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Encyclopedia > Jamaican patois
Jamaican Patois
(Jamaican Creole)
Spoken in: Jamaica (also spoken by people of the Jamaican diaspora)
Total speakers: Over 4 million
Language family: Creole language
 English Creole
  Atlantic
   Western
    Jamaican Patois
(Jamaican Creole)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: none
ISO 639-3: jam

  This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a nativized pidgin. ... An English-based creole language, or English creole for short, is a creole language that was significantly influenced by the English language. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ...

Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language—not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English—used primarily in Jamaica and the Jamaican diaspora. This language is the descendant of a 17th century creolization process which, simply put, consisted of West and Central Africans acquiring and nativizing the vernacular and dialectal British Englishes (including significant exposure to Scottish varieties) and Hiberno English, with which their enslavement brought them in contact. Jamaican Patois is what linguists call a post-creole speech continuum or a linguistic continuum[1][2][3]—meaning that the variety of the language closest to the lexifier language (the acrolect) cannot be distinguished systematically from intermediate varieties (collectively referred to as the mesolect) nor even from the most divergent rural varieties (collectively referred to as the basilect). Jamaicans themselves usually refer to their language as patois, a term without a precise linguistic definition. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Haile Selassie I Rastafarian vocabulary, or Iyaric, is part of an intentionally created dialect of English. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Hiberno-English — also known as Anglo-Irish and Irish English — is English as spoken in Ireland. ... ... A phase that happens to native languages in a peripheral, especially colonial society that emerge from the previous dominance of a high language imposed by the center. ... A lexifier is the language that a particular pidgin or creole language derives the majority of its vocabulary from. ... An acrolect is a register of a spoken language that is considered formal and high-style. ... A mesolect is a register of spoken language whose character falls somewhere between the prestige of the acrolect and the informality of the basilect. ... In linguistics, a basilect is a dialect of speech that has diverged so far from the standard language that in essence it has become a different language. ... Patois, although without a formal definition in linguistics, can be used to describe a language considered as nonstandard. ...


Significant Jamaican-speaking communities exist among Jamaican expatriates in Miami, New York City, Toronto, Hartford, Washington D.C., Brazil, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama (in the Caribbean coast), and London.[4] A mutually intelligible variety is found in San Andrés y Providencia Islands, Colombia, brought to the island by descendants of Jamaican Maroons (escaped slaves) in the 18th century. Mesolectal forms are similar to Basilectal Belizean Creole. Jamaican Patois exists mostly as a spoken language. Although standard British English is used for most writing in Jamaica, Jamaican has been gaining ground as a literary language for almost a hundred years. Claude McKay published his book of Jamaican poems Songs of Jamaica in 1912. Patois and English are frequently used for stylistic contrast (codeswitching) in new forms of internet writing.[5] This article is about the city in Florida. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... When used by itself in a sentence, the term Hartford can refer to one of several places in the United States. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... West Indies redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto Paraíso Turistico(Spanish) Touristic Paradise Anthem Himno de San Andrés y Providencia Capital (and largest city) San Andrés City Official languages Spanish, English Government Colombian Department  -  Governor Alvaro Archbold Nuñes Area  -  Total 52 km² (33th)  sq mi   -  Density 1145. ... The Jamaican Maroons were runaway slaves who fought the British during the 18th century. ... A mesolect is a register of spoken language whose character falls somewhere between the prestige of the acrolect and the informality of the basilect. ... In linguistics, a basilect is a dialect of speech that has diverged so far from the standard language that in essence it has become a different language. ... Belizean Kriol, Kriol, or quite simply Belizean, is one of the main branches of Central American Creole English, closely related to Miskito Coastal Creole, Colón Creole, and San Andrés and Providencia Creole. ... Spoken language is a language that people utter words of the language. ... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... Claude McKay (September 15, 1889[1] – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and communist. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


Jamaican pronunciation and vocabulary are significantly different from English, despite heavy usage of English words or derivatives. It is to the point where a native speaker of a non-Caribbean English dialect can only understand a heavily accented Jamaican speaker if he/she speaks slowly and foregoes the use of the numerous idioms that are common in Jamaican. Jamaican Patois displays similarities to the pidgin and creole languages of West Africa due to their common descent from the blending of African substrate languages with European tongues.[citation needed] First language (native language, mother tongue) is the language a person learns first. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... This article is about simplified languages. ... A Creole is a language descended from a pidgin that has become the native language of a group of people. ...


Many Jamaican words have their origin in certain African languages. Pluralization of nouns is done by either pre-posing any cardinal numeral greater than one (1) e.g. /di faiv bod/ ('the five birds') or post-posing the plural marker /dem/, as in /di bod dem/ ('the birds'). Similarly, verb tense is specified using pre-posed tense markers /mi suim/, ('I swam' or 'I (habitually) swim'), /mi ago suim/ ('I am going to swim'), /mi ben/did suim/ 'I had swum', /mi afi suim/ ('I ought to swim' or 'I should swim'), etc.[citation needed]

Contents

Phonology

Accounts of basilectal Jamaican Patois postulate around 21 phonemic consonants[6] and between nine and sixteen vowels.[7]

Consonants[8]
Labial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal2 Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop p   b t   d tʃ   dʒ c   ɟ k   g
Fricative f   v s   z   ʃ (h)1
Approximant ɹ j w
Lateral l
  1. The status of /h/ as a phoneme is dialectal: in Western varieties, it is a full phoneme and there are minimal pairs (/hiit/ 'hit' and /iit/ 'eat'); in Eastern varieties, the presence of [h] in a word is in free variation with no consonant so that the words for 'hand' and 'and' (both underlyingly /an/) may be pronounced as [han] or [an].[9]
  2. The palatal stops [c], [ɟ][10] and [ɲ] are considered phonemic by some accounts[11] and phonetic by others.[12] For the latter interpretation, their appearance is included in the larger phenomenon of phonetic palatalization.

Examples of palatalization include:[13] In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Free variation in linguistics is the phenomenon of two (or more) sounds or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect by native speakers. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ...

  • /kiuu/[ciuː][cuː] ('a quarter quart (of rum)')
  • /giaad/[ɟiaːd][ɟaːd] ('guard')
  • /piaa + piaa/[pʲiãːpʲiãː][pʲãːpʲãː] ('weak')

Voiced stops are implosive whenever in the onset of prominent syllables (especially word-initially) so that /biit/ ('beat') is pronounced as [ɓiːt] and /guud/ ('good') as [ɠuːd].[14] Look up implosive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Before a syllabic /l/, the contrast between alveolar and velar consonants has been historically neutralized with alveolar consonants becoming velar so that the word for 'bottle' is /bakl̩/ and the word for 'idle' is /aigl̩/.[15]

Vowels of Jamaican Patois. from Harry (2006:128)

Jamaican Patois exhibits two types of vowel harmony; peripheral vowel harmony, wherein only sequences of peripheral vowels (that is, /i/, /u/, and /a/) can occur within a syllable; and back harmony, wherein /i/ and /u/ cannot occur within a syllable together (that is, /uu/ and /ii/ are allowed but */ui/ and */iu/ are not).[16] These two phenomena account for three long vowels and four diphthongs:[17] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (882 × 660 pixels, file size: 8 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (882 × 660 pixels, file size: 8 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ...

Vowel Example Gloss
/ii/ /biini/ 'tiny'
/aa/ /baaba/ 'barber'
/uu/ /buut/ 'booth'
/ia/ /biak/ 'bake'
/ai/ /baik/ 'bike'
/ua/ /buat/ 'boat'
/au/ /taun/ 'town'

Sociolinguistic variation

Jamaican Patois is a creole language that exhibits a gradation between more conservative creole forms and forms virtually identical to Standard English[18] (i.e. metropolitan Standard English). This situation came about with contact between speakers of a number of Niger-Congo languages and various dialects of English, the latter of which which were all perceived as prestigious and the use of which carried socio-economic rewards.[19] The span of a speaker's command of the continuum generally corresponds to the variety of social situations that they situate themselves in.[20] A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a nativized pidgin. ... Standard English is a nebulous term generally used to denote a form of the English language that is thought to be normative for educated users. ... The Niger-Congo languages constitute one of the worlds major language families, and Africas largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages. ...


Grammar

The tense/aspect system of Jamaican Patois is fundamentally unlike that of English. There are no morphological marked past tense forms corresponding to English -ed -t. There are 2 preverbial particles: 'en' and 'a'. These are not verbs, they are simply invariant particles which cannot stand alone like the English ‘to be’. Their function differs also from the English.


According to Bailey (1966), the progressive category is marked by /a~da~de/. Alleyne (1980) claims that /a~da/ marks the progressive and that the habitual aspect is unmarked but by its accompaniment with verbs like 'always', 'usually’, etc (i.e. is absent as a grammatical category). Mufwene (1984) and Gibson and Levy (1984) propose a past-only habitual category marked by /juusta/ as in /weɹ wi juusta liv iz not az kuol az iiɹ/ ('where we used to live is not as cold as here') [21]


For the present tense, an uninflected verb combining with an iterative adverb marks habitual meaning as in /tam aawez nuo kieti tel pan im/ ('Tom always knows when Katy tells/has told about him').[22]

  • 'en' is a 'tense indicator'
  • 'a' is an 'aspect marker'
  • '(a) go' is used to indicate the future
  • /mi ɹon/
    • I run (habitually); I ran
  • /mi a ɹon/ or /mi de ɹon/
    • I am running
  • /a ɹon mi dida ɹon/ or /a ɹon mi ben(w)en a ɹon/
    • I was running
  • /mi did ɹon/ or /mi ben(w)en ɹon/
    • I have run; I had run
  • /mi a go ɹon/
    • I am going to run; I will run

Like other Caribbean Creoles (that is, Guyanese Creole and Providence Island Creole; Sranan Tongo is excluded) /fi/ has a number of functions, including:[23] Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Sranan (also Sranan Tongo Surinamean tongue, Surinaams, Surinamese, Suriname Creole English) is a creole language spoken as a native language by approximately 120,000 people in Suriname. ...

  • Directional, dative, or benefactlve preposition
    • /dem a fait fi wi/ ('They are fighting for us')[24]
  • Genitive preposition (that is, marker of possession)
    • /dat a fi mi buk/ ('that's my book')
  • Modal auxiliary expressing obligation or futurity
    • /im fi kom op ja/ ('he ought to come up here')
  • Pre-infinitive complementizer
    • /unu hafi kiip samtiŋ faɹ de gini piipl-dem fi biit dem miuzik/ ('you have to contribute something to the Guinean People for playing their music')[25]

The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ...

The pronominal system

The pronominal system of Standard English has a four-way distinction of person, number, gender and case. Some varieties of Jamaican Patois do not have the gender or case distinction, though most do; but usefully, it does distinguish between the second person singular and plural (you).

  • I, me = /mi/
  • you, you (singular) = /ju/
  • he, him = /im/ (pronounced as [ĩ] in the basilect varieties)
  • she, her = /ʃi/ or /im/ (no gender distinction in basilect varieties)
  • we, us = /wi/
  • you, you (plural) = /unu/
  • they, them = /dem/

Copula

  • the Jamaican Patois equative verb is also 'a'
    • e.g. /mi a di tiitʃa/ ('I am the teacher')
  • Jamaican Patois has a separate locative verb 'deh'
    • e.g./wi de a london/ or /wi de ina london/ ('we are in London')
  • with true adjectives in Jamaican Patois, no copula is needed
    • e.g. /mi haadbak nau/ ('I am old now')

Negation

  • /no/ is used as a present tense negator:
    • /if kau no did nuo au im tɹuotuol tan im udn tʃaans pieɹsiid/ ('If the cow didn't know that his throat was capable of swallowing a pear seed, he wouldn't have swallowed it')[26]
  • /kiaan/ is used in the same way as English can't
    • /it a puoɹ tiŋ dat kiaan maʃ ant/ ('It is a poor thing that can't mash an ant')[27]
  • /neva/ is a negative past participle.[28]
    • /dʒan neva tiif di moni/ ('John did not steal the money')

Orthography

Because of its status as a non-standard language, there is no standard or official way of writing Jamaican Patois (for example the word 'there' can be written 'de', 'deh' or 'dere'; and the word for 'three' is most commonly spelt 'tree', but it can be spelt 'tri' or 'trii' to distinguish it from the noun tree). Often, Standard English spellings are used even when words are pronounced differently. At other times though, a spelling has become widespread even though it is neither phonetic nor standard (eg. 'pickney' = 'child'; in this case the spelling 'pikni' would be more phonetic). However, due to increased use on the internet and in e-mail in recent years, a user-driven process of partial standardization has been taking place.


Vocabulary

Jamaican Patois contains many loanwords. Primarily these come from English, but are also borrowed from Spanish, Portuguese, Hindi, and African languages. Examples from African languages include /dopi/ meaning 'ghost', from the Twi word adope; "obeah", also from Twi, meaning a type of African spell-casting or witchcraft (and also used as a popular scapegoat for common woes); /se/ meaning 'that' (in the sense of "he told me that..." = /im tel mi se/), taken from a West African language; the pronoun /unu/, used for "you (plural)", from Igbo. Words from Hindi include "nuh", "ganja" (marijuana), and "janga" (crawdad). "Pickney" or "pickiney" meaning 'child', taken from an earlier form piccaninny, was ultimately borrowed from the Portuguese pequenino (the diminutive of "pequeno" = small) or Spanish pequeño, ('small'). A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ... Twi (pronounced chwee ) is a language spoken in Ghana by about 7 million people. ... Obeah is a term used in the West Indies to refer to folk magic or sorcery. ... The Ibo are a group of people living in what is now Nigeria. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


There are many words referring to popular produce and food items - "ackee", "callaloo", "guinep", "bammy", "roti", "dal", "kamranga". See Jamaican cuisine. Binomial name K.D.Koenig The Ackee or Akee (Blighia sapida) is a member of the Sapindaceae (soapberry family), native to tropical West Africa in Cameroon, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote DIvoire, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. ... Amaranth Taro Xanthosoma This article is about Caribbean soup sometimes called pepperpot. ... It has been suggested that Chapati be merged into this article or section. ... Masoor dal Masoor dal prepared using traditional yellow dal recipe Dal (also spelled dhal, dahl, or daal, daar) is a preparation of pulses which have been stripped of their outer hulls and split, as well as a thick, spicy stew prepared therefrom, a mainstay of Indian and Pakistani cuisine. ... Jamaican cuisine is similar to most Caribbean Cuisines. ...


Jamaican Patois has its own rich variety of swearwords. One of the strongest is bloodclaat (along with related forms raasclaat, bomboclaat, pussyclaat and others - compare with "bloody" in Australian English, which is not considered swearing). Homosexual men are referred to as /biips/[29] or batty boys[citation needed]. Look up Profanity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bloody is the adjectival form of blood but may also be used as a swear word or expletive attributive (intensifier) in Britain, Ireland, Canada, South East Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and Sri Lanka. ... Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... Batty boy, battyman, pariss, chi chi man and chiefe are sexual slurs used in Jamaica, Belize, Guyana and the rest of the Anglophone Caribbean to describe gay men. ...


Example words and phrases

  • Three men swam.
    • /tri man did a suim/
  • I nearly hit him
    • /a didn mek dʒuok fi lik im/[30]
  • He can't beat me, he simply got lucky and won.
    • /im kiaan biit mi, a dʒos bokop im bokop an win/[31]
  • Those children are disobedient
    • /dem pikni de aad iez/
  • What are you doing?
    • /we ju a du/
  • /siin/ - Affirmative particle[32]
  • /papiˈʃuo/ - Foolish exhibition, a person who makes a foolish exhibition of themself, or an exclamation of surprise.[33]
  • /dem/ 'them' (also indicates plural when placed after a noun)
  • /se/ 'that' (conjunction for relative clauses)
  • /disia/ 'this' (used before nouns)
  • /ooman/ 'woman'
  • /buai/ 'boy'
  • /gial/ 'girl'

See also

A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a nativized pidgin. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Haile Selassie I Rastafarian vocabulary, or Iyaric, is part of an intentionally created dialect of English. ...

Examples of other Caribbean and African creoles

Antiguan Creole is a linguistic variety spoken in Antigua and Barbuda. ... Bahamian is spoken by approximately 400,000 people in the Bahamas, the Turks and Caicos Islands and the State of Florida. ... Bajan or as called by the industrialised world Barbadian Creole is an English-based creole language spoken by persons on the West Indian island of Barbados. ... Belizean Kriol, Kriol, or quite simply Belizean, is one of the main branches of Central American Creole English, closely related to Miskito Coastal Creole, Colón Creole, and San Andrés and Providencia Creole. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Haitian Creole (Kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language based on the French language. ... See also the Keriu language and Krio Dayak language of Indonesia. ... Nigerian Pidgin English is a version of English with Nigerian elements (words, gestures, and connotations) added in. ... Saint Kitts Creole is a linguistic variety spoken in Saint Kitts and Nevis. ... San Andrés-Providencia Creole is a linguistic variety spoken in San Andrés and Providencia department of Colombia. ... Virgin Islands Creole is an English-based creole dialect spoken in the Virgin Islands in the Caribbean. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Rickford (1987:?)
  2. ^ Meade (2001:19)
  3. ^ Patrick (1999:?)
  4. ^ Mark Sebba (1993), London Jamaican, London: Longman.
  5. ^ Lars Hinrichs (2006), Codeswitching on the Web: English and Jamaican Creole in E-Mail Communication. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.
  6. ^ Devonish & Harry (2004:456)
  7. ^ Harry (2006:127)
  8. ^ Harry (2006:126-127)
  9. ^ Harry (2006:126)
  10. ^ also transcribed as [kʲ] and [gʲ]
  11. ^ such as Cassidy & Le Page (1980:xxxix)
  12. ^ such as Harry (2006)
  13. ^ Devonish & Harry (2004:458)
  14. ^ Devonish & Harry (2004:456)
  15. ^ Cassidy (1971:40)
  16. ^ Harry (2006:128-129)
  17. ^ Harry (2006:128)
  18. ^ DeCamp (1961:82)
  19. ^ Irvine (2004:42)
  20. ^ DeCamp (1977:29)
  21. ^ Gibson (1988:199)
  22. ^ Mufwene (1984:218) cited in Gibson (1988:200)
  23. ^ Winford (1985:589)
  24. ^ Bailey (1966:32)
  25. ^ Patrick (1995:244)
  26. ^ Lawton (1984:126)
  27. ^ Lawton (1984:125)
  28. ^ Irvine (2004:43-44)
  29. ^ Patrick (1995:234)
  30. ^ Patrick (1995:248)
  31. ^ Hancock (1985:237)
  32. ^ Patrick (1995:253)
  33. ^ Hancock (1985:190)

Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ...

References

  • Alleyne, Mervyn C. (1980), Comparative Afro-American: An Historical Comparative Study of English-based Afro-American Dialects of the New World., Koroma
  • Bailey, Beryl, L (1966), Jamaican Creole Syntax, Cambridge UP
  • Cassidy, Frederic (1971), written at London, Jamaica Talk: Three Hundred Years of English Language in Jamaica, MacMillan Caribbean
  • Cassidy, Frederic & R. B. Le Page (1980), written at Cambridge, Dictionary of Jamaican English, Cambridge University Press
  • DeCamp, David (1961), "Social and geographic factors in Jamaican dialects", written at London, in Le Page, R. B., Creole Language Studies, Macmillan, 61-84
  • DeCamp, David (1977), "The Development of Pidgin and Creole Studies", written at Bloomington, in Valdman, A, Pidgin and Creole Linguistics, Indiana University Press
  • Devonish, H & Otelamate G. Harry (2004), "Jamaican phonology", written at Berlin, in Kortman, B, A Handbook of Varieties of English, vol. 1, Mouton De Gruyter, 441-471
  • Gibson, Kean (1988), "The Habitual Category in Guyanese and Jamaican Creoles", American Speech 63 (3): 195-202
  • Hancock, Ian (1985), "More on Poppy Show", American Speech 60 (2): 189-192
  • Harry, Otelemate G. (2006), "Jamaican Creole", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (1): 125-131
  • Irvine, Alison (2004), "A Good Command of the English Language: Phonological Variation in the Jamaican Acrolect", Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 19 (1): 41-76
  • Lawton, David (1984), "Grammar of the English-Based Jamaican Proverb", American Speech 2: 123-130
  • Meade, R.R. (2001), written at Dordrecht, Acquisition of Jamaican Phonology, Holland Institute of Linguistics
  • Patrick, Peter L. (1995), "Recent Jamaican Words in Sociolinguistic Context", American Speech 70 (3): 227-264
  • Patrick, Peter L. (1999), written at Amsterdam/Philadelphia, Urban Jamaican Creole: Variation in the Mesolect, Benjamins
  • Rickford (1987), written at Stanford, Dimensions of a Creole Continuum: History, Texts, Linguistic Analysis of Guyanese'', Stanford University Press
  • Winford, Donald (1985), "The Syntax of Fi Complements in Caribbean English Creole", Language 61 (3): 588-624

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