 1963. ... The Devil Finds Work is a book length essay by writer James Baldwin. ... The Evidence of Things Not Seen is a 1985 book by James Baldwin about the Wayne Williams Atlanta child murders of the early 80s. ... The Price of a Ticket is a collection of James Baldwins writing that was published in 1985. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Saint-Paul or Saint-Paul de Vence is a commune of the Alpes-Maritimes département, in southeastern France. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
James Baldwin - Search Results - MSN Encarta (213 words)
Baldwin, James (1924-1987), American writer, whose focus on issues of racial discrimination made him a prominent spokesperson for racial equality,...
James Arthur Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – November 30, 1987) was an American novelist, short story writer, playwright, poet, and essayist, best known for his novel Go Tell...
James Arthur Baldwin was born in Harlem, New York City, Aug. 2, 1924 and died on Nov. 30, 1987.
James Baldwin (writer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (843 words)
James Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was a novelist, short story writer, and essayist, best known for his novel Go Tell it on the Mountain.
Baldwin was born in New York's Harlem neighborhood in 1924, the first of his mother's nine children.
Baldwin died of cancer in 1987 at the age of 63.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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