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Encyclopedia > Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, also known as the Amritsar Massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in the northern Indian city of Amritsar, where, on April 13, 1919, British Indian Army soldiers under the command of Brigadier Reginald Dyer opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and children. The firing lasted about 10 minutes and 1650 rounds were fired, or 33 rounds per soldier. Official British Raj sources placed the fatalities at 379. According to private sources there were over 1000 deaths, with more than 2000 wounded,[1] and Civil Surgeon Dr. Smith indicated that there were over 1800 casualties.[2] Jallianwala Bagh is a garden in Amritsar city, one of the major towns of Punjab state. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... Reginald Dyer : The Butcher of Amritsar by Nigel Collett Brigadier-General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer CB (October 9, 1864 – July 23, 1927) was a British Indian Army officer responsible for the Amritsar massacre. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... A casualty is a person who is the victim of an accident, injury, or trauma. ...

Contents

Background

India during World War I

Main article: Ghadar Conspiracy

World War I began with an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards the United Kingdom from within the mainstream political leadership of India, contrary to initial British fears of a revolt. India contributed massively to the British war effort by providing men and resources. About 1.3 million Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, while both the Indian government and the princes sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition. However, Bengal and Punjab remained hotbeds of anticolonial activities. Terrorist style attacks in Bengal, increasingly closely linked with the unrest in Punjab, were significant enough to nearly paralyse the regional administration.[3][4] Also from the beginning of the war, expatriate Indian population, notably from United States, Canada, and Germany, headed by the Berlin Committee and the Ghadar Party, attempted to trigger insurrections in India on the lines of the 1857 uprising with Irish Republican, German and Turkish help in a massive conspiracy that has since come to be called the Hindu German conspiracy[5][6][7] This conspiracy also attempted to rally Afghanistan against British India.[8] A number of failed attempts were made at mutiny, of which the February mutiny plan and the Singapore mutiny remain most notable. This movement was suppressed by means of a massive international counterintelligence operation and draconian political acts (including the Defence of India act 1915) that lasted nearly ten years.[9][10] The Ghadar conspiracy of 1915 was a conspiracy formulated by the Ghadar Party to forment and trigger a Pan-Indian mutiny in the British Indian Army, from Punjab to Singapore, in February 1915 to overthrow The Raj in the Indian subcontinent. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Punjab was a province of British India. ... Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is often a less-highlighted aspect of Indian independence movement - the underground revolutionary factions. ... The Berlin Committee, known as the The Indian Independence Committee (German: ) after 1915, was an organisation formed in Germany in 1914 during World War I by Indian students and political activists residing in the country. ... The Ghadar Party was an organization founded by the Indians(mostly Punjabis, of the United States and Canada in June, 1913 with the aim to liberate India from British rule. ... Combatants Indian Patriots, Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of Oudh and Jhansi, Indian civilians in some areas. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (Pronounced fee-na fall.) (English: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Hindu-German Conspiracy(i), also known as the Hindu Conspiracy, the Indo-German Conspiracy or the Ghadar conspiracy was a plot formulated between Indian Nationalists in United States and Germany, Irish Republicans, and the German Foreign office to initiate a Pan-Indian rebellion against The Raj with German support... The Ghadar conspiracy of 1915 was a conspiracy formulated by the Ghadar Party to forment and trigger a Pan-Indian mutiny in the British Indian Army, from Punjab to Singapore, in February 1915 to overthrow The Raj in the Indian subcontinent. ... The 1915 Singapore Mutiny, also known as the 1915 Sepoy Mutiny, was an incident concerning 850 sepoys (Indian soldiers) who mutinied against the British on 15 February 1915 in Singapore, as part of the 1915 Ghadar Conspiracy. ... The Defence of India act 1915 , also referred to as the Defence of India Regulations Act, was an Emergency Criminal Law enacted by the British Raj in India in 1915 with the intention of curtailing the nationalist and revolutionary activities during and in the aftermath of World War I. It...


After the war

In the aftermath of World War I, high casualty rates, soaring inflation compounded by heavy taxation, a widespread influenza epidemic, and the disruption of trade during the war escalated human suffering in India. Indian soldiers smuggled arms into India to overthrow British rule. The prewar nationalist movement revived as moderate and extremist groups within the Indian National Congress submerged their differences in order to stand as a unified front. In 1916, the Congress succeeded in forging the Lucknow Pact, a temporary alliance with the Muslim League over the issues of devolution of political power and the future of Islam in the region. The costs of the protracted war in both money and manpower were staggering. In India, long the "jewel in the crown" of the British Empire, Indians were restless for independence, having contributed heavily to the war efforts in both money and men. Over 43,000 Indian soldiers had died. Flu redirects here. ... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... In 1916, Mohammed Ali Jinnah a member of Indian National Congress was owned by saif aljashamy he negotiated with Muslim League to reach an agreement to pressurise British Government to have a more liberal approach to India and give Indians more authority to run their country. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ...


Post-war developments

Indians were expecting, if not freedom, at least more say in their governance; so the Indian Nationalist movement was marked by a clear domination of the more extreme rather than the moderate. In this charged atmosphere, Britain implemented the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms. However, the provisions of the reforms were unsatisfactory enough for Madame Bhikaji Cama to call them unsuitable for Britain to offer and unworthy for Indians to accept. This brought about further deterioration to an already deteriorating situation in India. The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British Government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India. ... Bhikaji Rustom Cama (Madam Cama, Madame Cama) (September 24, 1861-August 13, 1936) was a prominent figure in the Indian Nationalist Movement. ...


Rowlatt Committee

The events of the Ghadar conspiracy during World War I, the presence of Mahendra Pratap's Provisional Government in Afghanistan and its possible links to Bolshevik Russia, as well as a still active revolutionary movement especially in Punjab and Bengal, and worsening civil unrest throughout India, especially amongst the Bombay millworkers, led to the appointment of a Sedition committee in 1918 chaired by Sydney Rowlatt, an English judge. It was tasked to evaluate German and Bolshevik links to the militant movement in India, especially in Punjab and Bengal. The Ghadar conspiracy of 1915 was a conspiracy formulated by the Ghadar Party to forment and trigger a Pan-Indian mutiny in the British Indian Army, from Punjab to Singapore, in February 1915 to overthrow The Raj in the Indian subcontinent. ... Raja Mahendra Pratap Raja Mahendra Pratap (1886-1979) was a freedom fighter, journalist, writer and revolutionary social reformist of India. ... A provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a previous administration or regime. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ...


Rowlatt Act

On the recommendations of the committee, the Rowlatt Act, an extension of the Defence of India act of 1915, was enforced in India.[11][12][13][14] It vested the Viceroy's government with extraordinary powers to quell sedition by silencing the press, including detaining the political activists without trial, arrest without warrant of any individuals suspected of sedition or treason, as well as trial before special tribunals and in camera. The passage sparked massive outrage within India. The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 and basically authorised the government to imprison any person living in the Raj without trial on suspicion of being a terrorist. ...


Prelude to the massacre

The events that followed the passage of the Rowlatt Act in 1919 were also influenced by the events linked to the Ghadar conspiracy. At the time, British Indian Army troops were returning from the battlefields of Europe and Mesopotamia to an economic depression in India. [15][16] The attempts at mutiny in 1915 and the Lahore conspiracy trials were still in public attention. News of young Mohajirs who fought on behalf of the Turkish Caliphate and later fought in the ranks of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War was also beginning to reach India. The Russian Revolution had also cast its long shadow into India.[17] It was at this time that Mahatma Gandhi, until then relatively unknown on the Indian political scene, began emerging as a mass leader. The Lahore Conspiracy Case trial also known as the First Lahore Conspiracy Case, were the trials held in Lahore (then in Undivided India) in the aftermath of the failed Ghadar conspiracy in 1915. ... The mountaineers leave the aul, by P. N. Gruzinsky, 1872 Muhajirism was the emigration of Muslim indigenous peoples from the Caucasus into the Ottoman Empire following the Russian-Circassian War and the Caucasian War (during the 19th century). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... “Gandhi” redirects here. ...


Ominously, in 1919, the third Anglo-Afghan war began in the wake of Amir Habibullah's assassination and institution of Amanullah in a system blatantly influenced by the Kabul mission. In addition, in India, Gandhi's call for protest against the Rowlatt act achieved an unprecedented response of furious unrest and protests. The situation especially in Punjab was deteriorating rapidly, with disruptions of rail, telegraph and communication systems. The movement was at its peak before the end of the first week of April, with some recording that "practically the whole of Lahore was on the streets, the immense crowd that passed through Anarkali was estimated to be around 20,000."[16] The Rise of Dost Mohammad It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Habibullah was an Afghani who died while in US custody on December 4, 2005. ... Ghazi Amir Amanullah Khan (June 1, 1892 - April 25, 1960) was the ruler of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929. ... The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 and basically authorised the government to imprison any person living in the Raj without trial on suspicion of being a terrorist. ...


In Amritsar, over 5,000 people gathered at Jallianwala Bagh. This situation deteriorated perceptibly over the next few days. Michael O'Dwyer is said to have been of the firm belief that these were the early and ill-concealed signs of a conspiracy for a coordinated uprising around May, on the lines of the 1857 revolt, at a time when British troops would have withdrawn to the hills for the summer. The Amritsar massacre, as well as responses preceding and succeeding it, contrary to being an isolated incident, was the end result of a concerted plan of response from the Punjab administration to suppress such a conspiracy.[18] James Houssemayne Du Boulay is said to have ascribed a direct relationship between the fear of a Ghadarite uprising in the midst of an increasingly tensed situation in Punjab, and the British response that ended in the massacre.[19]


On April 10, 1919, a protest was held at the residence of the Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar, a city in Punjab, a large province in the northwestern part of the then unpartitioned India. The demonstration was held to demand the release of two popular leaders of the Indian Independence Movement, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, who had been earlier arrested on account of their protests. The crowd was fired on by a military picket. The firing set off a chain of violence. Later in the day, several banks and other government buildings, including the Town Hall and the railway station were attacked and set on fire. The violence continued to escalate, culminating in the deaths of at least 5 Europeans, including government employees and civilians. There was retaliatory firing on the crowd from the military several times during the day, and between 8 and 20 people were killed. is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... Dr Saifuddin Kitchlew was an Indian freedom fighter and a Muslim Indian nationalist leader. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ...


For the next two days, the city of Amritsar was quiet, but violence continued in other parts of the Punjab. Railway lines were cut, telegraph posts destroyed, government buildings burnt, and three Europeans were killed. By April 13, the British government had decided to place most of the Punjab under martial law. The legislation placed restrictions on a number of civil liberties, including freedom of assembly, banning gatherings of more than four people [20] This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... Group of women holding placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that one...


The massacre

On April 13, thousands of people gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh (garden) near the Golden Temple in Amritsar, on Baisakhi, both a harvest and the Sikh religious new year. It was in 1699 during this festival that the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa adding the name Singh or Kaur to every Sikh's name. So, for more than two hundred years, this annual festival had drawn thousands from all over India. People had travelled for days, before the ban on assembly. is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jallianwala Bagh is a garden in Amritsar city, one of the major towns of Punjab state. ... For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan, see Kinkaku-ji. ... Traditional fervour and gaiety mark the celebrations of Baisakhi, which stands for the dawn of a new year in north India. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ) (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708) He was born in Patna in India in 1666 and became the tenth Guru of the Sikhs on 11 November 1675, succeeding his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur who was killed by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. ... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ... For the fictional global crime syndicate, see Singh Brotherhood. ... KAUR is an FM radio station broadcasting from the campus of Augustana College in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. ...

The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, months after the massacre.
The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, months after the massacre.

A group of 90 Indian Army soldiers marched to the park accompanied by two armoured cars. The vehicles were unable to enter the Bagh through the narrow entrance. Image File history File links Jallianwallah. ... Image File history File links Jallianwallah. ...


The Jallianwala Bagh was bounded on all sides by houses and buildings and had few narrow entrances, most of which were kept permanently locked. Since there was only one open exit, except for the one already blocked by the troops, people desperately tried to climb the walls of the park. Many jumped into a well inside the compound to escape from the bullets. A plaque in the monument says that 120 bodies were plucked out of the well. Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ...


As a result of the firing, hundreds of people were killed and thousands were injured. Official records put the figures at 379 killed (337 men, 41 boys and a six-week-old baby) and 200 injured, though the actual figure is hotly disputed to this day. The wounded could not be moved from where they had fallen, as a curfew had been declared. This article is about the restrictions and constraints of particular movements. ...


Back in his headquarters, Dyer reported to his superiors that he had been "confronted by a revolutionary army," and had been obliged "to teach a moral lesson to the Punjab."[citation needed] For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ...


In a telegram sent to Dyer, British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab, Sir Michael O'Dwyer wrote: "Your action is correct. Lieutenant Governor approves."[21] Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... A Lieutenant Governor or Lieutenant-Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... Sir Michael Francis ODwyer (April 1864 – 13 March 1940) was Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab from 1912 until 1919. ...


O'Dwyer requested that martial law be imposed upon Amritsar and other areas; this was granted by the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford, after the massacre. Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Frederic John Napier Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, GCMG, GCSI, GCIE, GBE (12 August 1868 - 1 April 1933) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1916 to 1921. ...


Dyer was called to appear before the Hunter Commission, a commission of inquiry into the massacre that was ordered to convene by Secretary of State for India Edwin Montagu, in late 1919. Dyer admitted before the commission that he came to know about the meeting at the Jallianwala Bagh at 12:40 hours that day but took no steps to prevent it. He stated that he had gone to the Bagh with the deliberate intention of opening fire if he found a crowd assembled there. The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... Edwin Samuel Montagu (1879-1924) was a British Liberal polician. ...

"I think it quite possible that I could have dispersed the crowd without firing but they would have come back again and laughed, and I would have made, what I consider, a fool of myself." — Dyer's response to the Hunter Commission Enquiry.[citation needed]

Dyer said he would have used his machine guns if he could have got them into the enclosure, but these were mounted on armoured cars. He said he did not stop firing when the crowd began to disperse because he thought it was his duty to keep firing until the crowd dispersed, and that a little firing would do no good.[citation needed] A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ...


He confessed that he did not take any steps to tend to the wounded after the firing. "Certainly not. It was not my job. Hospitals were open and they could have gone there," was his response.[citation needed]


Reaction

In the storm of outrage that followed the release of the Hunter Report in 1920, Dyer was placed on the inactive list and his rank reverted to Colonel since he was no longer in command of a Brigade. The then Commander-in-Chief stated that Dyer would no longer be offered employment in India. Dyer was also in very poor health, and so he was sent home to England on a hospital ship. For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... USNS Comfort takes on supplies at Mayport, FL enroute to Gulf Coast. ...


Some senior British officers applauded his suppression of "another Indian Mutiny". The House of Lords passed a measure commending him. The House of Commons, however, censured him; in the debate, Winston Churchill claimed: "The incident in Jallian Wala Bagh was an extraordinary event, a monstrous event, an event which stands in singular and sinister isolation". Dyer's action was condemned worldwide. He was officially censured by the British Government and resigned in 1920. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Churchill redirects here. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ...


However, many Englishmen in India and Britain, as well as the British press, defended Dyer as the man who had saved British pride and honour, some labelling him the "Saviour of the Punjab". The Morning Post started a sympathy fund for Dyer and received over £26,000. An American woman donated 100 pounds, adding "I fear for the British women there now that Dyer has been dismissed."[citation needed] Dyer was presented with a memorial book inscribed with the names of well-wishers. Jawaharlal Nehru, in his autobiography, said he overheard, from his curtained sleeping booth on a night train from Amritsar to Delhi, a military officer in loud voice to another "pointing out how he had the whole town at his mercy and he had felt like reducing the rebellious city to a heap of ashes, but he took pity on it and refrained." It turned out to be Dyer on his way to Delhi after the Hunter Committee meeting. In Delhi, Dyer descended from the train in pyjamas with bright pink stripes and a dressing gown.[22] Nehru also remarked he heard soldiers discussing how the actions taken were a good thing because they would "teach the bloody browns a lesson." The Morning Post was a conservative daily newspaper published in London from 1772 to 1937, when it was acquired by The Daily Telegraph. ... Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ...


In India, the massacre evoked feelings of deep anguish and anger. It catalysed the freedom movement in the Punjab against British rule and paved the way for Mahatma Gandhi's Non-Cooperation Movement against the British in 1920. It was also motivation for a number of other revolutionaries, including Bhagat Singh. The Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore returned his knighthood to the King-Emperor in protest. The massacre ultimately became an important catalyst of the Indian independence movement. ... Bhagat Singh (Punjabi: ਭਗਤ ਸਿੰਘ بھگت سنگھ, IPA: ) (September 27, 1907[1] –March 23, 1931) was an Indian freedom fighter, considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... A king-emperor (feminine queen-empress) is a sovereign ruler who is simultaneously a king of one territory and emperor of another. ...


Monument and legacy

Jallianwala Bagh memorial
Entrance to the present-day Jallianwala Bagh.
Entrance to the present-day Jallianwala Bagh.
Bullet marks, visible on a preserved wall, at present-day Jallianwala Bagh.
Bullet marks, visible on a preserved wall, at present-day Jallianwala Bagh.
Wide view of Jallianwala Bagh memorial
Wide view of Jallianwala Bagh memorial

A trust was formed in 1920 to build a memorial at the site following a resolution passed by the Indian National Congress. In 1923, the trust purchased land for the project. A memorial, designed by American architect Benjamin Polk, was built on the site and inaugurated by the then-President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 13 April 1961 in the presence of Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders. A flame was later added to the site. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixels, file size: 224 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Memorial over the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, in Amritsar, Punjab, India, Photo: Soman File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixels, file size: 224 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Memorial over the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, in Amritsar, Punjab, India, Photo: Soman File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared... Jallianwala Bagh is a garden in Amritsar city, one of the major towns of Punjab state. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1361 KB) Entrance to Jallianwala Bagh as seen today, Ive shot this photo and release it to Public Domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1361 KB) Entrance to Jallianwala Bagh as seen today, Ive shot this photo and release it to Public Domain. ... Jallianwala Bagh is a garden in Amritsar city, one of the major towns of Punjab state. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x1536, 1182 KB) Bullet Marks on a preserved wall at Jallianwala Bagh, Ive shot this photo and release it to Public Domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x1536, 1182 KB) Bullet Marks on a preserved wall at Jallianwala Bagh, Ive shot this photo and release it to Public Domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 528 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (743 × 844 pixels, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo made by myself on September 2004 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 528 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (743 × 844 pixels, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo made by myself on September 2004 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Jallianwala Bagh is a garden in Amritsar city, one of the major towns of Punjab state. ... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Benjamin Polk (1916-2001) was a notable American designer and architect, best known for his work in India and Nepal. ... Dr. Rajendra Prasad (Hindi: डाक्टर राजेन्द्र प्रसाद) (December 3, 1884 – February 28, 1963) was the first President of India. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The eternal flame at the Monument to the Unknown Soldier in Sofia, Bulgaria Eternal Flame is also a song originally performed by The Bangles. ...


The bullet holes can be seen on the walls and adjoining buildings to this day. The well into which many people jumped and drowned attempting to save themselves from the hail of bullets is also a protected monument inside the park.


The massacre is depicted in Richard Attenborough's 1982 film Gandhi with the role of Brigadier Dyer played by Edward Fox. It is also depicted in Indian films Rang De Basanti and The Legend of Bhagat Singh. Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, CBE (born 29 August 1923) is an English actor, director, producer, and entrepreneur. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Gandhi (1982) is a multi-award-winning biopic film about the life of Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi, who was a leader of the nonviolent resistance movement against British colonial rule in India during the first half of the 20th century. ... Edward Charles Morrice Fox, OBE (born 13 April 1937) is an English stage, film and television actor. ... Rang De Basanti (Hindi: रंग दे बसंती, Urdu: رنگ دے بسنتى, IAST: Raṅg De Basantī; English: Paint It Saffron [1]) is a 2006 Bollywood film. ... The Legend of Bhagat Singh is a Bollywood emotional historic drama movie from India. ...


In 1997, the Duke of Edinburgh, participating in an already controversial British visit to the Monument, provoked outrage in India and in the UK with an offhand comment. Having observed a plaque claiming "This place is saturated with the blood of about two thousand Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims who were martyred in a non-violent struggle.", Prince Philip observed, "That's a bit exaggerated, it must include the wounded". When asked how he had come to this conclusion, Philip said "I was told about the killings by General Dyer's son. I'd met him while I was in the Navy." [23] The Duke of Edinburgh is a dukedom associated with Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921)[2] is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Originally a royal Prince of Greece and Denmark, Prince Philip renounced these titles shortly before his marriage. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


Assassination of Michael O'Dwyer

Main article: Udham Singh

On 13 March 1940, an Indian revolutionary from Sunam, named Udham Singh, who had witnessed the events in Amritsar and was himself wounded, shot dead Sir Michael O'Dwyer, believed to be the chief planner of the massacre (Dyer having died years earlier in 1927) at Caxton Hall in London. Udham Singh (Punjabi: Hindi:उधम सिंह् ; December 26, 1899 – July 31, 1940), born Sher Singh was a Sikh Punjabi Marxist and nationalist best known for assassinating Michael ODwyer in March 1940 in what has been described as an avengement of the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre [1]. Singh was also known as Ram... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Udham Singh (Punjabi: Hindi:उधम सिंह् ; December 26, 1899 – July 31, 1940), born Sher Singh was a Sikh Punjabi Marxist and nationalist best known for assassinating Michael ODwyer in March 1940 in what has been described as an avengement of the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre [1]. Singh was also known as Ram...

Smiling Udham Singh leaving Caxton Hall after his arrest
Smiling Udham Singh leaving Caxton Hall after his arrest

The action of Singh was generally condemned, but some, like Amrit Bazar Patrika, had different views. The common people and revolutionary circles glorified the action of Udham Singh. Most of the press worldwide recalled the story of Jallianwala Bagh and held Sir Michael O'Dwyer responsible for the tragedy and commended Singh's action. Singh was called a "fighter for freedom" and his action was referred to in the Times newspaper as "an expression of the pent-up fury of the down-trodden Indian People".[24] In Fascist countries, the incident was used for anti-British propaganda: Bergeret, published in large scale from Rome at that time, while commenting upon the Caxton Hall outrage, ascribed the greatest significance to the circumstance and praised the courageous action of Udham Singh.[25] The Berliner Börsen Zeitung called the event "The torch of Indian freedom". German radio reportedly broadcast: "The cry of tormented people spoke with shots." Image File history File links Guards. ... Image File history File links Guards. ... Udham Singh (Punjabi: Hindi:उधम सिंह् ; December 26, 1899 – July 31, 1940), born Sher Singh was a Sikh Punjabi Marxist and nationalist best known for assassinating Michael ODwyer in March 1940 in what has been described as an avengement of the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre [1]. Singh was also known as Ram... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


At a public meeting in Kanpur, a spokesman had stated that "at last an insult and humiliation of the nation had been avenged". Similar sentiments were expressed in numerous other places countrywide.[26] Fortnightly reports of the political situation in Bihar mentioned: "It is true that we had no love lost for Sir Michael. The indignities he heaped upon our countrymen in Punjab have not been forgotten." In its March 18, 1940 issue, Amrit Bazar Patrika wrote: "O'Dwyer's name is connected with Punjab incidents which India will never forget." The New Statesman observed: "British conservativism has not discovered how to deal with Ireland after two centuries of rule. Similar comment may be made on British rule in India. Will the historians of the future have to record that it was not the Nazis but the British ruling class which destroyed the British Empire?" , Kanpur   (Hindi: कानपुर, Urdu: کان پور, spelled as Cawnpore before 1948) is one of the most populous cities in the north India and the most populous within the state of Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


Singh had told the court at his trial:

"I did it because I had a grudge against him. He deserved it. He was the real culprit. He wanted to crush the spirit of my people, so I have crushed him. For full 21 years, I have been trying to wreak vengeance. I am happy that I have done the job. I am not scared of death. I am dying for my country. I have seen my people starving in India under the British rule. I have protested against this, it was my duty. What a greater honour could be bestowed on me than death for the sake of my motherland?"[27]

Singh was hanged for the murder on July 31, 1940. At that time, many, including Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, condemned the action of Udham as senseless. However, later in 1952, Nehru applauded Udham Singh with the following statement which had appeared in the daily Partap: "I salute Shaheed-i-Azam Udham Singh with reverence who had kissed the noose so that we may be free." Having said this, Udham Singh received the title of Shaheed, a name given to someone who has attained martyrdom or done something heroic in the name of their country or religion.[28]
is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Udham Singh (Punjabi: Hindi:उधम सिंह् ; December 26, 1899 – July 31, 1940), born Sher Singh was a Sikh Punjabi Marxist and nationalist best known for assassinating Michael ODwyer in March 1940 in what has been described as an avengement of the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre [1]. Singh was also known as Ram... Shaheed (Arabic: , plural: ) is a religious term in Islam, that literally means witness. It is a title that is given to a Muslim after his death, if he died during the fulfillment of a religious commandment, or during a war for the religion. ...


Modern view

Nigel Collett, the author of a new biography of Reginald Dyer, The Butcher of Amritsar [29] said of Dyer: "As an Englishman, I cannot help but feel sorrow and shame at what he did...The massacre was the worst atrocity by a British officer ever recorded".[30]


References

  1. ^ Home Political Deposit, September, 1920, No 23, National Archives of India, New Delhi; Report of Commissioners, Vol I, New Delhi
  2. ^ Report of Commissioners, Vol I, New Delhi, p 105
  3. ^ Gupta 1997, p. 12
  4. ^ Popplewell 1995, p. 201
  5. ^ Strachan 2001, p. 798
  6. ^ Hoover 1985, p. 252
  7. ^ Brown 1948, p. 300
  8. ^ Strachan 2001, p. 788
  9. ^ Hopkirk 2001, p. 41
  10. ^ Popplewell 1995, p. 234
  11. ^ Lovett 1920, p. 94, 187-191
  12. ^ Sarkar 1921, p. 137
  13. ^ Tinker 1968, p. 92
  14. ^ Popplewell 1995, p. 175
  15. ^ Sarkar 1983, p. 169-172,176
  16. ^ a b Swami P (November 1, 1997). Jallianwala Bagh revisited. The Hindu. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
  17. ^ Sarkar 1983, p. 177
  18. ^ Cell 2002, p. 67
  19. ^ Brown 1973, p. 523
  20. ^ Townshend, Britains Civil Wars. p. 137
  21. ^ Disorder Inquiry Committee Report, Vol II, p 197
  22. ^ Nehru, An Autobiography. p. 29
  23. ^ The Queen in Amritsar
  24. ^ The Times, London, March 16, 1940
  25. ^ Public and Judicial Department, File No L/P + J/7/3822, Caxton Hall outrage, India Office Library and Records, London, pp 13-14
  26. ^ Government of India, Home Department, Political File No 18/3/1940, National Archives of India, New Delhi, p40
  27. ^ CRIM 1/1177, Public Record Office, London, p 64
  28. ^ Quoted in: Udham Singh alias Ram Mohammad Singh Azaad, 2002, p 300, prof (Dr) Sikander Singh
  29. ^ Nigel Collett, 2006 The Butcher of Amritsar, ISBN 1852855754
  30. ^ The Telegraph - Calcutta : Look
  • Brown, Emily (1973), (in Book Reviews; South Asia). The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 32, No. 3. (May, 1973), pp. 522-523, Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia.
  • Brown, Giles (1948), The Hindu Conspiracy, 1914-1917.The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 17, No. 3. (Aug., 1948), pp. 299-310, University of California Press, ISSN 0030-8684.
  • Cell, John W (2002), Hailey: A Study in British Imperialism, 1872-1969, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521521173.
  • Gupta, Amit K (1997), Defying Death: Nationalist Revolutionism in India, 1897-1938.Social Scientist, Vol. 25, No. 9/10. (Sep. - Oct., 1997), pp. 3-27, Social Scientist, ISSN: 09700293.
  • Hoover, Karl. (1985), The Hindu Conspiracy in California, 1913-1918. German Studies Review, Vol. 8, No. 2. (May, 1985), pp. 245-261, German Studies Association, ISBN 01497952.
  • Hopkirk, Peter (1997), Like Hidden Fire: The Plot to Bring Down the British Empire., Kodansha Globe, ISBN 1568361270.
  • Popplewell, Richard J (1995), Intelligence and Imperial Defence: British Intelligence and the Defence of the Indian Empire 1904-1924., Routledge, ISBN 071464580X, <http://www.routledge.com/shopping_cart/products/product_detail.asp?sku=&isbn=071464580X&parent_id=&pc=>.
  • Sarkar, B.K. (1921), Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1. (Mar., 1921), pp. 136-138, The Acedemy of Political Science, ISSN: 00323195.
  • Sarkar, Sumit (1983), Modern India, 1885-1947, Delhi:Macmillan, ISBN 9780333904251.
  • Strachan, Hew (2001), The First World War. Volume I: To Arms, Oxford University Press. USA, ISBN 0199261911.
  • Tinker, Hugh (1968), India in the First World War and after.Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1918-19: From War to Peace. (Oct., 1968), pp. 89-107, Sage Publications, ISSN: 00220094.

is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • An NPR interview with Bapu Shingara Singh - the last known surviving witness.
  • Churchill's speech after the incident.
  • Amritsar Massacre at Jallianwala Bagh Listen to the Shaheed song of the Amritsar Massacre at Jallian Wala Bagh.
  • A description of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
  • The Amritsar Massacre A description of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.


 
 

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