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Jam from berries
Jam from berries

Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruit's natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. Jam and its variations are often spread on bread, and used as a culinary sweetener, for example in yoghurt. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 641 KB) Jam, picture taken by user:donarreiskoffer, File links The following pages link to this file: Jam ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 641 KB) Jam, picture taken by user:donarreiskoffer, File links The following pages link to this file: Jam ... Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured) or small blocks, and often served using a butterknife. ... Salt, sugar and pepper are the most essential condiments in Western cuisine. ... Pectin is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of plants. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Yoghurt or yogurt, or less commonly yoghourt or yogourt (see spelling below), is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ...

Contents

Jams, jellies and fruit butters

The terms jam and jelly are used in different parts of the world in different ways.


Properly, the term jam refers to a product made with whole fruit, cut into pieces or crushed. The fruit is heated with water and sugar to activate the pectin in the fruit. The mixture is then put into containers. The following extract from a US cookbook describes the process.

"Jams are usually made from pulp and juice of one fruit, rather than a combinations of several fruits. Berries and other small fruits are most frequently used, though larger fruits such as apricots, peaches, or plums cut into small pieces or crushed are also used for jams. Good jam has a soft even consistency without distinct pieces of fruit, a bright color, a good fruit flavor and a semijellied texture that is easy to spread but has no free liquid." - Berolzheimer R(ed) et al (1959) [1]

Jelly is made by a similar process, with the additional step of filtering out the fruit pulp after the initial heating. A cloth "jelly bag" is traditionally used as a filter.

"Good jelly is clear and sparkling and has a fresh flavor of the fruit from which it is made. It is tender enough to quiver when moved, but holds angles when cut.
EXTRACTING JUICE - Pectin is best extracted from the fruit by heat, therefore cook the fruit until soft before straining to obtain the juice ... Pour cooked fruit into a jelly bag which has been wrung out of cold water. Hang up and let drain. When dripping has ceased the gab may be squeezed to remove remaining juice, but this may cause cloudy jelly." - Berolzheimer R(ed) et al (1959) [2]

A third term, fruit butter, is used in this context to refer to a process where the whole fruit is forced through a sieve or blended after the heating process.

"Fruit butters are generally made from larger fruits, such as apples, plums peaches or grapes. Cook until softened and run through a sieve to give a smooth consistency. After sieving, cook the pulp...add sugar and cook as rapidly as possible with constant stirring... The finished product should mound up when dropped from a spoon, but should not cut like jelly. Neither should there be any free liquid." - Berolzheimer R(ed) et al (1959) [3]

Although these terms exist in North America, the UK and Australia, popularly most jams are generically referred to as "jelly" in North America, as whole fruit jams and fruit butters are less popular commercially than jelly there. In the UK and Australia both terms are used in their "correct" sense, although the term jam is more popularly used in Australia as a generic term[4]. To further confuse the issue, the term jelly is also used in the UK and Australia to refer to a gelatin dessert, but in North America the commercial product Jell-o is used as a generic name for the same. A variety of pre-packaged gelatin dessert products for sale at a supermarket in the U.S. state of Wisconsin in 2004 Jelly, as sold in UK The most popular culinary use for gelatin is as a main ingredient in a variety of gelatin desserts. ... Jell-O is a brand name belonging to USA-based Kraft Foods for a number of gelatin desserts, including fruit gels, puddings and no-bake cream pies. ...


This article will use the generic term jam unless otherwise noted.


History of jam making

The Greek technique of preserving quinces by boiling them in honey was included in the Roman cookery book De re coquinaria. The use of cane sugar to preserve fruit can be traced back to the 16th century when the Spanish came to the West Indies. Binomial name Cydonia oblonga Mill. ... A jar of honey, shown with a wooden honey server and scones. ... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... A cookbook contains information on cooking, and a list of recipes. ... De re coquinaria is the oldest known cookbook, dating from the 3rd century A.D., still in existence. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


Production

An open jar of raspberry jam
An open jar of raspberry jam

In general jam is produced by taking mashed or chopped fruit or vegetable pulp and boiling it with sugar and water. The proportion of sugar and fruit varies according to the type of fruit and its ripeness, but a rough starting point is equal weights of each. When the mixture reaches a temperature of 104 °C (219 °F), the acid and the pectin in the fruit react with the sugar, and the jam will set on cooling. However, most cooks work by trial and error, bringing the mixture to a "fast rolling boil", watching to see if the seething mass changes texture, and dropping tiny samples on a plate to see if they run or set. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (790x636, 1286 KB) Summary I took this picture of no name brand Raspberry Jam. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (790x636, 1286 KB) Summary I took this picture of no name brand Raspberry Jam. ... In the physical sciences, weight is a measurement of the gravitational force acting on an object. ... Fig. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Acidity redirects here. ... Pectin is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of plants. ... Trial and error is a method for obtaining knowledge, both propositional knowledge and know-how. ... Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ... Mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth. ...


How easily a jam sets depends on the pectin content of the fruit. Some fruits, such as gooseberries, redcurrants, blackcurrants, citrus fruits, apples and raspberries, set very well; others, such as strawberries and ripe blackberries, often need to have pectin added. There are commercial pectin products on the market, and most industrially-produced jams use them. Home jam-makers sometimes rely on adding a pectin-rich fruit to a poor setter; for example blackberry and apple. Other tricks include extracting juice from redcurrants or gooseberries. Binomial name Ribes uva-crispa L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ribes uva-crispa The Gooseberry Ribes uva-crispa (syn. ... Species Ribes rubrum The Redcurrant (Ribes rubrum) is a member of the genus Ribes in the gooseberry family Grossulariaceae. ... It is a myth that people either go crazy for the flavor or they totally dislike it. ... Species Malus domestica Malus sieversii Apple is the fruit (pome) of the genus Malus belonging to the family Rosaceae, and is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. ... Binomial name Rubus idaeus L. The Raspberry or Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is a plant that produces a tart, sweet, red composite fruit in summer or early autumn. ... Species 20+ species; see text The strawberry (Fragaria) is a genus of plants in the family Rosaceae, and the fruit of these plants. ... The BlackBerry is a wireless handheld device introduced in 1999 which supports push e-mail, mobile telephone, text messaging, internet faxing, web browsing and other wireless information services. ...


Making jam at home used to be common, but the practice is declining.


Variations

Uncooked or minimally cooked (less than 5 minutes) jams, called freezer jam, because they are stored frozen, are popular in parts of North America for their very fresh taste. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


European Union directives on 'jam'

In the European Union, the jam directive (Council Directive 79/693/EEC, 24 July 1979) set minimum standards for the amount of "fruit" in jam, but the definition of fruit was expanded to take account of several unusual kinds of jam made in the EU. For this purpose, "fruit" is considered to include fruits that are not usually treated as fruits, such as tomatoes; fruits that are not normally made into jams; and vegetables that are sometimes made into jams, such as: rhubarb (the edible part of the stalks), carrots, sweet potatoes, cucumbers, and pumpkins. This definition continues to apply in the new directive, Council Directive 2001/113/EC (20 December 2001). [5] This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species About 60, including: R. nobile R. palmatum For other uses see Rhubarb (disambiguation) Rhubarb is a perennial plant that grows from thick short rhizomes, comprising the genus Rheum. ... Binomial name Daucus carota L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Ipomoea batatas Linnaeus The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a crop plant whose large, starchy, sweet tasting tuberous roots are an important root vegetable. ... Binomial name Cucumis sativus L. The cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which includes squash, and in the same genus as the muskmelon. ... For the film, see Pumpkin (film). ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Lekvar or prune butter is a very thick puree of pure fruit, usually prunes or apricots used in filled pastries and cookies. ... Marmalade spread on a slice of bread Marmalade is a sweet preserve with a bitter tang made from citrus fruit, sugar, water, and (in some commercial brands) a gelling agent. ... A peanut butter and jelly sandwich with a glass of milk The peanut butter and jelly sandwich, also known as a peanut butter and jam sandwich (PBJ or PB&J or P&J), is a common sandwich in the United States and Canada. ...

References

  1. ^ Berolzheimer R(ed) et al, 1959, Culinary arts institute encyclopedic cookbook (revised), Culinary arts institute, Chicago USA. pp831-832
  2. ^ Berolzheimer R(ed) et al, 1959, Culinary arts institute encyclopedic cookbook (revised), Culinary arts institute, Chicago USA. pp826-829
  3. ^ Berolzheimer R(ed) et al, 1959, Culinary arts institute encyclopedic cookbook (revised), Culinary arts institute, Chicago USA. pg830
  4. ^ Howard L & Patten M (eds), 1960, The Australian Women's Weekly - Cookery in colour, Paul Hamlin LTD, London UK, sections956-971
  5. ^ Council Directive 2001/113/EC (20 December 2001)

External links

  • Making Jams and Jellies
  • Making Jams, Marmalades, Preserves, and Conserves

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