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Encyclopedia > Jamaica
Jamaica
Flag of Jamaica Coat of arms of Jamaica
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
"Out of many, one people"
Anthem
"Jamaica, Land We Love"
Royal anthem
"God Save the Queen"
Capital
(and largest city)
Kingston
17°59′N, 76°48′W
Official languages English
Demonym Jamaican
Government Constitutional monarchy (Parliamentary democracy)
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  Governor-General Kenneth Hall
 -  Prime Minister Bruce Golding
Independence
 -  from the United Kingdom 6 August 1962 
Area
 -  Total 10,991 km² (166th)
4,244 ) sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.5
Population
 -  July 2005 estimate 7 (138th)
 -  Density 252 /km² (49th)
653 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $11.69 billion (131st)
 -  Per capita $4,300 (114th)
GDP (nominal) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $9.730 billion (101st)
 -  Per capita $3,658 (79th)
Gini? (2000) 37.9 (medium
HDI (2004) 0.724 (medium) (104th)
Currency Jamaican dollar (JMD)
Time zone (UTC-5)
Internet TLD .jm
Calling code +1 876

Jamaica is an island nation of the Greater Antilles, 234 kilometres (146 mi) in length and as much as 80 kilometres (50 mi) in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. It is about 620 kilometres (385 mi) northeast of the Central American mainland, 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 190 kilometres (120 mi) west of the island of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. Its indigenous Arawakan-speaking Taíno inhabitants named the island Xaymaca, meaning either the "Land of Springs," or the "Land of Wood and Water." Formerly a Spanish possession known as Santiago, it later became the British West Indies Crown colony of Jamaica. It is the third most populous anglophone country in the Americas, after the United States and Canada. Major Mark Park Jamaica is a neighborhood in the borough of Queens in New York City. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Jamaica_coa. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The flag of Jamaica was adopted on August 6, 1962 which was the original Jamaican Independence Day. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Jamaica, Land We Love is the national anthem of Jamaica. ... A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nations monarch. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... Image File history File links LocationJamaica. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Population: 2,758,124 (July 2006 est. ... The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... The countries of the Commonwealth Realm share the same monarch. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The flag of the Governor-General of Jamaica The Governor General of Jamaica is Jamaicas defacto head of state. ... The Most Honourable Professor Kenneth Octavius Hall, ON, OJ (Born in Lucea, Jamaica April 24, 1941)is the current Governor-General of Jamaica. ... The Prime Minister of Jamaica is Jamaicas head of government, currently Portia Simpson-Miller. ... Bruce Golding (born on December 5, 1947 in Jamaica) is a Jamaican politician, and currently the head of the Jamaica Labour Party, the ruling party in the Jamaican parliament. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links Red_Arrow_Down. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: JMD) is the currency of Jamaica. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .jm is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Jamaica. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... The area code (876) is the local telephone area code of Jamaica. ... An island nation is a country that is wholly confined to an island or islands. ... The Greater Antilles, an island group in the Caribbean Sea, are part of the Antilles. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Early map of Hispaniola The island of Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... The Arawakan languages (also Arahuacan, Arawakanas, Arahuacano, Maipurean, Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúrean) are a hypothetical indigenous language family of South America and the Caribbean. ... Reconstruction of a Taíno village in Cuba The Taíno are pre-Columbian indigenous inhabitants of the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and some of the Lesser Antilles. ... Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Jamaica

The original Arawak or Taino people from South America first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC. Although some claim they became virtually extinct following contact with Europeans, others claim that some survived for a while. There is very little trace of the Arawak culture, and the Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Arawaks [1]. Jamaica, one of the largest Caribbean islands, was inhabited by Taíno natives. ... The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for cassava flour), was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in the Caribbean. ... The Taíno are the pre-Hispanic Amerindian inhabitants of the Greater Antilles, which includes Cuba, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, Jamaica and the Bahamas. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ...


Jamaica was claimed for Spain after Christopher Columbus first landed there in 1494. Columbus used it as his family's private estate. The English Admiral William Penn (father of William Penn of Pennsylvania) and General Venables seized the island in 1655. During its first 200 years of English (then British) rule, post Spanish rule, Jamaica became one of the world's leading sugar exporting nations and produced over 77,000 tons of sugar annually between 1820 and 1824, which was achieved through the massive use of imported African slave labour. After the abolition of the slave trade the British imported Indian and Chinese indentured servants in the early 1800s as more cheap labour. Many of the descendants of the Chinese and Indian indentured servants continue to reside in Jamaica today. Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Admiral Sir William Penn, 1621–1670 by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Slave redirects here. ... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, usually two to seven years, to pay off a passage to a new country or home. ...


By the beginning of the 19th century, the United Kingdom's heavy reliance on slavery resulted in blacks (Africans) outnumbering whites (Europeans) by a ratio of almost 20 to 1, leading to constant opportunities for revolt. Following a series of rebellions, slavery was formally abolished in 1834, with full emancipation from chattel slavery declared in 1838. This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ...


During the 1800’s a number of botanical gardens were established. These included the Castleton Garden in 1862 (set up to replace the Bath Garden which was established during the late 1770s and where breadfruit brought to Jamaica by Captain William Bligh was planted but which was subject to flooding), the Cinchona Plantation in 1868 and the Hope Garden during 1874. Inside the United States Botanic Garden Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants both for scientific purposes and for the enjoyment and education of visitors. ... Binomial name Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg The Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a tree and fruit native to the Malay Peninsula and western Pacific islands. ... 1814 portrait of William Bligh Vice-Admiral William Bligh FRS RN (9 September 1754 – 7 December 1817) was an officer of the British Royal Navy and colonial administrator. ... Species See text Cinchona L., is the name of a genus in Rubiaceae family, large evergreens that can grow over 10 metres tall. ... Fundamentally, a plantation is usually a large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or trees and the like is cultivated, usually by resident laborers. ...


In 1945, Sir Horace Hector Hearne became Chief Justice and Keeper of the Records in Jamaica and sat in the Supreme Court, Kingston between 1945 and 1950/1951 before going on to become Chief Justice in Kenya. 1892 - 1962. ... The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme... The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ... The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme...


Jamaica slowly gained increasing independence from the United Kingdom. In 1958, it became a province in the Federation of the West Indies, a federation among all of the British West Indies. Jamaica attained full independence by leaving the federation in 1962. National motto: Official language English Capital Chaguaramas Capitals coordinates Largest city {{{largestcity}}} {{{head_of_state}}} {{{current_head_of_state}}} {{{head_of_government}}} {{{current_head_of_government}}} Political system Constitutional monarchy Area  - Total   - % water Ranked % Population   - Total (1960)   - Density Ranked approx. ... Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ...


Strong economic growth averaging about six percent per annum marked its first ten years of independence under conservative governments led successively by Prime Ministers Alexander Bustamante, Donald Sangster and Hugh Shearer. The growth was fueled by strong investments in bauxite/alumina, tourism, manufacturing industry and to a lesser extent the agricultural sector. However, the initial optimism of the first decade was accompanied by a growing sense of inequality and a sense that the benefits of growth were not being experienced by the urban poor. This, combined with the effects of a slow-down in the global economy in 1970, prompted the electorate to change the government, electing the PNP (People's National Party) in 1972. However, despite efforts to create more socially equitable policies in education and health, Jamaica continued to lag economically, with its gross national product having fallen in 1980 to some twenty-five percent below the 1972 level. Rising foreign and local debt accompanied by large fiscal deficits resulted in the invitation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) financing from the USA and others, and the imposition of IMF austerity measures (with a greater than 25% interest rate per year). Sir William Alexander Clarke Bustamante (February 24, 1884 - August 6, 1977) was a conservative Jamaican politician and labor leader. ... Sir Donald Burns Sangster (October 26, 1911 - April 11, 1967) was a Jamaican politician and Prime Minister of Jamaica. ... Image:Http://www. ... “IMF” redirects here. ...


Economic deterioration continued into the mid 1980s, exacerbated by the closure of the first (Alpart) and third (Alcoa) largest alumina producers, significant reduction in production by the second largest (Alcan), the exit of Reynolds Jamaica Mines Ltd from the Jamaican industry and reduced flows from tourism. During the 1980s Jamaica was still a prosperous country though increases in crime and petty theft began to weigh on the island.


The early capital of Jamaica was Spanish Town in the parish of St. Catherine, the site of the old Spanish colonial capital. The Spanish named the town Santiago de la Vega. In 1655 when the English captured the island, much of the old Spanish capital was burned by the invading troops. The town was rebuilt by the English and renamed Spanish Town. It remained the capital until 1872, when the city of Kingston was named the capital under questionable circumstances. For other uses, see Spanish Town (disambiguation). ...

Map of Jamaica
Map of Jamaica

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Jamaica

Jamaica is a constitutional monarchy with the monarch being represented by a Governor-General.[1] The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who officially uses the title "Queen of Jamaica" when she visits the country or performs duties overseas on Jamaica's behalf. See Jamaican Royal Family. The Governor-General is nominated by the Prime Minister and the entire Cabinet and appointed by the monarch. All the members of the Cabinet are appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister. The monarch and the Governor-General serve largely ceremonial roles, apart from their potent reserve power to dismiss the Prime Minister or Parliament. Politics of Jamaica takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... This page lists Governors-General of Jamaica. ... Head of state or Chief of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchic or republican nation-state, federation, commonwealth or any other political state. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Prime Minister of Jamaica is Jamaicas head of government, currently Portia Simpson-Miller. ... In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government. ...


Jamaica's current Constitution was drafted in 1962 by a bipartisan joint committee of the Jamaican legislature. It came into force with the Jamaica Independence Act, 1962 of the United Kingdom Parliament, which gave Jamaica political independence. This was followed by a reformation of the island's flag. Parliament is the legislative branch of the government of Jamaica. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats...

The Parliament of Jamaica is bicameral, consisting of the House of Representatives (Lower House) and the Senate (Upper House). Members of the House (known as Members of Parliament or MPs) are directly elected, and the member of the House of Representatives who, in the Governor-General's best judgement, is best able to command the confidence of a majority of the members of that House, is appointed by the Governor-General to be the Prime Minister. Senators are appointed jointly by the Prime Minister and the parliamentary Leader of the Opposition. Image File history File linksMetadata Parliament. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Parliament. ... Parliament is the legislative branch of the government of Jamaica. ... Parliament is the legislative branch of the government of Jamaica. ... Image:WashingtonDC Capitol USA2. ... The Prime Minister of Jamaica is Jamaicas head of government, currently Portia Simpson-Miller. ... Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system. ...


In February 2006, Portia Simpson-Miller was elected by delegates of the ruling People's National Party (PNP) to replace P. J. Patterson as President of the Party. At the end of March 2006 when Patterson demitted office, Simpson-Miller became the first female Prime Minister of Jamaica. Former Prime Minister Patterson had held office since the 1992 resignation of Michael Manley. Patterson was re-elected three times, the last being in 2002. Portia Lucretia Simpson-Miller, ON, MP (born 12 December 1945 in Wood Hall, St. ... The Most Honourable Percival Noel James Patterson QC (born April 10, 1935) was the Prime Minister of Jamaica from 1992 to 2006. ... Michael Norman Manley (December 10, 1924 – March 6, 1997) was the fifth Prime Minister of Jamaica (1972 – 1980, 1989 – 1992). ...


On 3 September 2007, Bruce Golding of the Jamaica Labour Party was voted in as Prime Minister-Designate after achieving a 33 - 27 seat victory over Portia Simpson-Miller and the PNP in the 2007 Jamaican general election. Portia Simpson-Miller conceded defeat on the 5 September 2007.[2]On 11 September 2007, after being sworn in by Governor-General Kenneth Hall, The Hon. Bruce Golding assumed office as Prime Minister of Jamaica. Bruce Golding (born on December 5, 1947 in Jamaica) is a Jamaican politician, and currently the head of the Jamaica Labour Party, the ruling party in the Jamaican parliament. ... General elections were scheduled to be held in Jamaica on August 27, 2007. ... Bruce Golding (born on December 5, 1947 in Jamaica) is a Jamaican politician, and currently the head of the Jamaica Labour Party, the ruling party in the Jamaican parliament. ... The Prime Minister of Jamaica is Jamaicas head of government, currently Portia Simpson-Miller. ...


Jamaica has traditionally had a two-party system, with power often alternating between the People's National Party and Jamaica Labour Party (JLP).However,over the past decade a new political party called the National Democratic Movement [NDM] emerged in an attempt to challenge the two party system. However, the NDM has almost become irrelevant in the two party system as it garnered only 540 votes of the over 800,000 votes cast in the September 3 elections. Jamaica is a full and participating member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). A two-party system is a form of party system where two major political parties dominate the voting in nearly all elections. ... The Peoples National Party (PNP) is a democratic socialist Jamaican political party, founded by Norman Manley in 1938. ... The Jamaica Labour Party is a conservative political party in Jamaica. ... Map showing CARICOM members, associates and observers Seat of Secretariat Georgetown, Guyana Official languages English4 Membership  15 full members1  5 associate members2  7 observers3 Leaders  -  Secretary-General Edwin W. Carrington (since 1992)  -  CARICOM Heads of Government   Establishment  -  August 1, 1973  Website http://www. ...


Parishes

Hanover Saint Elizabeth Saint James Trelawny Parish Westmoreland Clarendon Manchester Saint Ann Saint Catherine Saint Mary Kingston Parish Portland Saint Andrew Saint Thomas

About this image
Main article: Parishes of Jamaica

Jamaica is divided into 14 parishes, which are grouped to three historic counties that have no administrative relevance. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jamaica is divided into fourteen parishes (capitals in parentheses)- Clarendon Parish (May Pen) Hanover Parish (Lucea) Kingston Parish (Kingston) Manchester Parish (Mandeville) Portland Parish (Port Antonio) Saint Andrew Parish (Half Way Tree) Saint Ann Parish (Saint Anns Bay) Saint Catherine Parish (Spanish Town) Saint Elizabeth Parish (Black River) Saint... Jamaica is divided into fourteen parishes (capitals in parentheses)- Clarendon Parish (May Pen) Hanover Parish (Lucea) Kingston Parish (Kingston) Manchester Parish (Mandeville) Portland Parish (Port Antonio) Saint Andrew Parish (Half Way Tree) Saint Ann Parish (Saint Anns Bay) Saint Catherine Parish (Spanish Town) Saint Elizabeth Parish (Black River) Saint...

Surrey is the easternmost of the three counties into which Jamaica is divided. ... Kingston is a parish of Jamaica. ... Location latitude 18°10 N longitude 75°27W Capital Town Port Antonio Major towns Buff Bay, County Surrey Area 814 square km Rank Jamaicas seventh largest parish Population 81,000 in 2001 Commerce Tourism, Agriculture Portland, with its capital town Port Antonio, is a parish located on Jamaica... Saint Andrew (capital Half Way Tree) is a parish, situated in the south east of Jamaica in the county of Surrey. ... Location latitude 18°05N, longitude 76°40W Capital City Morant Bay Major towns Port Morant, Yallahs, Bath, Seaforth, Golden Grove, County Surrey Area 742. ... Middlesex is the central of the three counties into which Jamaica is divided. ... Clarendon (capital May Pen) is a parish in Jamaica. ... Location latitude 17°51N, longitude 77°38W Capital Town Mandeville Major towns Christiana, Mile Gully, Newport, Porus, Williamsfield. ... Location latitude 18°12N, longitude 77°28W Capital Town Saint Anns Bay Major towns Ocho Rios, Browns Town, Runaway Bay, Claremont County Middlesex Area 1,212. ... Location latitude 18°15N, longitude 77°12W Capital town Spanish Town Other towns Portmore, Old Harbour, Ewarton, Linstead County Middlesex Area 1,192 square km Rank Jamaicas fourth largest parish Population 500,000 in 2001 Commerce Tourism, Agriculture, Manufacturing St Catherine (capital Spanish Town) is a parish... Saint Mary, Jamaica, is a parish located in the north, north eastern part of Jamaica. ... Cornwall is the westernmost of the three counties into which Jamaica is divided. ... Location latitude 18°25N, longitude 78°08W Capital City Lucea County Cornwall Area 430 sq km Rank Jamaicas second smallest parish Population 68,000 in 2001 Commerce Tourism, Agriculture, Manufactoring Hanover, (capital Lucea), is a parish, located on the north western tip of the island of Jamaica. ... Location latitude 18°15N, longitude 77°56W Capital town Black River other Towns Santa Cruz, Malvern, Junction, Balaclava, Prospect County Cornwall Area 1212. ... Location Latitude18°31N Longitude 77°59W Capital City Montego Bay Major towns Adelphi, Cambridge, Montpelier, Catadupa, Fairfield County Cornwall Area 595 square km Rank Jamaicas fourth smallest parish Population 178,000 in 2001 Commerce Tourism, Agriculture , Manufactoring St James is a parish, located on the north west... Location latitude 18°15N, longitude 77°46W Capital town Falmouth Major towns Clarks Town, Duncans, Wakefield, Wait-a-Bit, Albert Town County Cornwall Area 874 square km Rank Jamaicas fifth largest parish Population 74,000 in 2001 Commerce Agriculture, Manufactoring Trelawny (capital Falmouth) is a parish located... Location Latitude 18°21N Longitude unknown Capital Town Savanna-la-mar County Cornwall Area 807 square km Rank Jamaicas eighth largest parish Population 141,000 in 2001 Commerce Tourism, Agriculture Manufacturing Westmoreland is the westernmost parish in Jamaica, located on the south side of the island. ...

Geography

Main article: Geography of Jamaica

Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean, and the most populous English speaking island there. The island of Jamaica is home to the Blue Mountains inland and is surrounded by a narrow coastal plain. Most major towns and both cities are located on the coast. Chief towns include the capital city Kingston, Portmore, Spanish Town, Mandeville, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, and the city of Montego Bay. Map Of Jamaica Jamaica lies 145 kilometers south of Cuba and 160 kilometers west of Haiti. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... The Blue Mountains are a mountainous region of Jamaica. ... The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... Portmore is a coastal city in southern Jamaica, near Kingston. ... For other uses, see Spanish Town (disambiguation). ... Mandeville is the capital of Manchester Parish, Jamaica. ... View of Ocho Rios, taken from Shaw Park Gardens - 2006 Ocho Rios is a town on the northern coast of Jamaica, located in the parish of Saint Ann. ... Port Antonio is the capital of the parish of Portland on the northeastern coast of Jamaica, about 100 km from Kingston. ... Doctors Cave Beach Club is a popular tourist destination in Montego Bay Montego Bay is a city in Jamaica that contains Jamaicas largest airport, Sangster International Airport. ...


The climate in Jamaica is tropical, with hot and humid weather, although higher inland regions have a more temperate climate. Some regions on the south coast, such as the Liguanea Plain and the Pedro Plains are relatively dry rain-shadow areas.


Demographics

Population: 2,758,124 (July 2006 est. ...

Ethnic Origins

Jamaica's population consists mainly of people of West-African descent, comprising about 90.9% of the demographics. The Akan people of Ghana's influence is evidenced by the town of Accompong (Achiampong is a common family name in Ghana). Other populations on the island are as follows: East Indian 1.3%, White 0.2%, Chinese 0.2%,Lebanese 0.1%,Multiracial 7.3%. Immigration from countries such as China, Colombia, St. Lucia and many more areas of the Caribbean and South Asia have seen a steady rise.  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Akan may be: Akan people, an ethnic group from western Africa Akan States, any of several states organized in the 16th or 17th century by the Akan people Akan languages, a stock of dialects spoken by the Akan people Akan District, Hokkaido Akan, Hokkaido, a town in Akan District, Hokkaido... Accompong - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Indo-Jamaican or East Indian Jamaicans are People who are born in Jamaica who are descents of East Indian immigrants who came from India to the island as indentured workers. ... This article is about the color. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother of British extraction and a black father of American extraction. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


Skin Complexion

The motto of Jamaica is 'Out of Many, one people' And, in terms of genetic inheritance, there is much evidence that many 'African-Jamaicans' also have European ancestors [3]. This is primarily due to the widespread practice of white British plantation owners and overseers engaging in (often forced) sexual relations with African women [4] during the era of slavery and colonialism (or Maafa) (as well as the much less common practice of African men having sexual relations with British women). As a result, any well-travelled visitor to the island will immediately notice that the African-Jamaican population has many more people of a brown or light-brown complexion than is found in those regions of West Africa which provided the main sources of enslaved labourers (such as Nigeria or Ghana) [5]. Many (not all) of the African-European children of planters and overseers were given favoured status compared with African plantation slaves/workers. This included greater access to education, capital and land, as well as 'social acceptance'. This however was a common practice in countries involved in the slave trade [6] . The word Maafa (also known as the African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement) is derived from a Kiswahili word meaning disaster, terrible occurrence or great tragedy. ...


Language

The official language of Jamaica is English. Informally Jamaican Patois (pronounced patwah) is more commonly spoken by a majority of the population. British English or "The Queen's English" is the most obvious influence on patois, but it includes words and syntax from various African languages (including Akan and Yoruba); other European languages (Spanish, Portuguese and French); Pre-Columbian Caribbean languages (Arawak); and Asian languages (Hindi and Mandarin) which is evidence of the long standing mixing of the people. In general, patois differs from English in pronunciation, grammar, nominal orthography and syntax, having many intonations to indicate meaning and mood. The language's characteristics include pronouncing /θ/ as [t] and /ð/ as [d], and omitting some initial consonant sounds, principally /h/. For example, the word "there" is pronounced [dɪeɹ]. A number of linguists classify Jamaican Patois as a separate language, while others consider it to be a dialect of English. This does not cite its references or sources. ... Jamaican Creole, also known as Patois/(Patwa) or simply Jamaican, is an English/African-based language --not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English-- used primarily on the island of Jamaica. ... Akan may be: Akan people, an ethnic group from western Africa Akan States, any of several states organized in the 16th or 17th century by the Akan people Akan languages, a stock of dialects spoken by the Akan people Akan District, Hokkaido Akan, Hokkaido, a town in Akan District, Hokkaido... The Yoruba (Yorùbá in Yoruba orthography) are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in West Africa. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the two official languages of India, the other being English. ... Mandarin may mean: Mandarin (linguistics), a group of dialects of spoken Chinese, or more specifically, its standardized version, Standard Mandarin Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China, Vietnam and Korea, and in the United Kingdom and Canada, by analogy, any government bureaucrat Mandarin Airlines, a subsidiary of China Airlines Mandarin... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ...


Religion

65.3%[7] of Jamaica's population are Christians, the majority being Protestant, which is primarily due to the influence of British colonialism, and the later influence of denominations from the U.S. Today, the five largest denominations in Jamaica are: Church of God, Seventh-day Adventist, Baptist, Pentecostal and Anglican. This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... For other senses of this word, see denomination. ... Church of God is a name used by numerous, mostly unrelated bodies. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[1]) Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ...


The largest non-Christian religion is the Rastafari, which was founded on the island and reveres the late Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia. Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ... Haile Selassie I (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ...


Other non-Christian religions in Jamaica include: Bahai, Buddhism, Islam. Practisers of Spiritism can also be found on the island.[8] The West African folk cult of Obeah is found in poor urban and rural areas of Jamaica. Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Obeah is a term used in the West Indies to refer to folk magic or sorcery. ...


Emigration

Main article: Jamaican diaspora

Over the past several decades, close to a million[citation needed] Jamaicans have emigrated, especially to the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. This emigration appears to have been tapering off somewhat in recent years, however the great number of Jamaicans living abroad has become known as the "Jamaican diaspora". There has also been emigration of Jamaicans to Cuba.[9] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle in another country. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Concentrations of expatriate Jamaicans are large in a number of cities in the United States, including New York City, Buffalo, the Miami metro area, Atlanta, Orlando, Tampa, Washington, D.C, Philadelphia, Hartford and Los Angeles. In Canada, the Jamaican population is centred in Toronto; in the United Kingdom, Jamaican communities exist in most large cities where they make up the larger part of the British-Caribbean community. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... Location of metropolitan area in the state of Florida Major cities Miami, Florida Fort Lauderdale, Florida West Palm Beach, Florida Area  - Total  - Water 15,896 km² (6,137 mi²) 2,621 km² (1,011 mi²) 16. ... “Atlanta” redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in Orange County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State Counties Orange Government  - Mayor Buddy Dyer (D) Area  - City 101 sq mi (261. ... Nickname: Location in Hillsborough County and the state of Florida. ... ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Nickname: Location in Hartford County, Connecticut Coordinates: , Country State NECTA Hartford Region Capitol Region Named 1637 Incorporated (city) 1784 Consolidated 1896 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor Eddie Perez Area  - City  18. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... The Leicester Caribbean Carnival The British African-Caribbean (Afro-Caribbean) community are residents of the United Kingdom who are of West Indian background, and whose ancestors were indigenous to Africa. ...


Education

Main article: Education in Jamaica

The emancipation of the slaves heralded in the establishment of the Jamaican education system for the masses. Prior to emancipation there were some elite schools for the plantocracy. Others sent their children off to England to access quality education. Education in Jamaica is based primarily on the British model. ...


After emancipation the West Indian Commission granted a sum of money to establish Elementary Schools, now known as All Age Schools, for the children of the freed slaves. Most of these schools were established by the churches. This was the genesis of the stratified system of education that is still currently embedded in the policies of the 21st century.


Presently the following categories of schools exist:


Early childhood – Basic, Infant and privately operated pre- school. Age cohort – 1 – 5 years. Early Childhood Education is inclusive of Basic, Infant and privately operated pre- schools (Similar to the american kindergarten but it includes students who are just about ready for elementary or primary schools). ...


Primary – Publicly and privately owned (Privately owned being called Preparatory Schools). Ages 5 – 12 years. Primary education in Jamaica addresses the basic educational needs of students and prepares them for secondary education. ...


Secondary – Publicly and privately owned. Ages 12 – 18 years. The high schools in Jamaica may be either single-sex or co-educational institutions. Many follow the traditional English grammar school model e.g., St. Hugh's High School for Girls, Wolmer's Girls' and Boys' Schools, Calabar (boys) Baptist Missionary College first created for the education of former slaves and closely associated with the abolition movement (notably in the personage of William Knibb from Britain) and the establishment of the seminary which is the progenitor of the theological college at the University of the West Indies - one of the country's highest seats of learning (Mona campus),Cornwall College (Montego Bay) Kingston College (boys), Jamaica College (boys), St. George's College (boys), Convent of Mercy Academy (popularly known as Alpha) (girls), Camperdown High, Campion College and Vauxhall High (co-ed), Holy Childhood High School (girls),the Mount Alvernia High School (Montego Bay - girls)the St. Andrew High School for Girls, The Queen's School(girls) high school for girls, the Immaculate Conception High School (girls), Munro College (boys), Hampton School (girls), Clarendon College, St. Jago High School, Glenmuir High School (co-ed) Meadowbrook High School, and the Ardenne High School (co-ed) Excelsior High School; although there are several good technical high schools. Chief among these are the St. Andrew Technical High School, the St. Elizabeth Technical High School, Marymount High School (girls), Saint Mary High School (co-ed) and Kingston Technical High School. St. ...


Tertiary - Community Colleges, Teachers’ Colleges, Vocational Training Centres, Colleges and Universities - Publicly and privately owned. There are five local universities namely: The University of the West Indies (Mona Campus); the University of Technology, Jamaica formerly The College of Art Science and Technology (CAST); the Northern Caribbean University; the University College of the Caribbean and the International University of the Caribbean. Additionally there are many teacher training and community colleges including: Mico, Bethlehem Moravian, Moneague and Shortwood teacher-training colleges and Exed, Portmore and Montego Bay community colleges. The University of the West Indies, also known as UWI, is an autonomous regional institution supported by and serving 16 countries and territories in the Caribbean - Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Northern Caribbean University The Northern Caribbean University (NCU) is a tertiary level academic facility run by the Seventh Day Adventist Church in Jamaica. ...


There is no free education in Jamaica above the primary level. Although there isn't free education, there are opportunities for those who can't afford further education in the vocational arena through the Human Employment and Resource Training-National Training Agency (HEART Trust-NTA) programme and through an extensive scholarship network for the various universities.


Economy

Main article: Economy of Jamaica

Jamaica is a mixed, free-market economy with state enterprises as well as private sector businesses. Major sectors of the Jamaican economy include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism and financial and insurance services. Tourism and mining are the leading foreign exchange earners. Jamaica has natural resources, primarily bauxite, and an ideal climate conducive to agriculture and tourism. ...


Supported by multilateral financial institutions, Jamaica has, since the early 1980s, sought to implement structural reforms aimed at fostering private sector activity and increasing the role of market forces in resource allocation. Since 1991, the Government has followed a programme of economic liberalization and stabilization by removing exchange controls, floating the exchange rate, cutting tariffs, stabilising the Jamaican currency, reducing inflation and removing restrictions on foreign investment. Emphasis has been placed on maintaining strict fiscal discipline, greater openness to trade and financial flows, market liberalisation and reduction in the size of government. During this period, a large share of the economy was returned to private sector ownership through divestment and privatisation programmes.


The macroeconomic stabilisation programme introduced in 1991, which focused on tight fiscal and monetary policies, has contributed to a controlled reduction in the rate of inflation. The annual inflation rate has decreased from a high of 80.2% in 1991 to 7.9% in 1998. inflation for FY1998/99 was 6.2% compared to 7.2% in the corresponding period in CUU1997/98. The Government remains committed to lowering inflation, with a long-term objective of bringing it in line with that of its major trading partners.


After a period of steady growth from 1985 to 1995, real GDP decreased by 1.8% and 2.4% in 1996 and 1997, respectively. The decrease in GDP in 1996 and 1997 was largely due to significant problems in the financial sector and, in 1997, a severe island-wide drought (the worst in 70 years) that drastically reduced agricultural production. In 1997, nominal GDP was approximately J$220,556.2 million (US$6,198.9 million based on the average annual exchange rate of the period).

Fishing boats and bauxite cargo ships share the waterways near Alligator Pond, Jamaica
Fishing boats and bauxite cargo ships share the waterways near Alligator Pond, Jamaica

The economy in 1997 was marked by low levels of import growth, high levels of private capital inflows and relative stability in the foreign exchange market. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 806 KB)A schoolchild walks past a row of fishing boats on the beach near Alligator Pond, Jamaica. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 806 KB)A schoolchild walks past a row of fishing boats on the beach near Alligator Pond, Jamaica. ...


Recent economic performance shows the Jamaican economy is recovering. Agricultural production, an important engine of growth increased 15.3% in third quarter of 1998 compared to the corresponding period in 1997, signaling the first positive growth rate in the sector since January 1997. Bauxite and alumina production increased 5.5% from January to December, 1998 compared to the corresponding period in 1997. January's bauxite production recorded a 7.1% increase relative to January 1998 and continued expansion of alumina production through 2009 is planned by Alcoa [2]. Tourism, which is the largest foreign exchange earner, showed improvement as well. In the third quarter of 1998, growth in tourist arrivals accelerated with an overall increase of 8.5% in tourism earnings in 1998 when compared to the corresponding period in 1997. Bauxite with penny Bauxite with core of unweathered rock Bauxite is an aluminium ore. ... Aluminium oxide (or aluminum oxide) (Al2O3) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen. ... “Tourist” redirects here. ...


Jamaica has a wide variety of industrial and commercial activities. The aviation industry[3] is able to perform most routine aircraft maintenance, except for heavy structural repairs. There is a considerable amount of technical support for transport and agricultural aviation. Jamaica has a considerable amount of industrial engineering, light manufacturing, including metal fabrication, metal roofing, and furniture manufacturing. Food and beverage processing, glassware manufacturing, computer software and data processing, printing and publishing, insurance underwriting, music and recording, and advanced education activities can be found in the larger urban areas. The Jamaican construction industry is entirely self-sufficient, with professional technical standards and guidance.


Since the first quarter of 2006, the economy of Jamaica has undergone a period of staunch growth. With inflation for the 2006 calendar year down to 6.0% and unemployment down to 8.9%, the nominal GDP grew by an unprecedented 2.9%[4]. An investment programme in island transportation and utility infrastructure and gains in the tourism, mining, and service sectors all contributed this figure. All projections for 2007 show an even higher potential for economic growth with all estimates over 3.0% and hampered only by urban crime and public policies.


In 2006, Jamaica became part of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) as one of the pioneering members. Map showing CARICOM members, associates and observers Seat of Secretariat Georgetown, Guyana Official languages English4 Membership  15 full members1  5 associate members2  7 observers3 Leaders  -  Secretary-General Edwin W. Carrington (since 1992)  -  CARICOM Heads of Government   Establishment  -  August 1, 1973  Website http://www. ... Flag of CARICOM and the CSME The CARICOM Single Market and Economy also known as the Caribbean Single Market and Economy or CSME is an integrated development strategy envisioned at the 10th Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community which took place in July 1989...


International trade

Exports: (1999) 1,238 billion $ (Natural resources: 55.7%, Food 19.1%, Bananas 4%, Chemicals 3.6%, Machinery 2.2%). The main export countries: USA 33.4% , United Kingdom 13.4%, France 5%, Germany 4%, Canada 14.1%, Netherlands 10.2%, Norway 5.8%, Japan 2.3%. Imports: (1999) 2,89 billion $ (Energy 50.5%, Machinery and Equipment 7.6%, Consumer goods 33.2%). The main import countries: USA 48.1%, Trinidad and Tobago 7.8%, Japan 6.9%, United Kingdom 3.7%, France 5%, Canada 3%. Exports and Imports (January 2007) Exports : (January 2007) Total Goods Exports 166,495 (US$000) (General Merchandise Exports 93.4%, Freezone Exports 2.6%, Goods Procured in Ports 4.0%) Imports: (January 2007) : Total Goods Import 511,015 (US$000); General Merchandise Imports 97.8%, Freezone Imports 0.3%, Goods Procured in Ports 1.8%)


Infrastructure

The transportation infrastructure in Jamaica consists of roadways, railways, ship and air transport – with roadways forming the backbone of the island's internal transportation system. The Jamaican road network is comprised of almost 21,000 kilometres of roads, of which over 15,000 kilometres is paved.[10] The Jamaican Government has, since the late 1990s and in cooperation with private investors, embarked on a campaign of infrastructural improvement projects, one of which includes the creation of a system of freeways, the first such access-controlled roadways of their kind on the island, connecting the main population centers of the island. This project has so far seen the completion of 33 kilometres of freeway. This page is related to transport; you may be looking for the 2002 Bollywood movie Road. ... A container ship // “Water transport” redirects here. ... Look up aviation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... This article is about the American English usage of pavement as the durable surfacing of roads and walkways. ... The Queen of Jamaica The 1962 Constitution established a parliamentary system based on the United Kingdom model. ... Interstate 80 (Eastshore Freeway) in Berkeley, California: a typical American freeway (MUTCD definition) A freeway, also known as a highway, superhighway, autoroute, autobahn, autostrada, dual carriageway, expressway, Autosnelweg or motorway, depending on the country of discussion, is a type of road designed for safer high-speed operation of motor vehicles... Interstate 80 (Eastshore Freeway) in Berkeley, California: a typical American freeway (MUTCD definition) A freeway, also known as a highway, superhighway, autoroute, autobahn, autostrada, dual carriageway, expressway, Autosnelweg or motorway, depending on the country of discussion, is a type of road designed for safer high-speed operation of motor vehicles...


Railways in Jamaica, as in many other countries, no longer enjoy the prominent position they once did, having been largely replaced by roadways as the primary means of transport. Of the 272 kilometres of railway found in Jamaica, only 57 kilometres remain in operation, currently used to transport bauxite.[10] There are two airports in Jamaica with the modern terminals, long runways, and navigational equipment required to accommodate the large jet aircraft used in modern air travel: Norman Manley International Airport in Kingston and Sangster International Airport in the resort town of Montego Bay. In addition there are local commuter airports at Tinson Pen (Kingston), Port Antonio, Ocho Rios, Mandeville, and Negril for internal flights only. Many other small, rural centers are served by private fields on sugar estates or bauxite mines. Bauxite with penny Bauxite with core of unweathered rock Bauxite is an aluminium ore. ... An airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer from ground transportation to the facilities that allow them to board airplanes. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... A Silk Air Airbus A320-200 in the air. ... Norman Manley International Airport (IATA: KIN, ICAO: MKJP) is an airport in Kingston, Jamaica. ... The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... The entrance of Sangster Airport. ... Resorts combine a hotel and a variety of recreations, such as swimming pools. ... Doctors Cave Beach Club is a popular tourist destination in Montego Bay Montego Bay is a city in Jamaica that contains Jamaicas largest airport, Sangster International Airport. ... Tinson Pen Aerodrome (IATA: KTP, ICAO: MKTP) in Kingston, Jamaica is the largest of Jamaicas four domestic airports. ...


Owing to its location in the Caribbean Sea in the shipping lane to the Panama Canal and relative proximity to large markets in North America and emerging markets in Latin America, Jamaica receives high container traffic. The container terminal at the Port of Kingston has undergone large expansion in capacity in recent years to handle growth both already realised as well as that which is projected in coming years.[11] In addition, as the island is a large exporter of bauxite, there is considerable freighter traffic. Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... A sea lane is regularly used route for ocean-going vessels. ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Emerging markets are those countries that are on their way from a less developed to a developed country. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey. ... A container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are loaded or unloaded from ships to land vehicles, for further transport. ... Bauxite with penny Bauxite with core of unweathered rock Bauxite is an aluminium ore. ... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ...


Energy

Jamaica depends on petroleum imports to satisfy its national energy needs[12]. Many test sites have been explored for oil, but no commercially viable quantities have been found[13]. The most convenient sources of imported oil and motor fuels (diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel) are Mexico and Venezuela. Jamaica's electrical power is produced by diesel (bunker oil) generators located in Old Harbour. Jamaica imports approximately 80,000 barrels of oil energy products per day[14], including asphalt and lubrication products. Just 20% of imported fuels are used for road transportation, the rest being used by the bauxite industry, electricity generation, and aviation. Jamaica produces enormous quantities of hydrous ethanol (5% water content), most of which appears to be consumed as beverages, and none of it used as motor fuel. Facilities exist to refine hydrous ethanol feedstock into anhydrous ethanol (0% water content), but the process appears to be uneconomic at this time and the facility remains idle[15].


Communication

Jamaica has a fully digital telephone communication system with a mobile penetration of over 95%.[5] The country’s three mobile operators - Cable and Wireless (marketed as bmobile), Digicel, and Oceanic Digital (operating as MiPhone) - have spent millions in network upgrade and expansion. The Irish owned Digicel has become a generic term for mobile phones in Jamaica. Both Digicel and Oceanic Digital were granted licenses in 2001 to operate mobile services in the newly liberalised telecom market that had once been the sole domain of the incumbent Cable and Wireless monopoly. Digicel opted for the more widely used GSM wireless system, while Oceanic opted for the CDMA standard. Cable and Wireless, which had begun with TDMA standard, subsequently upgraded to GSM, and currently utilises both standards on its network. With wireless usage increasing, land lines supplied by Cable and Wireless have declined from just over half a million to roughly about three hundred thousand as of 2006.[6] In a bid to grab more market share, Cable and Wireless recently launched a new land line service called HomeFone Prepaid that would allow customers to pay for minutes they use rather than pay a set monthly fee for service, much like prepaid wireless service. A new entrant to the Jamaican communications market, Flow Jamaica, recently laid a new submarine cable connecting Jamaica to the United States. This new cable increases the total number of submarine cables connecting Jamaica to the rest of the world to four. In its 'Watch, Talk,Click' campaign, Flow Jamaica is also currently rolling out several residential services: Cable Television, Digital Telephone, and Broadband Internet. Island-wide coverage however, is not yet available. Digital telephony is a technology used in the provision of digital telephone services and systems. ... Cable & Wireless (West Indies) Ltd. ... The green bMobile logo is used to market mobile services by Cable and Wireless and affiliated companies. ... Digicel is the leading mobile phone network provider in the Caribbean region. ... Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... General Information Generically (as a multiplexing scheme), code division multiple access (CDMA) is any use of any form of spread spectrum by multiple transmitters to send to the same receiver on the same frequency channel at the same time without harmful interference. ... Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared medium (usually radio) networks. ... A landline or main line is a telephone line which travels through a solid medium, either metal wire or optical fibre. ... Pay As You Go, often shortened to PAYG, is used as a general term for the concept of a prepay mobile phone. ... Columbus Communications is a cable television and Broadband speed Internet service provider. ... The multitude of layers in a submarine communications cable is revealed by its Cross section. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... Digital telephony is a technology used in the provision of digital telephone services and systems. ... A WildBlue Satellite Internet dish. ...


Two more licenses were auctioned by the Jamaican government to provide mobile services on the island, including one that was previously owned by AT&T Wireless but never utilised, and one new licence. Industry analysts argue that with a near market saturation, there is very little room for new operators. AT&T Wireless Services, Inc. ...


Military

The Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) is the small but professional military force of Jamaica. The JDF is based upon the British military model with organisation, training, weapons and traditions closely aligned with Commonwealth realms. Once chosen, officer candidates are sent to one of several British or Canadian basic officer courses depending upon which arm of service they are selected for. Enlisted soldiers are given basic training at JDF Training Depot, Newcastle or Up Park Camp, both in St. Andrew. As on the British model, NCOs are given several levels of professional training as they rise up the ranks. Additional military schools are available for speciality training in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom. Badge of the JDF Roundel of Jamaica Defence Force Air Wing The Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) is the overall name given to the combined armed forces of Jamaica. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ...


The JDF is directly descended from the British West Indies Regiment formed during the colonial era. The West Indies Regiment was used extensively by the British Empire in policing the empire from 1795 to 1926. Other units in the JDF heritage include the early colonial Jamaica Militia, the Kingston Infantry Volunteers of WWI and reorganised into the Jamaican Infantry Volunteers in World War II. The West Indies Regiment was reformed in 1958 as part of the West Indies Federation. The dissolution of the Federation resulted in the establishment of the JDF. The West India Regiments (WIR) were British colonial infantry regiments. ... Flag Motto To dwell together in unity Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Chaguaramas Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General Lord Hailes Prime minister Grantley Herbert Adams¹ History  - Established January 3, 1958  - Disestablished May 31, 1962 Area  - 1960 20,253 km² Population  - 1960 est. ...


The Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) comprises an infantry Regiment and Reserve Corps, an Air Wing, a Coast Guard fleet and a supporting Engineering Unit. The infantry regiment contains the 1st, 2nd and 3rd (National Reserve) battalions. The JDF Air Wing is divided into three flight units, a training unit, a support unit and the JDF Air Wing (National Reserve). The Coast Guard element is divided between sea-going crews and support crews. It conducts maritime safety and maritime law enforcement as well as defence-related operations. The support battalion contains a Military Police platoon as well as vehicle, armourers and supply units. The 1st Engineer Regiment provides military engineering support to the JDF. The Headquarters JDF contains the JDF Commander, Command Staff as well as Intelligence, Judge Advocate office, Administrative and Procurement sections.


In recent years the JDF has been called upon to assist the nation's police, the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF) in fighting drug smuggling and a rising crime rate which includes one of the highest murder rates in the world. JDF units actively conduct armed patrols with the JCF in high-crime areas and known gang neighbourhoods. There has been vocal controversy as well as support of this JDF role. In early 2005, an Opposition leader, Edward Seaga, called for the merger of the JDF and JCF. This has not garnered support in either organisation nor among the majority of citizens. The Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF) is the police force of the island nation of Jamaica. ...


Culture

Though a small nation, Jamaica is rich in culture, and has a strong global presence. The musical genres reggae, ska, mento, rocksteady, dub, and, more recently, dancehall and ragga all originated in the island's vibrant popular urban recording industry. Internationally known reggae musician Bob Marley was born in Jamaica and is very respected there. Many other internationally known artists were born in Jamaica including Lee "Scratch" Perry, Peter Tosh, Bunny Wailer, Jimmy Cliff, Dennis Brown, Desmond Dekker, Beres Hammond, Beenie Man, Shaggy, Grace Jones, Shabba Ranks, Supercat, Buju Banton, Sean Paul, I Wayne, Capleton, Bounty Killer and many others. Famous band artist groups that came from Jamaica include Black Uhuru, Third World Band, Inner Circle, Chalice Reggae Band, Fab Five, and Morgan Heritage. The genre jungle emerged from London's Jamaican diaspora. The birth of hip-hop in New York also owed much to the city's Jamaican community. Jamaican culture represents a rich blend of cultures that have inhabited the island. ... Jamaica is known as the birthplace of many popular musical genres including raggamuffin, ska, reggae and dub. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Ska (pron. ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ... Lee Scratch Perry Lee Scratch Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry, on March 20, 1936, in Kendal, Jamaica) is a reggae and dub artist, who has been highly influential in the development and acceptance of reggae and dub music in Jamaica and overseas. ... Peter Tosh (October 19, 1944 – September 11, 1987[1]) was the guitarist in the original Wailing Wailers, a pioneer reggae musician, and a trailblazer for the Rastafari movement. ... Bunny Wailer, also known as Bunny Livingston (born April 10, 1947), was an original member of reggae group The Wailers along with Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. ... Jimmy Cliff, real name James Chambers OM (Jamaica) (born April 1, 1948, in St Catherine, Jamaica) is a Jamaican reggae musician, best known among mainstream audiences for songs like Sittin in Limbo, You Can Get It If You Really Want and Many Rivers to Cross from The Harder They Come... The Promised Land compiled by Blood and Fire Dennis Emanuel Brown (February 1, 1957 – July 1, 1999) was a Jamaican reggae singer. ... Desmond Dekker (July 16, 1941 – May 25, 2006) was a Jamaican ska and reggae singer and songwriter. ... Beres Hammond (b. ... Beenie Man (born Anthony Moses Davis August 22, 1973 in Kingston, Jamaica), is among the most popular reggae entertainers and is a well established dancehall artist. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shaggy (artist). ... Grace Jones (born Grace Mendoza on May 19, 1948, in Spanish Town, Jamaica) is a model, singer and actress. ... Shabba Ranks (born Rexton Rawlston Fernando Gordon, 17 January 1966, Sturgetown, St Anns, Jamaica) is a Jamaican dancehall recording artist. ... Super Cat (born William Maragh in Kingston, Jamaica) is a famous dancehall reggae musician who came to prominence in the late 1980s and even more so in the early 1990s. ... Boobs Banton (performing at Ilosaarirock, 2006) Boobs Banton (born Mark Anthony Myrie 1972) is a Jamaican dancehall, ragga, and reggae singer & producer. ... This article is about the Jamaican reggae artist. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Capleton, born Clifton George Bailey III on 13 April 1967 in the parish of St Mary, Jamaica is a reggae and dancehall artist. ... Bounty Killer (born Rodney Basil Price June 12, 1972 in Kingston, Jamaica) is a Jamaican reggae and dancehall deejay, known for his hard work in combating poverty and helping new artists. ... Black Uhuru is a Jamaican reggae band probably best known for their hits Shine Eye Gal, Guess Whos Coming to Dinner, Sinsemilla, Solidarity, and What Is Life?. They were the first group to win a Grammy in the reggae category when it was introduced in 1985. ... Third World remains one of Jamaicas most successful international reggae acts. ... Inner circle may refer to: The Inner Circle, a secret organization in Max Payne The Inner Circle, an early name for the central circuit route of the London Underground that is now known as the Circle Line friendship networks, where inner circle may describe the closest of friends a social... Chalice started in the 1980s and had tremendous local success but was not as successful on the international stage. ... The group nickname Fab Five is a play on the Fab Four, a famous nickname for The Beatles. ... Morgan Heritage is a reggae band formed by five children of famed reggae-artist Denroy Morgan. ... Jungle music is one of the most deviant and punkish forms of electronic music, employing fast tempos (150-190 BPM is common), layering extended and mangled breakbeats on top of throbbing, authoritative basslines, originally borrowed from reggae. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ...


Christianity remains a strong influence on cultural life, particularly in music. Most people learn their music at church, and Biblical references are often used in popular songs. It is not uncommon for musicians to be playing dancehall music on Saturday night, and church music on Sunday morning. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ...


The Rastafari movement was founded in Jamaica. This Back to Africa movement believes that Haile Selassie of Ethiopia was God incarnate, the returned black messiah, come to take the lost Twelve Tribes of Israel back to live with him in Holy Mount Zion in a world of perfect peace, love and harmony. Bob Marley, a convert to the faith, spread the message of Rastafari to the world. There are now estimated to be more than a million Rastafarians throughout the world. Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ... Afrocentrism is an outlook or worldview centered on Africa and the descendants of African peoples, much the way Eurocentrism is centered on Europe and Europeans. ... Haile Selassie Emperor Haile Selassie I (Power of Trinity) (born Lij Tafari Makonnen, July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975), styled His Imperial Majesty (or HIM), was the Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is the religious symbol for God incarnate among the Rastafari movement. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Incarnation, which literally means enfleshment, refers to the DNA-encoding, conception, and live birth of a sentient creature (generally human) who is the material manifestation of an entity or force whose original nature is immaterial. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oi on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ...


Ian Fleming, who lived in Jamaica, repeatedly used the island as a setting in the James Bond novels, including Live and Let Die, Doctor No, For Your Eyes Only, The Man with the Golden Gun and Octopussy. In addition, James Bond uses a Jamaica based cover in Casino Royale. So far, the only Bond film to have been set in Jamaica is Doctor No. However, filming for the fictional island of San Monique in Live and Let Die was shot in Jamaica. Ian Lancaster Fleming (May 28, 1908 – August 12, 1964) was a British author, journalist and Second World War Navy Commander. ... Flemings image of James Bond; commissioned to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists. ... Live and Let Die is the second novel in Ian Flemings James Bond series. ... 2002 reissue of the original novel. ... This article is about the James Bond book and short story. ... The Man with the Golden Gun is the thirteenth (counting the short story collection For Your Eyes Only) and final James Bond novel written by Ian Fleming and posthumously published in the United Kingdom and the United States by Glidrose Productions, in 1965. ... Octopussy and The Living Daylights (sometimes published as Octopussy) is the fourteenth and final James Bond book written by Ian Fleming. ... Casino Royale by Ian Fleming was the first James Bond novel. ... Dr. No is a 1962 spy film. ... James Bond chases May Day through Paris after she parachutes from the Eiffel Tower in A View to a Kill James Bond locations refers to the many locations in which the James Bond series of films were filmed and set in, and the locations where the books were set in. ... 2002 Penguin Books paperback edition Live and Let Die is the second James Bond novel by Ian Fleming, first published in 1954. ...


The American film Cocktail, starring Tom Cruise, is one of the most popular films to depict Jamaica. A look at delinquent youth in Jamaica is presented in the 1970s cops-and-robbers musical film The Harder They Come, starring Jimmy Cliff as a frustrated (and psychopathic) reggae musician who descends into a murderous crime spree. Cocktail movie poster Cocktail was a hit movie released by Touchstone Pictures in 1988. ... Tom Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV on July 3, 1962) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and film producer. ... The Harder They Come is a 1972 Jamaican crime film directed by Perry Henzell. ... Jimmy Cliff, real name James Chambers OM (Jamaica) (born April 1, 1948, in St Catherine, Jamaica) is a Jamaican reggae musician, best known among mainstream audiences for songs like Sittin in Limbo, You Can Get It If You Really Want and Many Rivers to Cross from The Harder They Come...


Errol Flynn lived with his third wife Patrice Wymore in Port Antonio in the 1950s. He was responsible for developing tourism to this area, popularising raft trips down rivers on bamboo rafts.[16] Errol Leslie Thomson Flynn (June 20, 1909 – October 14, 1959) was an Australian film actor, most famous for his romantic swashbuckler roles in Hollywood films and his flamboyant lifestyle. ... Port Antonio is the capital of the parish of Portland on the northeastern coast of Jamaica, about 100 km from Kingston. ...

  • National Bird — Doctor Bird (Green-and-black Streamertail, Trochilus polytmus)
  • National Flower — Lignum Vitae (Guaiacum officinale)
  • National Tree — Blue Mahoe (Hibiscus elatus)
  • National Dish — Ackee and Saltfish (dried salted Cod)
  • National Motto — "Out of Many, One People." (Unity among many cultures and races.)

Binomial name Trochilus polytmus Linnaeus, 1758 The Green-and-black Streamertail or Doctor Bird, Trochilus polytmus, is a long-tailed hummingbird. ... Binomial name Trochilus polytmus Linnaeus, 1758 The Green-and-black Streamertail or Doctor Bird, Trochilus polytmus is a long-tailed hummingbird. ... Lignum vitae is the heartwood of species of the genus Guaiacum, the trees of which are usually called guayacan. ... Species Six species, including: Guaiacum officinale Guaiacum sanctum Guaiacum is a small genus of six species of shrubs and trees in the family Zygophyllaceae, native to subtropical and tropical regions of the Americas. ... The Blue Mahoe is the national tree of Jamaica. ... Species Over 200 species Hibiscus, or rosemallow, is a large genus of about 200–220 species of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae, native to warm temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. ... Binomial name K.D.Koenig The Ackee or Akee (Blighia sapida) is a member of the Sapindaceae (soapberry family), native to tropical West Africa in Cameroon, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote DIvoire, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. ... the world is coming to the end!!!!! cod is going to eat up alive and do us hard up the emmm. ...

Sport

Jamaicans, in general, have a large interest in sports. Cricket, Football (soccer), athletics and horse-racing are several popular sports. The Jamaican national cricket team competes regionally, and also provides players for the West Indies. The national football team qualified for the 1998 FIFA World Cup. The athletics team has been well represented at the Olympics, World Championships and other major athletics events over the years with leading athletes obtaining medals. Asafa Powell, world record holder in the 100m for men at 9.74s is among a rich heritage of Jamaican athletes to compete on the world stage. The bobsled team has been a serious contender in the Winter Olympics, beating many well-established teams. Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... A womens 400m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track. ... Monmouth Racetrack in New Jersey in May 2005. ... The Jamaica cricket team is the representative first class cricket team of Jamaica. ... Learie Constantine, was one of the first great West Indian players. ... First international Haiti 1 - 2 Jamaica (Haiti; March 9, 1925) Biggest win Jamaica 12 - 0 BVI (Grand Cayman, Cayman Isls. ... For the club competition, see FIFA Club World Cup. ... Olympic Games Summer Olympic Games Medal count Winter Olympic Games Medal count Olympic sports Medal counts Participating NOCs Olympic symbols Olympics WikiProject Olympics Portal Athens 2004 • Beijing 2008 Torino 2006 • Vancouver 2010 ... The Jamaican Bobsled Team first gained fame during their debut in the 1988 Winter Olympic Games in Calgary. ...


There is a notable amount of golf in Jamaica, but it appears to be focused on the international tourism market. A typical first-class golf estate is the Tryall Club near Montego Bay. Also near to Montego Bay is the White Witch course, and Cinnamon Hill. Jamaican nationals do not appear to engage with golf to any great extent.


Crime

A darker side of Jamaican culture is endemic, high levels of violent crime. Jamaica has had one of the highest murder rates in the world for many years ranking third after South Africa and Brazil according to UN estimates.[7] Jamaica's Former Prime Minister P.J. Patterson described the situation as "a national challenge of unprecedented proportions".[8] Some commentators associate the high levels of violence with the thousands of Jamaican criminals being deported back to the island each year from the United States, Britain and Canada alone, and in recent years Jamaican murder rates have reached in excess of 575% of those in the United States on a per capita basis. [9]


See also

Jamaican cuisine is similar to most Caribbean Cuisines. ...

References

  1. ^ The Monarchy Today: Queen and Commonwealth. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  2. ^ BBC News: Jamaica confirms opposition win. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  3. ^ Parra et al, Esteban (1998-11-25), "Estimating African American Admixture Proportions by Use of Population Specific Alleles", The American Journal of Human Genetics 63 (6), <http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v63n6/980409/980409.html?erFrom=-3799090172275691412Guest> (retrieved on 2007-09-16)
  4. ^ Burnard, Trevor (, 2004). Mastery, Tyranny, and Desire: Thomas Thistlewood and His Slaves in the Anglo-Jamaican World. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-333-48030-9. 
  5. ^ Parra et al, Esteban (1998-11-25), "Estimating African American Admixture Proportions by Use of Population Specific Alleles", The American Journal of Human Genetics 63 (6), <http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v63n6/980409/980409.html?erFrom=-3799090172275691412Guest> (retrieved on 2007-09-16)
  6. ^ Jordan, Winthrop D (1968). White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812. University of North Carolina Press, 177. ISBN 978-0807845509. 
  7. ^ Jamaican Census Figures. Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  8. ^ Country Profile: Jamaica. religiousintelligence.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  9. ^ Jamaicans to Cuba
  10. ^ a b The CIA World Factbook - Jamaica Retrieved June 27 2007.
  11. ^ The Jamaica Observer Retrieved June 27 2007.
  12. ^ Jamaica. The World Factbook. CIA (2007-08-16). Retrieved on 2007-08-19. “Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2004 est.) Oil - consumption: 72,080 bbl/day (2004 est.)”
  13. ^ Petroleum Corp of Jamaica, Petroleum Industry Statistics. Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  14. ^ Petroleum Corp of Jamaica, Petroleum Industry Statistics. Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  15. ^ Petroleum Corp of Jamaica, Petrojam Ethanol. Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  16. ^ Dr. Rebecca Tortello The History of Jamaica - Captivated by Jamaica

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Thistlewood (1721-1786) was a British estate overseer and small landowner in western Jamaica. ... The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Chapman, V.J. 1961. The Marine Algae of Jamaica. Part 1. Myxophyceae and Chlorophyceae. Institute of Jamaica.
  • Chapman, V.J. 1963. The Marine Algae of Jamaica. Part 2. Phaeophyceas and Rhodophyceae. Institute of Jamaica.

External links

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Jamaica was in 1660, when "the relicts of the army" were stated to be 2200, and the planters, merchants, and others about the same number.
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Jamaica was ceded to England by the treaty of Madrid in 1670.
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