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Encyclopedia > James A. Garfield
James Abram Garfield
James A. Garfield

In office
March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881
Vice President Chester A. Arthur (1881)
Preceded by Rutherford B. Hayes
Succeeded by Chester A. Arthur

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 19th district
In office
March 4, 1863 – March 3, 1881
Preceded by Albert G. Riddle
Succeeded by Ezra B. Taylor

Born November 19, 1831(1831-11-19)
Moreland Hills, Ohio
Died September 19, 1881 (aged 49)
Elberon (Long Branch), New Jersey
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse Lucretia Rudolph Garfield
Alma mater Williams College
Occupation Lawyer, Educator, Minister
Religion Disciples of Christ
Signature James A. Garfield's signature

James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831September 19, 1881) was the twentieth President of the United States. He had also served as a major general in the United States Army, and as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. Garfield was the second U.S. President to be assassinatedAbraham Lincoln was the first. Garfield had the second shortest presidency in U.S. history, after William Henry Harrison, who served in office for only 31 days. President Garfield, a Republican, had been in office a scant four months when he was shot and fatally wounded on July 2, 1881. He lived until September 19, having served for six months and fifteen days. He is the only member of the House of Representatives to have been in office when elected President. James Rudolph Garfield (October 17, 1865-March 24, 1950) U.S. politician, born in Hiram, Ohio, He was the second of five children born to President James A. Garfield and First Lady Lucretia Garfield. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3182x4034, 1045 KB) Description James Garfield, 20th President of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The 19th congressional district of Ohio was eliminated in the redistricting following the 2000 census. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Albert Gallatin Riddle (May 28, 1816 - May 16, 1902) was a U.S. Representative from Ohio. ... Ezra Booth Taylor (July 9, 1823 - January 29, 1912) was a U.S. Representative from Ohio. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Moreland Hills is a village in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, and is a suburb of Cleveland in the Northeast Ohio Region, the 14th largest Combined Statistical Area in the United States. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bold textPresident Garfield died in Long Branch NJ in 1881 Sept 19. ... GOP redirects here. ... White House portrait Lucretia Rudolph Garfield (1832 - 1918), wife of James A. Garfield, was First Lady of the United States in 1881. ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... Williams College is a highly selective [1] private liberal arts college located in Williamstown, Massachusetts. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other types of... The insignia of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... GOP redirects here. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Early life

Garfield at age 16
Garfield at age 16

Garfield was born in Orange Township, now Moreland Hills, Ohio of Welsh ancestry. His father, Abram Garfield, died in 1833, when James Abram was 17 months old; he was brought up and cared for by his mother, Eliza Ballou, a brother, and an uncle.[1] In Orange Township, Garfield attended school, a predecessor of the Orange City Schools. From 1851 to 1854, he attended the Western Reserve Eclectic Institute (later named Hiram College) in Hiram, Ohio. He then transferred to Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts, where he was a brother of Delta Upsilon fraternity. He graduated in 1856 as an outstanding student who enjoyed all subjects except chemistry. After preaching a short time at Franklin Circle Christian Church (1857-58), Garfield ruled out preaching and considered a job as principal of a high school in Poestenkill, New York.[2] After losing that job to another applicant, he taught at the Eclectic Institute. Garfield was an instructor in classical languages for the 1856–1857 academic year, and was made principal of the Institute from 1857 to 1860. Image File history File links Garfield-at-16. ... Image File history File links Garfield-at-16. ... Cuyahoga County today. ... Moreland Hills is a village in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, and is a suburb of Cleveland in the Northeast Ohio Region, the 14th largest Combined Statistical Area in the United States. ... This article is about the country. ... Orange High School is a public high school located in Pepper Pike, Ohio, an eastern suburb in the Greater Cleveland metropolitan area and part of the Northeast Ohio region. ... Hiram College is a liberal arts college located in Hiram, Ohio. ... Hiram is a village in Portage County, Ohio, United States. ... Williams College is a highly selective [1] private liberal arts college located in Williamstown, Massachusetts. ... Williamstown is a town located in Berkshire County, Massachusetts. ... Delta Upsilon (ΔY) is one of the oldest international, all-male, college, Greek-letter social fraternities and is the first non-secret fraternity ever founded. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Poestenkill is a town in Rensselaer County, New York, United States. ... A classical language is a language with a literary tradition that can be judged as classical. According to George L. Hart: [To] qualify as a classical tradition, a language must fit several criteria: it should be ancient, it should be an independent tradition that arose mostly on its own not...

The Garfield homestead.
The Garfield homestead.

On November 11, 1858, he married Lucretia Rudolph. They had seven children (five sons and two daughters): Eliza Arbella Garfield (1860–63); Harry Augustus Garfield (1863–1942); James Rudolph Garfield (1865–1950); Mary Garfield (1867–1947); Irvin M. Garfield (1870–1951); Abram Garfield (1872–1958); and Edward Garfield (1874–76). One son, James R. Garfield, followed him into politics and became Secretary of the Interior under President Theodore Roosevelt. In the mid-1860s, Garfield had an affair with Lucia Calhoun, which he later admitted to his wife, who forgave him.[3] is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... White House portrait Lucretia Rudolph Garfield (1832 - 1918), wife of James A. Garfield, was First Lady of the United States in 1881. ... Harry Augustus Garfield (October 11, 1863–December 12, 1942) was a lawyer and academic, as well as the son of U.S. President James A. Garfield and the brother and law partner of U.S. Secretary of the Interior James Rudolph Garfield. ... James Rudolph Garfield (October 17, 1865-March 24, 1950) U.S. politician, born in Hiram, Ohio, He was the second of five children born to President James A. Garfield and First Lady Lucretia Garfield. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ...

Birthplace of James Garfield
Birthplace of James Garfield

Garfield decided that the academic life was not for him and studied law privately. He was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1860. Even before admission to the bar, he entered politics. He was elected an Ohio state senator in 1859, serving until 1861. He was a Republican all his political life. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 172 KB) Summary Moreland Hills, Ohio - President James Garfield birthplace - log cabin replica and statue Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 172 KB) Summary Moreland Hills, Ohio - President James Garfield birthplace - log cabin replica and statue Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... A bar association is a body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ...


Military career

James Abram Garfield
November 19, 1831 - September 19, 1881 (age 49)

General James A. Garfield
Place of birth Moreland Hills, Ohio
Place of death Long Branch, New Jersey
Allegiance United States of America
Years of service 1861 - 1863
Rank Major General
Commands 42nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry
20th Brigade, 6th Division, Army of the Ohio
Battles/wars *American Civil War
*Battle of Shiloh
*Siege of Corinth
*Battle of Chickamauga
*Battle of Middle Creek
Other work U.S. Representative from Ohio, 20th President of the United States

With the start of the Civil War, Garfield enlisted in the Union Army, and was assigned to command the 42nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry. General Don Carlos Buell assigned Colonel Garfield the task of driving Confederate forces out of eastern Kentucky in November 1861, giving him the 18th Brigade for the campaign. In December, he departed Catlettsburg, Kentucky, with the 40th and 42nd Ohio and the 14th and 22nd Kentucky infantry regiments, as well as the 2nd (West) Virginia Cavalry and McLoughlin's Squadron of Cavalry. The march was uneventful until Union forces reached Paintsville, Kentucky, where Garfield's cavalry engaged the Confederate cavalry at Jenny's Creek on January 6, 1862. The Confederates, under Brig. Gen. Humphrey Marshall, withdrew to the forks of Middle Creek, two miles (3 km) from Prestonsburg, Kentucky, on the road to Virginia. Garfield attacked on January 9. At the end of the day's fighting, the Confederates withdrew from the field, but Garfield did not pursue them. He ordered a withdrawal to Prestonsburg so he could resupply his men. His victory brought him early recognition and a promotion to the rank of brigadier general on January 11. is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2936x4192, 857 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): James Garfield ... Moreland Hills is a village in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, and is a suburb of Cleveland in the Northeast Ohio Region, the 14th largest Combined Statistical Area in the United States. ... Map of Long Branch in Monmouth County Long Branch is a City in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The Army of the Ohio was the name of two Union armies in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties and losses 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8,408... The Battle of Corinth I (also known as the Siege of Corinth) was a United States Civil War battle fought from April 29, 1862 – June 10, 1862 in Corinth, Mississippi. ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (70,000) Casualties and losses 16,170 (1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing) 18,454 (2,312 killed, 14... The Battle of Middle Creek was an engagement during the American Civil War. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Don Carlos Buell Don Carlos Buell (March 23, 1818 – November 19, 1898) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Catlettsburg is a city in Boyd County, Kentucky, United States. ... Paintsville is a city located in Johnson County, Kentucky. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Humphrey Marshall (January 13, 1812 – March 28, 1872) was a United States Congressman and Confederate Congressman, and a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Prestonsburg, the county seat GR6 of Floyd County is located in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Kentucky on the banks of the Levisa Fork of the Big Sandy River. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prestonsburg, the county seat GR6 of Floyd County is located in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Kentucky on the banks of the Levisa Fork of the Big Sandy River. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Garfield served as a brigade commander under Buell at the Battle of Shiloh and under Thomas J. Wood in the subsequent Siege of Corinth. His health deteriorated and he was inactive until autumn, when he served on the commission investigating the conduct of Fitz John Porter. In the spring of 1863, Garfield returned to the field as Chief of Staff for William S. Rosecrans, commander of the Army of the Cumberland. Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties and losses 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8,408... Thomas J. Wood was a Union General during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Corinth I (also known as the Siege of Corinth) was a United States Civil War battle fought from April 29, 1862 – June 10, 1862 in Corinth, Mississippi. ... Fitz John Porter Fitz John Porter (August 31, 1822 – May 21, 1901) (sometimes written FitzJohn Porter) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 - March 11, 1898), nicknamed Old Rosy, served as an American military officer. ... Union army in the west during the American Civil War, commanded at various times by Generals Robert Anderson, Don Carlos Buell, William S. Rosecrans, and George Thomas. ...


Later political career

An 1881 Puck cartoon shows Garfield finding a baby at his front door with a tag marked "Civil Service Reform, compliments of R.B. Hayes". Hayes, his predecessor in the presidency is seen in the background dressed like a woman and holding a bag marked "R.B. Hayes' savings, Fremont, Ohio".
An 1881 Puck cartoon shows Garfield finding a baby at his front door with a tag marked "Civil Service Reform, compliments of R.B. Hayes". Hayes, his predecessor in the presidency is seen in the background dressed like a woman and holding a bag marked "R.B. Hayes' savings, Fremont, Ohio".

In 1863, he re-entered politics, being elected to the United States House of Representatives for the 38th Congress. Garfield was promoted to major general after the Battle of Chickamauga, shortly after he had been elected. He left the army and returned to Ohio to take his seat in Congress. He succeeded in gaining re-election every two years up through 1878. In the House during the Civil War and the following Reconstruction era, he was one of the most hawkish Republicans. In 1872, he was one of many congressman involved in the Crédit Mobilier of America scandal. Garfield denied the charges against him and it did not put too much of a strain on his political career since the actual impact of the scandal was difficult to determine. In 1876, when James G. Blaine moved from the House to the United States Senate, Garfield became the Republican floor leader of the House. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The cover of the April 23, 1884 issue. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Fremont is a city in Sandusky County, Ohio, United States. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... United States Capitol // The Thirty-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the United States national legislature, comprised of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (70,000) Casualties and losses 16,170 (1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing) 18,454 (2,312 killed, 14... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... The Crédit Mobilier of America scandal of 1872 involved the Union Pacific Railroad and the Crédit Mobilier of America construction company. ... James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830–January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... ...


In 1876, Garfield was a Republican member of the Electoral Commission that awarded 22 hotly-contested electoral votes to Rutherford B. Hayes in his contest for the Presidency against Samuel J. Tilden. That year, he also purchased the property in Mentor that reporters later dubbed Lawnfield, and from which he would go on to conduct the first successful front porch campaign for the Presidency. The home is now maintained by the National Park Service as the James A. Garfield National Historic Site. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... United States presidential elections determine who serves as President and Vice President of the United States for four-year terms, starting on Inauguration Day (January 20th of the year after the election). ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... Mentor is a city in Lake County, Ohio, United States. ... James A. Garfield National Historic Site preserves the property associated with the 20th President of the United States. ... In American political parlance, a front porch campaign is one in which the candidate remains at home, making speeches to supporters who come to visit, but does not travel around or otherwise actively campaign. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... James A. Garfield National Historic Site preserves the property associated with the 20th President of the United States. ...


Election of 1880

Main article: 1880 Republican National Convention

In 1880, Garfield's life underwent tremendous change with the publication of the Morey letter, and the end of Democratic U.S. Senator Allen Granberry Thurman's term. The Ohio legislature, which had recently again come under Republican control, chose Garfield to fill Thurman's seat.[4] However, at the Republican National Convention Garfield gained support for the party's Presidential nomination, and on the 36th ballot Garfield was nominated, with virtually all of Blaine's and John Sherman's delegates breaking ranks to vote for the dark horse nominee. As it happened, the U.S. Senate seat to which Garfield had been chosen ultimately went to Sherman, whose Presidential candidacy Garfield had gone to the convention to support. A view inside the Glass Palace during the convention; James Garfield (center, right) is on the podium, waiting to speak. ... The United States presidential election of 1880 was largely seen as a referendum on the Republicans relaxation of Reconstruction efforts in the southern states. ... On October 20, 1880, the New York newspaper, The Truth, published a letter that was supposed to have been written by President James Garfield to an H.L. Morey of Lynn, Massachusetts. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Allen Granberry Thurman (November 13, 1813_December 12, 1895) was a Democratic Representative and Senator from Ohio. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John Sherman John Sherman (May 10, 1823–October 22, 1900) was a Senator from Ohio and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... This article describes dark horse candidates. ...


In the general election, Garfield defeated the Democratic candidate Winfield Scott Hancock, another distinguished former Union Army general, by 214 electoral votes to 155. (The popular vote had a plurality of 9,464 votes out of more than nine million cast; see U.S. presidential election, 1880.) He became the only man ever to be elected to the Presidency straight from the House of Representatives and was, for a short period, a sitting Representative, a Senator-elect, and President-elect. Garfield took office as President on March 4, 1881. Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 – February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880. ... Summary Keeping a promise made during the 1876 campaign, incumbent President Rutherford Hayes did not seek re-election. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Presidency 1881

Administration and Cabinet

Offical White House portrait of James Garfield
Offical White House portrait of James Garfield
The Garfield Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President James A. Garfield 1881
Vice President Chester A. Arthur 1881
Secretary of State James G. Blaine 1881
Secretary of Treasury William Windom 1881
Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln 1881
Attorney General Wayne MacVeagh 1881
Postmaster General Thomas L. James 1881
Secretary of the Navy William H. Hunt 1881
Secretary of the Interior Samuel J. Kirkwood 1881


Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... William Windom (May 10, 1827–January 29, 1891) was an American politician. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Robert Todd Lincoln (August 1, 1843 – July 26, 1926) was the first son of Abraham Lincoln and Mary Ann Todd. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Isaac Wayne MacVeagh (April 19, 1833–January 11, 1917) was an American politician and diplomat. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Thomas Lemuel James (1831 - 1916) was a U.S. administrator. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... William Henry Hunt (12 June 1823 – February 1884) was the United States Secretary of the Navy under President James Garfield. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Samuel Jordan Kirkwood (December 20, 1813 - September 1, 1894), twice represented Iowa as a United States Senator; first, from 1866 to 1867 and again from 1877 to 1881. ...


Between his election and his inauguration, Garfield was occupied with constructing a cabinet that would balance all Republican factions. Blaine was rewarded with the State Department. William Windom of Minnesota was named secretary of the Treasury. The Navy Department was headed by William H. Hunt of Louisiana; the War Department by Robert Todd Lincoln; and the Interior Department by Iowa's Samuel J. Kirkwood. Wayne MacVeagh of Pennsylvania was asked to be Attorney General, and New York was represented by Postmaster General Thomas Lemuel James. This last appointment infuriated Garfield's Stalwart rival Roscoe Conkling, who demanded nothing less for his faction and his state than the Treasury Department. He was so insulted that he, in effect, declared war on the administration. Thomas Lemuel James (1831 - 1916) was a U.S. administrator. ... The Stalwarts were a faction of the United States Republican Party, towards the end of the 19th century. ... Roscoe Conkling (October 30, 1829–April 18, 1888) was a United States politician from New York. ...


This unedifying squabble would consume the energies of the brief Garfield presidency. It overshadowed promising activities such as Blaine's efforts to build closer ties with Latin America, Postmaster General James's investigation of the "star route" postal frauds, and Windom's successful refinancing of the federal debt. Star routes is a term used in connection with the United States postal service. ...


The feud with Conkling reached a climax when the President, at Blaine's instigation, nominated Conkling's enemy, Judge William H. Robertson, to be collector of the port of New York. Conkling raised the time-honored principle of senatorial courtesy in attempting to defeat the nomination but to no avail. Finally he and his junior colleague, Thomas C. Platt, resigned their Senate seats to seek vindication, but they found only further humiliation. Garfield's victory was complete. He had routed his foes, weakened the principle of senatorial courtesy, and revitalized the presidential office.[5] Thomas C. Platt Thomas C. Platt was a three term U.S. Senator from New York in the years 1881 and 1897-1909. ...


President Garfield's only official social function made outside the White House was a visit to the Columbia Institution for the Deaf (later Gallaudet University) in May, 1881.[6] It has been suggested that Gallaudet United Now Movement be merged into this article or section. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Categories: People stubs | U.S. Supreme Court justices | United States Senators | Ohio State Senators | American lawyers | U.S. Army officers | 1824 births | 1889 deaths ...

Assassination

Main article: James A. Garfield assassination
President Garfield and family
President Garfield and family

Garfield had little time to savor his triumph. He was shot by Charles J. Guiteau, disgruntled by failed efforts to secure a federal post, on July 2, 1881, at 9:30 a.m., less than four months after taking office. The President had been walking through the Sixth Street Station of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad (a predecessor of the Pennsylvania Railroad) Washington, D.C., on his way to his alma mater, Williams College, where he was scheduled to deliver a speech, accompanied by Secretary of State James G. Blaine, Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln (son of Abraham Lincoln[7]) and two of his sons, James and Harry. The station was located on the southwest corner of present day Sixth Street Northwest and Constitution Avenue in Washington, D.C., a site that is now occupied by the National Gallery of Art. As he was being arrested after the shooting, Guiteau excitedly said, "I am a Stalwart of the Stalwarts! I did it and I want to be arrested! Arthur is President now," which briefly led to unfounded suspicions that Arthur or his supporters had put Guiteau up to the crime. (The Stalwarts strongly opposed Garfield's Half-Breeds; like many Vice Presidents, Arthur was chosen for political advantage, to placate his faction, rather than for skills or loyalty to his running-mate.) Guiteau was upset because of the rejection of his repeated attempts to be appointed as the United States consul in Paris—a position for which he had absolutely no qualifications. Garfield's assassination was instrumental to the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act on January 16, 1883. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 755 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (855 × 679 pixel, file size: 134 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 755 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (855 × 679 pixel, file size: 134 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Charles Julius Guiteau (September 8, 1841 – June 30, 1882) was an American lawyer who assassinated President James A. Garfield on July 2, 1881. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Baltimore and Potomac Railroad was part of the Pennsylvania Railroads main line from Baltimore, Maryland southwest to Washington, DC. It is now part of Amtraks Northeast Corridor; freight is handled by Norfolk Southern. ... 1893 map The Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark PRR) was an American railroad that was founded in 1846 and merged in 1968 into Penn Central Transportation. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... Williams College is a highly selective [1] private liberal arts college located in Williamstown, Massachusetts. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Robert Todd Lincoln (August 1, 1843 – July 26, 1926) was the first son of Abraham Lincoln and Mary Ann Todd. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... James Rudolph Garfield (October 17, 1865-March 24, 1950) U.S. politician, born in Hiram, Ohio, He was the second of five children born to President James A. Garfield and First Lady Lucretia Garfield. ... Harry Augustus Garfield (October 11, 1863–December 12, 1942) was a lawyer and academic, as well as the son of U.S. President James A. Garfield and the brother and law partner of U.S. Secretary of the Interior James Rudolph Garfield. ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... The Stalwarts were a faction of the United States Republican Party, towards the end of the 19th century. ... Senator James G. Blaine, the leader of the Half-Breeds. ... A consulate (or consular office) is a form of diplomatic mission in charge of matters related to individual people and businesses, in other words issues outside inter-governmental diplomacy. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... George H. Pendleton The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (ch. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

President Garfield with James G. Blaine after being shot by Charles Guiteau, as depicted in a period engraving from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper
President Garfield with James G. Blaine after being shot by Charles Guiteau, as depicted in a period engraving from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper[8][9]

One bullet grazed Garfield's arm; the second bullet lodged in his spine and could not be found, although scientists today think that the bullet was near his lung. Alexander Graham Bell devised a metal detector specifically for the purpose of finding the bullet, but the metal bed frame Garfield was lying on made the instrument malfunction. Because metal bed frames were relatively rare, the cause of the instrument's deviation was unknown at the time. Garfield became increasingly ill over a period of several weeks due to infection, which caused his heart to weaken. He remained bedridden in the White House with fevers and extreme pains. In early September, the ailing President was moved to the Jersey Shore in the vain hope that the fresh air and quiet there might aid his recovery. In a matter of hours, local residents put down a special rail spur for Garfield's train; some of the ties are now part of the Garfield Tea House. The beach cottage Garfield was taken to has been demolished. He died of a massive heart attack or a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm, following blood poisoning and bronchial pneumonia, at 10:35 p.m. on Monday, September 19, 1881, in the Elberon section of Long Branch, New Jersey. The wounded president died exactly two months before his 50th birthday. During the eighty days between his shooting and death, his only official act was to sign an extradition paper. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1160x790, 495 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of United States Presidential assassination attempts ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1160x790, 495 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of United States Presidential assassination attempts ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Charles Julius Guiteau (September 8, 1841 _ June 30, 1882) was an American lawyer with a history of mental illness who assassinated President James Garfield on July 2, 1881 (although he did not die until 19 September). ... Frank Leslie (1821-1880) was an American engraver, illustrator, and publisher of family periodicals. ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Inductive sensor. ... Jersey Shore can also refer to Jersey Shore, Pennsylvania. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Post surgical photo of brain aneurysm survivor. ... Blood poisoning, also known as septicaemia, is a bacterial infection that occurs when bacteria get into the bloodstream and multiply rapidly. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bold textPresident Garfield died in Long Branch NJ in 1881 Sept 19. ... Map of Long Branch in Monmouth County Long Branch is a City in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. ... Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal. ...

Doctors discuss Garfield's wounds.
Doctors discuss Garfield's wounds.

Most historians and medical experts now believe that Garfield probably would have survived his wound had the doctors attending him been more capable.[10] Several inserted their unsterilized fingers into the wound to probe for the bullet, and one doctor punctured Garfield's liver in doing so. This alone would not have brought about death as the liver is one of the few organs in the human body that can regenerate itself. However, this physician probably introduced Streptococcus bacteria into the President's body and that caused blood poisoning for which at that time there were no antibiotics. Sterility is the quality or state of being unable to reproduce. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Species S. agalactiae S. bovis S. mutans S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. salivarius S. sanguinis S. suis Streptococcus viridans Streptococcus uberis etc. ... Blood poisoning, also known as septicaemia, is a bacterial infection that occurs when bacteria get into the bloodstream and multiply rapidly. ...

President Garfield's casket lying in state at the Capitol Rotunda.

Guiteau was found guilty of assassinating Garfield, despite his lawyers raising an insanity defense. He insisted that incompetent medical care had really killed the President. Although historians generally agree that poor medical care was a contributing factor, it was not a legal defense. Guiteau was sentenced to death, and was executed by hanging on June 30, 1882, in Washington, D.C. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... In criminal trials, the insanity defenses are possible defenses by excuse, by which defendants argue that they should not be held criminally liable for breaking the law, as they were legally insane at the time of the commission of alleged crimes. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

President Garfield's Death Site, Long Branch, New Jersey.

Garfield was buried, with great solemnity, in a mausoleum in Lakeview Cemetery in Cleveland, Ohio. The monument is decorated with five terra cotta bas relief panels by sculptor Caspar Buberl, depicting various stages in Garfield's life. In 1887, the James A. Garfield Monument was dedicated in Washington, D.C. St. ... Lakeview Cemetery is located on the East side of the city of Cleveland, Ohio, along the East Cleveland, Ohio and Cleveland Heights, Ohio borders. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... Bas-relief (pronounced bah-relief, French for low relief) is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal creating a sculpture portrayed as a picture. ... Soldiers and Sailors Memorial, Hillsbobo, Ohio Caspar Buberl, American sculptor, born in 1834 in Königsberg, Bohemia, (now Kynsperk nad Ohrí in the Czech Republic) and died August 22, 1899 in New York City. ... Garfield Monument The James A. Garfield Monument stands on the grounds of the United States Capitol in the circle at First Street, S.W., and Maryland Avenue, Washington, D.C. It is a memorial to President James Garfield, elected in 1880 and assassinated in 1881 by a disgruntled office-seeker...


At the time of his death, Garfield was survived by his mother. He is one of only three presidents to have predeceased their mothers. The others were James K. Polk and John F. Kennedy. This article is about the U.S. President. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


Trivia

  • Garfield and fellow Ohioan President Rutherford B. Hayes both served on the first board of trustees of Western Reserve University (now Case Western Reserve University) following the school's move from Hudson, Ohio to Cleveland.[citation needed]
  • Garfield was a minister and an elder for the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), making him the first—and to date, only—member of the clergy to serve as President.[11] He is also claimed as a member of the Church of Christ, as the different branches did not split until the 20th century. Garfield preached his first sermon in Poestenkill, New York.[12] When Garfield relinquished his Eldership, it is said that he stated, "I resign the highest office in the land to become President of the United States."[citation needed]
    Garfield Monument at Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland, Ohio.
    Garfield Monument at Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland, Ohio.
  • Garfield was a member of the Delta Upsilon International Fraternity.[13]
  • Garfield is the only person in US history to be a Representative, Senator-elect, and President-elect at the same time. To date, he is the only Representative to be directly elected President of the United States.
  • In 1876, Garfield discovered a novel proof of the Pythagorean Theorem using a trapezoid while serving as a member of the House of Representatives.[14]
  • Garfield was the first ambidextrous president. It was said that one could ask him a question in English and he could simultaneously write the answer in Latin with one hand, and Ancient Greek with the other. He was also known to be a septalinguist. [15]
  • In the famous drawing of Guiteau shooting Garfield, it is believed that the color of their suits at the time was reversed.[citation needed]
  • The assassination is also mentioned in the Johnny Cash tune, "Mister Garfield (Has Been Shot Down)" according to the album sleeve written by J. Elliot, released in 1965 by Columbia Records, and re-recorded for the 1972 album America - A 200 Year Salute in Story And Song, as well as in "Charles Guiteau" by Kelly Harrell & the Virginia String Band as included in the Anthology of American Folk Music.
  • In the 1992 film Unforgiven, set in 1881, the character English Bob mocks his (American) fellow travelers for the murder of President Garfield, comparing the republican system of government unfavorably with the monarchical. "If you were to try to assassinate a king, sir, the, how shall I say it, the majesty of royalty would cause you to miss. But, a President, I mean, why not shoot a President?"
  • Garfield was assassinated only months after Czar Alexander II of Russia was assassinated.
  • Stephen Sondheim's musical Assassins includes the story of Charles J. Guiteau and his assassination of Garfield and features a song, "The Ballad of Guiteau."
    Garfield Monument in Washington, D.C.
    Garfield Monument in Washington, D.C.
  • Part of Charles Guiteau's preserved brain is on display at the Mütter Museum at the College of Physicians of Philadelphia.[16] Guiteau's bones and more of his brain, along with Garfield's backbone and a couple ribs, are kept at the National Museum of Health and Medicine in Washington, D.C. on the grounds of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center.[17]
  • Garfield was a direct descendant of Mayflower passenger John Billington through his son Francis, another Mayflower passenger.[18] John Billington was convicted of murder at Plymouth Mass. 1630.[19]
  • Garfield juggled Indian clubs to build his muscles.[20]
  • James Garfield was featured on series 1882 $5 National Currency notes,[citation needed] and the series 1886 $20 Gold Certificate.[21] Both of these currency notes are considered to be of moderate rarity, and are quite valuable to collectors.
  • Garfield has a street in Brooklyn a suburb in Wellington, New Zealand named after him - Garfield Street.[citation needed]
  • Garfield was related to Owen Tudor, and both were descendents of Rhys ap Tewdwr.[22][verification needed]
  • The Spaghetti Western The Price of Power (1969) features Van Johnson as Garfield, and his assassination figures prominently in the film's plot; however, the setting of the assassination is relocated to Dallas, and the killing itself is clearly modeled after the Kennedy Assassination of 1963.
  • The US has had three presidents in the same year two times. The first such year was 1841. Martin Van Buren ended his single term, William Henry Harrison was inaugurated and died a month later, then Vice President John Tyler stepped into the vacant office. The second occurrence was in 1881. Rutherford B. Hayes relinquished the office to James A. Garfield. Upon Garfield's death, Chester A. Arthur became president.

Case Western Reserve University is a private research university located in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, with some residence halls on the south end of campus located in Cleveland Heights. ... Location in Ohio Location within Summit County, Ohio Coordinates: , Country State County Summit Settled 1799 Incorporated 1837 Village/Township Merger 1994 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Council President Mike Moran  - City Manager Anthony J. Bales  - Mayor William A. Currin Area  - Total 25. ... The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), often abbreviated as the Disciples of Christ or Christian Church, is a denomination of Christian Restorationism that grew out of the Restoration Movement founded by Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell of Pennsylvania and West Virginia (then Virginia) and Barton W. Stone of Kentucky. ... Alternate meanings: see Church of Christ (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 379 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (762 × 1204 pixel, file size: 681 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: Photo by User:GandZ Garfield (US president) monument, Lake View cemetry, Cleveland Ohio. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 379 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (762 × 1204 pixel, file size: 681 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: Photo by User:GandZ Garfield (US president) monument, Lake View cemetry, Cleveland Ohio. ... Lakeview Cemetery, Cleveland, Ohio Lake View Cemetery is located on the east side of the City of Cleveland, Ohio, along the East Cleveland and Cleveland Heights borders. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Delta Upsilon (ΔY) is one of the oldest international, all-male, college, Greek-letter social fraternities and is the first non-secret fraternity ever founded. ... A President-elect is a candidate who has officially been elected President, but who has not yet acceded to his Office, as it is still occupied by the out-going President. ... In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem (AmE) or Pythagoras theorem (BrE) is a relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. ... This article is about the geometric figure. ... Ambidexterity is the ability of being equally adept with each hand (or, to a limited degree, feet). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... For the song of the same name, recorded by Tracy Byrd and later by Jason Aldean, see Johnny Cash (song). ... The Anthology of American Folk Music is a recording that collects several dozen folk and country songs which were initially recorded from the 1920s and 1930s, and were first released on 78 rpm records. ... This article is about the 1992 film. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Stephen Joshua Sondheim (b. ... Assassins is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by John Weidman and was based on an idea by Charles Gilbert, Jr. ... Charles Julius Guiteau (September 8, 1841 – June 30, 1882) was an American lawyer who assassinated President James A. Garfield on July 2, 1881. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Interior of the Mütter Museum The Mütter Museum is a museum of medical oddities, antique medical equipment and biological specimens located in the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. ... The exterior of the National Museum of Health and Medicine. ... This article is about the U.S. Army medical center/hospital (not the research institute). ... For other uses, see Mayflower (disambiguation). ... John Billington (ca. ... Indian Clubs are a category of exercise equipment popular in the late 19th and early 20th century in the United States. ... Brooklyn is a suburb of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Rhys ap Tewdwr (997 – 1093) was a Prince of Deheubarth in West Wales and member of the Dinefwr dynasty, a branch descended from Rhodri the Great. ... Once Upon a Time in the West, in true Sergio Leone style, ends with an extended shootout scene between Harmonica (Charles Bronson) and Frank (Henry Fonda). ... The Price of Power (Il Prezzo del potere, 1969) is an Italian Spaghetti Western directed by Tonino Valerii. ... Van Johnson (born Charles Van Johnson on August 25, 1916, in Newport, Rhode Island) is an American film and television actor and dancer. ... John F. Kennedy The assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 PM Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC). ...

See also

This is a list of assasinated American politicians. ... This is a list of us presidents who died during their term as president, by date and by cause of death. ...

Further reading

  • Ackerman, Kenneth D. Dark Horse: The Surprise Election and Political Murder of James A. Garfield, Avalon Publishing, 2004. ISBN 0-7867-1396-8 (paperback) and ISBN 0-7867-1151-5 (cloth).
  • Freemon, Frank R., 2001: Gangrene and glory: medical care during the American Civil War; Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252070100
  • King, Lester Snow: 1991 Transformations in American Medicine : from Benjamin Rush to William Osler / Lester S. King. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, c1991. ISBN 0801840570
  • Peskin, Allan Garfield: A Biography, The Kent State University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-8733-8210-2.
  • Vowell, Sarah "Assassination Vacation", Simon & Schuster, 2005 ISBN 0-7432-6004-X

References

  1. ^ Section One: The Log Cabin. James Garfield Study Guide. SparkNotes. Retrieved on 2007-08-28.
  2. ^ Peskin, Allan (1978). Garfield. Kent State University Press, p. 45. ISBN 0873382102. 
  3. ^ Garfield, James A.. Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to American Presidents. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. Retrieved on 2008-03-04.
  4. ^ State legislatures, not voters, chose U.S. senators until the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment.
  5. ^ Garfield, James Abram. American National Biography, 2000, American Council of Learned Societies.
  6. ^ Gallaudet, Edward Miner. History of the Columbia Institution for the Deaf.
  7. ^ Mr. Lincoln's Whitehouse: Robert Todd Lincoln, The Lincoln Institute, Retrieved November 29, 2006.
  8. ^ Cheney, Lynne Vincent. "Mrs. Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper". American Heritage Magazine. October 1975. Volume 26, Issue 6. URL retrieved on January 24, 2007.
  9. ^ "The attack on the President's life". Library of Congress. URL retrieved on January 24, 2007.
  10. ^ A President Felled by an Assassin and 1880’s Medical Care New York Times, July 25, 2006.
  11. ^ James A. Garfield. Mr. President. Profiles of Our Nation's Leaders. Smithsonian Education. URL retrieved on May 11, 2007.
  12. ^ Sullivan, James (1927). Chapter VI. Rensselaer County. The History of New York State, Book III. Lewis Historical Publishing Company. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  13. ^ Notable DUs. Delta Upsilon Fraternity. Politics and Government. URL retrieved February 20, 2007.
  14. ^ "Pythagoras and President Garfield", PBS Teacher Source, URL retrieved on February 1, 2007.
  15. ^ American Presidents: Life Portraits, C-SPAN, Retrieved November 29, 2006
  16. ^ Siera, J.J. "Come see Dead People at the Mutter Museum". Venue Magazine. Rowan University. Issue 41. Volume 2. URL retrieved February 19, 2007.
  17. ^ Carlson, Peter. "Rest in Pieces". The Washington Post. January 24, 2006. Page C1. URL retrieved February 19, 2007.
  18. ^ "Famous Descendants of Mayflower Passengers". Mayflower History. URL retrieved 31 March 2007.
  19. ^ Borowitz, Alfred. "The Mayflower Murderer". The University of Texas at Austin. Tarlton Law Library. URL retrieved March 30, 2007.
  20. ^ Paletta, Lu Ann; Worth, Fred L (1988). The World Almanac of Presidential Facts. World Almanac Books. ISBN 0345348885. 
  21. ^ Orzano, Michele. "Learning the language". Coin World. November 2, 2004. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  22. ^ [http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/g/a/r/J-H-Garner/FILE/0141page.html#subj10000000 Genealogy Report: Ancestors of Pres. James Abram Garfield

SparkNotes, originally part of a website called The Spark, is a company started by Sam Yagan, Max Krohn, and Chris Coyne in 1999 that provides free in-depth commentary, analysis and study guides for literature, poetry, history, film and philosophy. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kent State University (also known as Kent, Kent State or KSU) is a major public research university located in Kent, Ohio, United States, which is about 40 miles southeast of Cleveland, 12 miles east of Akron, and 30 miles west of Youngstown. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Amendment XVII in the National Archives Amendment XVII (the Seventeenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution was passed by the Senate on June 12, 1911 and by the House on May 13, 1912. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rowan University is a public university located in Glassboro, New Jersey comprising 49 buildings. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Coin World is an American weekly numismatic magazine. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

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James A. Garfield
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Albert G. Riddle
Member from Ohio's 19th congressional district
March 4, 1863 – March 3, 1881
Succeeded by
Ezra B. Taylor
Political offices
Preceded by
Rutherford B. Hayes
President of the United States
March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881
Succeeded by
Chester A. Arthur
Party political offices
Preceded by
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party presidential candidate
1880
Succeeded by
James G. Blaine
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Henry Wilson
Persons who have lain in state or honor
in the United States Capitol rotunda

September 21, 1881 – September 23, 1881
Succeeded by
John A. Logan
Persondata
NAME Garfield, James Abram
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 20th President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH November 19, 1831
PLACE OF BIRTH Moreland Hills, Ohio, United States
DATE OF DEATH November 19, 1931
PLACE OF DEATH Elberon (Long Branch), New Jersey, United States
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Albert Gallatin Riddle (May 28, 1816 - May 16, 1902) was a U.S. Representative from Ohio. ... The 19th congressional district of Ohio was eliminated in the redistricting following the 2000 census. ... Ezra Booth Taylor (July 9, 1823 - January 29, 1912) was a U.S. Representative from Ohio. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States of the Republican Party of the United States. ... Summary Keeping a promise made during the 1876 campaign, incumbent President Rutherford Hayes did not seek re-election. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... For other persons named Henry Wilson, see Henry Wilson (disambiguation). ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... For other persons with similar names, see John Logan. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... 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Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... FDR redirects here. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... 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Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3182x4034, 1045 KB) Description James Garfield, 20th President of the United States. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... William Windom (May 10, 1827–January 29, 1891) was an American politician. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Robert Todd Lincoln (August 1, 1843 – July 26, 1926) was the first son of Abraham Lincoln and Mary Ann Todd. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Isaac Wayne MacVeagh (April 19, 1833–January 11, 1917) was an American politician and diplomat. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Thomas Lemuel James (1831 - 1916) was a U.S. administrator. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... William Henry Hunt (12 June 1823 – February 1884) was the United States Secretary of the Navy under President James Garfield. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Samuel Jordan Kirkwood (December 20, 1813 - September 1, 1894), twice represented Iowa as a United States Senator; first, from 1866 to 1867 and again from 1877 to 1881. ... This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States of the Republican Party of the United States. ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Alf Landon Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, who was defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1954) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ... 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George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... McCain redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Moreland Hills is a village in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, and is a suburb of Cleveland in the Northeast Ohio Region, the 14th largest Combined Statistical Area in the United States. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Long Branch in Monmouth County Long Branch is a City in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. ...

 
 

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