FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
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Encyclopedia > Jakob Meckel

Klemens Wilhelm Jacob Meckel; (28 March 1842 - 5 July 1905) was a general in the Prussian army and foreign advisor to the government of Meiji period Japan. March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (88th in leap years). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... The o-yatoi gaikokujin (Japanese: お雇い外国人 — hired foreigners, foreign employees) were foreign specialists, engineers, teachers, mercenaries and more, hired to assist in the modernization of Japan. ... The Meiji period ) denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running from 8 September 1868 (in the Gregorian calendar, 23 October 1868) to 30 July 1912. ...

Meckel was born in Koln, Germany. He graduated from the Prussian Army Staff College in 1867. After the government of Meiji period Japan decided to model the Imperial Japanese Army after the Prussian army, following the German victory over the French in the Franco-Prussian War, Meckel (with the rank of major at the time) was invited to Japan as a professor at the Army Staff College and as an advisor to the Japanese General Staff. He worked closely with future Prime Ministers General Katsura Taro and General Yamagata Aritomo, and with army strategist General Kawakami Soroku. Meckel made numerous recommendations which were implemented, including reorganization of the command structure of the army into divisions and regiments, thus increasing mobility, strengthening the army logistics and transportation structure, with the major army bases connected by railways, establishing artillery and engineering regiments as independent commands, and revising the universal conscription system to abolished virtually all exceptions. Köln is a German word that can refer to: The city of Cologne, Germany The Koln beer, produced in Cologne This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... The Army War College (Japanese: Rikugun Daigakkō; Short form: 陸大 Rikudai) of the Empire of Japan was founded in 1882 in Minato, Tokyo to modernize and Westernize the Imperial Japanese Army. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Katsura Taro Marquess Katsura Taro (æ¡‚ 太郎 Katsura Tarō), (1848-01-04–1913-10-10) was a Japanese soldier, politician and Prime Minister of Japan. ... Prince Aritomo Yamagata ) (14 June 1838–1 February 1922) was a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Conscript redirects here, to artificial script. ...

Although his period in Japan (1885-1888) was relatively short, Meckel had a tremendous impact on the development of the Japanese military. By training some sixty of the highest-ranking Japanese officers of the time in tactics, strategy and organization, he was able to replace the previous influences of the French advisors with his own philosophies. Meckel especially reinforced the idea of subservience to the Emperor by teaching his pupils that Prussian military success was a consequence of the officer class's unswerving loyalty to their king. For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ...

On his return to Germany, Meckel was promoted to major general, and placed in command of German forces in the Rhine area. Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ...

Meckel's reforms are credited with Japan's overwhelming victory over China in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895. However, his over-reliance on the use of infantry in offensive campaigns also led to the large number of Japanese casualties in the subsequent Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army, Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino–Japanese War (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Japanese... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 39,518 killed; 158,600 wounded; 74,000 POW [1]; unknown Chinese civilians 47,387 killed; 173,425 wounded; unknown Chinese civilians...


Bernd Martin, Japan and Germany in the modern world, Providence/Oxford, Berghahn Books, 1995



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