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Encyclopedia > Jakarta
Special Capital Territory of Jakarta
Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Raya


Motto: Jaya Raya
(Indonesian): "Prosperous and Great"
For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ...

Jakarta (Indonesia)
Jakarta
Jakarta (Indonesia)
Capital Jakarta
Governor Fauzi Bowo
Area 661.52 km² (255 sq mi)
Population 8,389,443  (2000[1])
Density 12,682.1 /km² (32,846 /sq mi)
Ethnic groups Javanese (35%), Betawi (28%), Sundanese (15%), Chinese (6%), Batak (4%), Minangkabau (3%) [2]
Religion Islam (86%), Protestant (6%), Roman Catholic (4%), Buddhism (4%), Hindu
Languages Indonesian, Betawi, Javanese, Sundanese
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Web site www.jakarta.go.id

Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. It was formerly known as Sunda Kalapa (397-1527), Jayakarta (1527-1619), Batavia (1619-1942), and Djakarta (1942-1972). Located on the northwest coast of the Java Island, it has an area of 661.52 km² and an official population of 8,389,443 (2000[1]). Jakarta currently is the eleventh largest city in the world. Its metropolitan area is called Jabodetabek and contains more than 23 million people, and is part of an even larger Jakarta-Bandung megalopolis. Image File history File links Indonesia_blank_map. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Each Provinces of Indonesia has its own capital, where local judicial, administrative and legislative duties are centred. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Dr Ing H. Fauzi Bowo (born 10 April 1948 in Jakarta, Indonesia) is the deputy-governor of Jakarta (2000-2007) and governor-elect (2007-2012). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... The Javanese are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. ... The Betawi (Orang Betawi, or people of Batavia) are the descendants of the people living around Batavia (the colonial name for Jakarta) from around the 17th century. ... Map showing the location of the Sundanese in Java The Sundanese are an ethnic group in the western part of the island of Java in Indonesia, numbering approximately 31 million. ... For other uses, see Batak (disambiguation). ... Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sundanese (Basa Sunda, literally language of Sunda) is the language of about 27 million people from the western third of Java or about 15% of the Indonesian population. ... In Indonesia, the keeping of standard time is divided into three time zones: Indonesian Western Standard Time (Indonesian: Waktu Indonesia Barat/WIB) (UTC+7) WIB is observed in islands of Sumatra, Java, provinces of West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan Indonesian Central Standard Time (Waktu Indonesia Tengah/WITA) (UTC+8) WITA... In Indonesia, the keeping of standard time is divided into three time zones: Indonesian Western Standard Time (Indonesian: Waktu Indonesia Barat/WIB) (UTC+7) WIB is observed in islands of Sumatra, Java, provinces of West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan Indonesian Central Standard Time (Waktu Indonesia Tengah/WITA) (UTC+8) WITA... UTC+7 is used in: Laos Thailand Cambodia Vietnam External links Find cities currently in UTC+7 Category: ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... View of the Puncak area in West Java Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is the most populous of Indonesias islands, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... This is a list of the most populous cities of the world defined according to the concept of city proper. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jabotabek or Jabodetabek is the term given to the metropolitan area surrounding Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Nickname: Kota Kembang (City of Flowers) Motto: Bermartabat (dignity) Location of Bandung in Indonesia Coordinates: Province West Java Country Indonesia Government  - Mayor Dada Rosada Area  - City 167. ... A megalopolis is defined as an extensive metropolitan area or a long chain of continuous metropolitan areas. ...


Jakarta is served by the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport. Since 2004, Jakarta, under the governance of Sutiyoso, has built a new bus system known as "TransJakarta" or "Busway" and is planning to increase the number of Busway routes. The city had hoped to establish its newest transportation system, the Jakarta Monorail, in 2007, but the project has been delayed and its completion date is uncertain. Jakarta also is the location of the Indonesia Stock Exchange and the National Monument. Inside Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (Indonesian: ) (IATA: CGK, ICAO: WIII) is the main airport serving the greater Jakarta area on the island of Java, Indonesia. ... Sutiyoso (born 6 December 1944 in Semarang, Central Java) is a politician and former Indonesian general. ... schematic map of the network TransJakarta is a bus rapid transit system in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... The Jakarta Monorail is a monorail system currently under construction in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ) or Jakarta Stock Exchange (JSX) is a stock exchange based in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Monumen Nasional Jakarta Night view of Monumen Nasional, Jakarta View from the Observatory The Monumen Nasional (or Tugu Monas, the National Monument tower) is a 137m tall tower in Central Jakarta, symbolizing the fight for Indonesias Independence. ...

Contents

Geography

National Monument (Monas) at Merdeka square, the center of Jakarta
National Monument (Monas) at Merdeka square, the center of Jakarta

Jakarta is located on the northwestern coast of Java Island, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea. The northern part of Jakarta is constituted on a plain land, approximately eight meters above the sea level. This contributes to the frequent flooding. The southern parts of the city are hilly. There are about 13 rivers flowing through Jakarta, mostly flowing form the hilly southern parts of the city northwards towards the Java Sea. The most important river is the Ciliwung river, which divides the city into the western and eastern principalities. The city borders the province of West Java on its east side and the province of Banten on its west side. The word monad comes from the Greek word μονάς (from the word μόνος, which means one, single, unique) and has had many meanings in different contexts: Among the Pythagoreans (followers of Pythagoras) the monad was the first thing that came into existence. ... View of the Puncak area in West Java Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is the most populous of Indonesias islands, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Ciliwung River (Indonesian : Sungai Ciliwung) is a river in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Jakarta Bay (Indonesian: Teluk Jakarta) is a bay north of North Jakarta city. ... The Java Sea (Jawa Sea) is a large (310,000 km²), shallow sea in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... Map showing West Java in Indonesia West Java (Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia, located on the island of Java. ... For the Banten meteorite of 1933, see Meteorite falls. ...


The thousand islands, which is a part of the administrative region of Jakarta, is located in the Jakarta Bay. These 105 islets are located 45 km on the north part of the city.


Climate

Jakarta has a hot and humid equatorial/tropical climate (Af) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Located in the western-part of Indonesia, Jakarta's wet season rainfall peak is January with average monthly rainfall of 350mm, and its dry season low point is August with a monthly average of 60mm.[3] The city is humid throughout the year with daily temperature range of 25°C to 38°C; Absolute maximum is 43.8°C and absolute minimum is 21.5°C.[citation needed] The Amazon river basin has an equatorial climate. ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ...


History

For more details on this topic, see History of Jakarta.
Dutch Batavia in the 17th Century, built in what is now North Jakarta
Dutch Batavia in the 17th Century, built in what is now North Jakarta

The old name of Jakarta was Sunda Kelapa. The earliest record mentioning this area as a capital city can be traced to the Indianized kingdom of Tarumanagara as early as the fourth century. In 397 AD, King Purnawarman established Sunda Pura as a new capital city for the kingdom, located at the northern coast of Java.[4] Purnawarman left seven memorial stones with inscriptions bearing his name spread across the area, including the present-day Banten and West Java provinces. The Tugu Inscription is considered the oldest of all of them.[5] // Dutch Batavia in the 17th Century, built in what is now North Jakarta The earliest recorded mention of Jakarta is as a port of origin that can be traced to a Hindu settlement as early as the 4th century. ... Image File history File links Batavia333. ... Image File history File links Batavia333. ... North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara) is a kota (formerly kotamadya) of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Taruma kingdom. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... For the Banten meteorite of 1933, see Meteorite falls. ... Map showing West Java in Indonesia West Java (Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia, located on the island of Java. ...


After Tarumanagara power declined, all his territories, including Sunda Pura, felt under the Kingdom of Sunda. The harbour area were renamed into Sunda Kelapa as written in a Hindu monk's lontar manuscripts, which are now located at the Oxford University Library in England, and travel records by Prince Bujangga Manik.[6] By the 14th century, Sunda Kelapa became a major trading port for the kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices and especially pepper.[7] Kingdom of Sunda refers to the monarchies of the Sundanese people in the past after Salakanagara kingdom (since 200 AD) and then Tarumanagara kingdom (since 358 AD) and before the Kingdom of Pajajaran, the Kingdom of Banten and the Kingdom of Cirebon. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ...


The Kingdom of Sunda made a peace agreement with Portugal by letting the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 in order to defend against the rising power of the Sultanate of Demak from central Java.[8] In 1527, Fatahillah, a Sumatran Malay warrior from Demak attacked Kingdom of Sunda and succeeded in conquering the harbour on June 22, 1527, after which Sunda Kelapa was renamed into to Jayakarta.[8] Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... The Sultanate of Demak was founded in the 16th century by Raden Patah (1475-1518), once a vassal of the declining Majapahit Empire. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... KRI Fatahillah is an Indonesian Navy vessel[1] named after Fatahillah, a national war heroic figure who successfully captured back Sunda Kelapa from the hands of the Portuguese and consequently changed its name to Jayakarta. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ...

The Castle of Batavia, seen from West Kali Besar by Andries Beeckman circa 1656-58
The Castle of Batavia, seen from West Kali Besar by Andries Beeckman circa 1656-58

Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the British East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the center of British trade in Indonesia until 1682.[9] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1144 pixel, file size: 416 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jakarta ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1144 pixel, file size: 416 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jakarta ... The Banten Sultanate (Indonesian: Kasultanan Banten) was a sultanate in Banten, founded in the sixteenth century. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Sir James Lancaster (1554(?)–May 1618) was an English navigator, statesman, and pioneer of the British Indian trade and empire. ... Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ...


Apparently, Jayawikarta also made a trading connection with the English merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615.[10] When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch later deteriorated, Jayawikarta's soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. But even with the help of fifteen British ships, Prince Jayakarta's army wasn't able to defeat the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen (J.P. Coen). The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced the English retreat on their ships. With this victory, Dutch power in the area was consolidated. In 1619 they renamed the city "Batavia." Jan Pieterszoon Coen Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629) was an officer of Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. ...

Batavia c.1870
Batavia c.1870

Within Batavia's walls, wealthy Dutch built tall houses and pestilential canals. Commercial opportunities attracted Indonesian and especially Chinese immigrants, the increasing numbers creating burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. On 9 October 1740, 5,000 Chinese were massacred and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls.[11] The city began to move further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 encouraged more people to move far south of the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square, was completed in 1818, and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area.[11] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Banner photo: Rejected to any kind FalunGong activity Glodok is the Chinatown area in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Dataran Merdeka in central Kuala Lumpur The Dataran Merdeka (or Merdeka Square) is located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ... Kebayoran Baru is a subdistrict of South Jakarta, Indonesia. ...


The city was renamed "Jakarta" by the Japanese during their World War II occupation of Indonesia. Following World War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from allied-occupied Jakarta during their fight for Indonesian independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta. In 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta was once again made the national capital.[11] Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, envisaged Jakarta as a great international city. He instigated large government-funded projects undertaken with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture.[12] Projects in Jakarta included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard (Jalan Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument, major hotels, and a new parliament building. The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... Modern architecture is a broad term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament, that first arose around 1900. ... The word monad comes from the Greek word μονάς (from the word μόνος, which means one, single, unique) and has had many meanings in different contexts: Among the Pythagoreans (followers of Pythagoras) the monad was the first thing that came into existence. ...


In 1966, Jakarta was declared a "special capital city district" (daerah khusus ibukota), thus gaining a status approximately equivalent to that of a state or province.[13] Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as Governor from this time to 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built several hospitals, and a large number of new schools. He also cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects—some for the benefit of the Suharto family[14]—and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city in order to stem the overcrowding and poverty.[15] Land redistribution, structural adjustment,[citation needed] and foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom which changed the face of the city.[16] The boom ended with the 1997/98 East Asian Economic crisis putting Jakarta at the center of violence, protest, and political maneuvering. Long-time president, Suharto, began to lose his grip on power. Tensions reached a peak in May 1998, when four students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces; four days of riots ensued resulting in the loss of an estimated 1,200 lives and 6,000 buildings damaged or destroyed.[17] Suharto resigned as president, and Jakarta has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia.[18] A number of Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings have occurred in the city since 2000.[11] Ali Sadikin (born 7 July 1927 in Sumedang, West Java) is an Indonesian politician. ... The East Asian financial crisis was a period of economic unrest that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Founded November 29, 1965 Rector Prof. ... Jemaah Islamiyah, sometimes rendered Jemaah Islamiah, is a militant Islamic separatist movement, suspected of killing hundreds of civilians, dedicated to the establishment of a fundamentalist Islamic state in Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, and the south of Thailand and the Philippines. ...


Administration

Officially, Jakarta is not a city but a province with special status as the capital of Indonesia. It is administered much as any other Indonesian province. For example, Jakarta has a governor (instead of a mayor), and is divided into several sub-regions with their own administrative systems. Jakarta, as a province, is divided into five cities (kota) (formerly municipality) each headed by a mayor and one regency (kabupaten) headed by a regent. In August 2007, Jakarta held its first ever election to pick a governor, which was won by Fauzi Bowo. The city's governors have previously been appointed by local parliament. The poll is part of a country-wide decentralization drive allowing for direct local elections in several areas.[19] The province (Indonesian: provinsi) is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. ... Along with regencies / kabupaten, cities / kota are subdivisions of Indonesian Provinces. ... Kota can refer to: The Indonesian word for city. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... A regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) is a political subdivision of a province in Indonesia. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ...


List of cities of Jakarta:

The only regency of Jakarta is: Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat) is a kota (formerly kotamadya) of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur) is a kota (formerly kotamadya) of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara) is a kota (formerly kotamadya) of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan) is a kota (formerly kotamadya) of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... West Jakarta (Indonesian: Jakarta Barat) is a city (kota) in Jakarta, the capital province of Indonesia. ...

The Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu) are a chain of islands located on Jakarta Bay. ... A subdistrict (kecamatan) is a subdivision of a regency (kabupaten) or city (kota) in Indonesia. ...

Culture

As the economic and political capital of Indonesia, Jakarta attracts many foreign as well as domestic immigrants. As a result, Jakarta has a decidedly cosmopolitan flavor and a diverse culture. Many of the immigrants are from the other parts of Java Island, bringing along a mixture of dialects of the Javanese and Sundanese languages, as well as their traditional foods and customs. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Front view of the museum. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sundanese (Basa Sunda, literally language of Sunda) is the language of about 27 million people from the western third of Java or about 15% of the Indonesian population. ...


Jakarta is sometimes called "The Big Durian" by foreigners resident in the city. The durian is a tropical fruit with a distinctive odor and acquired taste. A bustling urban metropolis, Jakarta is known for its overcrowding, traffic congestion, and income disparity. This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Metropolis (disambiguation). ...


The Betawi (Orang Betawi, or "people of Batavia") is a term used to describe the descendants of the people living around Batavia and recognized as a tribe from around the 18th-19th century. The Betawi people are mostly descended from various Southeast Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labor needs, and include people from various parts of Indonesia.[20] The language and culture of these immigrants are distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese. The language is more based on East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Javanese, Chinese, and Arab. Nowadays, the Jakarta-dialects used by people in Jakarta is loosely based on Betawi Language. The Betawi (Orang Betawi, or people of Batavia) are the descendants of the people living around Batavia (the colonial name for Jakarta) from around the 17th century. ... Look up Batavia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Map showing the location of the Sundanese in Java The Sundanese are an ethnic group in the western part of the island of Java in Indonesia, numbering approximately 31 million. ... The Javanese are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


There has also been a significant Chinese community in Jakarta for many centuries. Officially, they make up 6% of the Jakarta population, though this number may be under-reported.[21]

One of the many Sukarno era statues in the city
One of the many Sukarno era statues in the city

Jakarta has several performance centers, such as the Senayan center. Traditional music is often found at high-class hotels, including wayang and gamelan performances. As the nation's largest city and capital, Jakarta has lured much national and regional talent who hope to find a greater audience and more opportunities for success. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1144 × 856 pixel, file size: 66 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1144 × 856 pixel, file size: 66 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Wayang is an Indonesian/Malay word for theater. ... Javanese gamelan at the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings, and vocalists may also be included. ...


Ironically, the Betawi arts are rarely found in Jakarta due to their infamous low-profile and most of them had moved to the border of Jakarta, ridden by the wave of immigrant. It is easier to find Java or Minang based wedding ceremonial instead of Betawi wedding in Jakarta. It is easier to find Javanese Gamelan instead of Gambang Kromong (mixture between Betawi and Chinese music) or Tanjidor (mixture between Betawi and Portuguese music) or Marawis (mixture between Betawi and Yaman music). However, some festival such as Jalan Jaksa Festival or Kemang Festival tried to preserve the Betawi art by inviting the artist to do some performance.[22]


The concentration of wealth and political influence in the city means that it has much more noticeable foreign influence on its landscape and culture, an effect illustrated by the presence in the city of many major international fast-food chains, for example.


Transportation

Jalan Thamrin, a main road in Central Jakarta
Jalan Thamrin, a main road in Central Jakarta

One of the most populous cities in the world, Jakarta is strained by transportation problems. Notes BBC News, "Only 2% of Jakartans use public transport at the moment [although in Indonesia most communal transport is provided by bemos, privately run minibuses]. Car users, meanwhile, are growing at a rate of 10% a year...Unless something is done, analysts say, the city will become completely gridlocked in the next few years."[23] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 893 KB) Summary created by Daniel Berthold Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Jakarta Java (island) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 893 KB) Summary created by Daniel Berthold Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Jakarta Java (island) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ...


Road transport

Jakarta traffic
Jakarta traffic

Despite the presence of many wide roads, Jakarta suffers from congestion due to heavy traffic, especially in the central business district. To reduce traffic jams, some major roads in Jakarta have a 'three in one' rule during rush hours, first introduced in 1992, prohibiting fewer than three passengers per car on certain roads. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to nl. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to nl. ...


Jakarta's roads are notorious for undisciplined driver behavior; transportation laws are broken with impunity and police bribery is commonplace. The painted lines on the road are regarded as mere suggestions as vehicles often travel four or five abreast on a typical two-lane road. It is not uncommon to encounter a vehicle traveling the wrong direction in a given traffic flow. Furthermore, in recent years the number of motorcycles on the streets has been growing almost exponentially. The vast sea of small, 100-200cc motorcycles, many of which have 2-stroke motors, create much of the traffic, noise and air pollution that plague Jakarta.

Motorised bajaj
Motorised bajaj

Auto rickshaws, called bajaj (pronounced badge-eye), provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city. From the early 1940s to 1991 they were a common form of local transportation in the city. In 1966, an estimated 160,000 rickshaws were operating in the city; as much as fifteen percent of Jakarta's total workforce was engaged in rickshaw driving. In 1971, rickshaws were banned from major roads, and shortly thereafter the government attempted a total ban, which substantially reduced their numbers but did not eliminate them. An especially aggressive campaign to eliminate them finally succeeded in 1990 and 1991, but during the economic crisis of 1998, some returned amid less effective government attempts to control them.[24] Download high resolution version (2511x1883, 3623 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2511x1883, 3623 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Passengers and drivers meet at this auto rickshaw stand in Chennai. ... Passengers and drivers meet at this auto rickshaw stand in Chennai. ...

To reduce traffic congestion, a new TransJakarta bus system was introduced.
To reduce traffic congestion, a new TransJakarta bus system was introduced.

The TransJakarta service operates on a special bus-line called the busway. The busway network is optimized for busy city routes and is a relatively effective alternative for travel in Jakarta. Construction of the 2nd and 3rd corridor routes of the busway was completed in 2006, serving the route from Pulo Gadung to Kalideres. The busway serving the route from Blok M to Jakarta Kota has been operational since January 2004. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... schematic map of the network TransJakarta is a bus rapid transit system in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... schematic map of the network TransJakarta is a bus rapid transit system in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Pulo Gadung is a subdistrict (kecamatan) of East Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Kalideres is a subdistrict of West Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Blok M is a downtown shopping area in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


An outer ring road is now being constructed and is partly operational from Cilincing-Cakung-Pasar Rebo-Pondok Pinang-Daan Mogot-Cengkareng. A toll road connects Jakarta to Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in the north of Jakarta. Also connected via toll road is the port of Merak and Tangerang to the west and Bekasi, Cibitung and Karawang, Purwakarta and Bandung to the east. Cilincing is a subdistrict of North Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Tambora is a subdistrict of West Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Pasar Rebo is a subdistrict of West Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Pondok Pinang is an administrative village (kelurahan) of Kebayoran Lama, South Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Cengkareng is a subdistrict of West Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Inside Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (Indonesian: ) (IATA: CGK, ICAO: WIII) is the main airport serving the greater Jakarta area on the island of Java, Indonesia. ... Map of Tangerang Tangerang is a city 20 kilometers west of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Purwakarta is the capital of the Purwakarta Regency of West Java, Indonesia. ... Nickname: Kota Kembang (City of Flowers) Motto: Bermartabat (dignity) Location of Bandung in Indonesia Coordinates: Province West Java Country Indonesia Government  - Mayor Dada Rosada Area  - City 167. ...


Rail and Waterway

There are railways throughout Jakarta; however, they are judged as being inadequate for providing necessary transportation for the citizens of Jakarta. In peak hours, the number of passengers greatly exceeds capacity. The railroad tracks connect Jakarta to its neighboring regions: Depok and Bogor to the south, Tangerang and Serpong to the west, and Bekasi, Karawang, and Cikampek to the east. The major rail stations are Gambir, Jatinegara, Pasar Senen, Manggarai, Tanah Abang and Jakarta Kota. Depok is a city adjacent to the south of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Nickname: Kota Hujan (City of Rain) Location of Bogor in Indonesia Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Diani Budiarto Time zone WIB (UTC+7) Area code(s) 0251 Website: www. ... Map of Tangerang Tangerang is a city 20 kilometers west of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Bekasi is a city to the east of Jakarta, Indonesia in the Jabotabek region. ... Karawang is the capital of the Karawang Regency of West Java, Indonesia. ... Cikampek is a subdistrict (kecamatan) of Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia. ... Gambir Station (Stasiun Gambir in Bahasa Indonesia, or Indonesian) is a mainline railway station in central Jakarta, Indonesia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Jakarta Railway transportation system
Jakarta Railway transportation system

Two lines of the Jakarta Monorail are under construction: the green line serving Semanggi-Casablanca Road-Kuningan-Semanggi and the blue line serving Kampung Melayu-Casablanca Road-Tanah Abang-Roxy. In addition, there are plans for a two-line subway (MRT) system, with a north-south line between Kota and Lebak Bulus, with connections to both monorail lines; and an east-west line, which will connect with the north-south line at the Sawah Besar station. The current project, which began in 2005, has been halted due to a lack of funds and its future remains uncertain. The Jakarta Monorail is a monorail system currently under construction in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Tanah Abang is located in Central Jakarta. ...

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport check in desks
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport check in desks

On 6 June 2007, the city administration started to introduce the Waterway, a new river boat service along the Ciliwung river.[23] The move aims to reduce the traffic snarls in Jakarta.[25]


On 30 November 2007, KRL(Commuter Train) Ciliwung Blue Line began operation [26]. It serves Jakarta's circle line, which was used in the 80s. The fare price is Rp5000,00. It serves Manggarai, Mampang, Karet, Jend. Sudirman Road, Duri, Angke, Kampung Bandan, Rajawali, Kemayoran, Pasar Senen, Gang Sentiong, Kramat, Pondok Jati, and Jatinegara. The train can supports 400 passengers[27]. For other uses, see Sudirman (disambiguation). ... Kemayoran is a subdistrict of Central Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Senen is a subdistrict of Central Jakarta, Indonesia. ...


Air

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport(CGK) is the primary airport for Jakarta and Indonesia alike. It is used by both private and commercial carriers connecting Jakarta with other Indonesian cities. It is also Indonesia's main international gateway. The airport is divided into three separate terminals. Terminal 1 serves all domestic airliners except Garuda Indonesia. Terminal 2 serves all foreign carriers and Garuda Indonesia (both domestic and international routes). Terminal 3 serves for hajj pilgrimage flights and for transnational migrant laborers.[28] A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport(HLP) serves mostly private and presidential flights. Inside Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (Indonesian: ) (IATA: CGK, ICAO: WIII) is the main airport serving the greater Jakarta area on the island of Java, Indonesia. ... PT (Persero) Perusahaan Penerbangan Garuda Indonesia, abbreviated to Garuda Indonesia, is the national airline of Indonesia. ... PT (Persero) Perusahaan Penerbangan Garuda Indonesia, abbreviated to Garuda Indonesia, is the national airline of Indonesia. ... Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport is located the Indonesian capital Jakarta, and was the citys main airport until the opening of Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Cengkareng. ...


Education

See also: List of universities in Indonesia
Museum Arsip (Archive Museum), one of the museums in Jakarta.

Jakarta is the home of many universities, the oldest of which are state-run University of Indonesia (UI)[29] and the privately-owned Universitas Nasional (UNAS)[30]. There are also many other private universities in Jakarta. As the largest city and the capital, Jakarta houses a large number of students from various parts of Indonesia, many of whom reside in dormitories or home-stay residences. Similar to other large cities in developing Asian countries, there are many professional schools. For basic education, there are a variety of primary and secondary schools, tagged with public (national), private (national and bi-lingual national plus) and international schools. One of the major international schools located in Jakarta is the Jakarta International School. It is an IASAS school. This is a list of universities in Indonesia: Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya Institut Seni Indonesia, Yogyakarta Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor Universitas Terbuka Cenderawasih University, Jayapura University of Airlangga, Surabaya Diponegoro University, Semarang Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta University of Indonesia, Jakarta Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung Andalas University... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 675 pixel, file size: 517 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 675 pixel, file size: 517 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Indonesia University (in Indonesian: Universitas Indonesia), abbreviated as UI, has its roots in the oldest tertiary-level education facilities in Indonesia (then the Dutch East Indies). ... The Jakarta International School (JIS) is the largest private international school in South Jakarta, Indonesia. ... The Interscholastic Association of Southeast Asian Schools (IASAS) consists of six member schools in the East Asia and South East Asia region. ...

Jakarta skyline taken from the top of Monas.
Jakarta skyline taken from the top of Monas.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (820 × 615 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) another billys. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (820 × 615 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) another billys. ... The word monad comes from the Greek word μονάς (from the word μόνος, which means one, single, unique) and has had many meanings in different contexts: Among the Pythagoreans (followers of Pythagoras) the monad was the first thing that came into existence. ...

Sports

Since Soekarno's era, Jakarta has often been chosen as the venue for international sport events, such as being the host of Asian Games in 1962, host of Asian Cup 2007 and several times hosting the regional-scale Sea Games. Jakarta is also home of several professional soccer clubs. The most popular of them is Persija, which regularly plays its matches in the Lebak Bulus Stadium. Another first division team is Persitara. The biggest stadium in Jakarta is the Bung Karno Stadium with a capacity of 100,000 seats[31]. For basketball, the Kelapa Gading Sport Mall in Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta, with a capacity of 7,000 seats, is the home arena of the Indonesian national basketball team. Many international basketball matches are played in this stadium. The Senayan sports complex is comprised of several sport venues, which include the Bung Karno soccer stadium, Madya Stadium, Istora Senayan, a shooting range, a tennis court and a golf driving range. The Senayan complex was built in 1959 to accommodate the Asian Games in 1962. Soccer redirects here. ... Persija (Persatuan Sepakbola Indonesia Jakarta) is an Indonesian football club from Jakarta. ... Lebak Bulus is located in South Jakarta. ... Persitara Jakarta Utara is a Indonesian football club based in Jakarta. ... Bung Karno Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Jakarta, Indonesia and is one of the largest stadiums anywhere in the world. ... Kelapa Gading Sport Mall is an indoor sporting arena located in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Kelapa Gading is the most luxurious place in Jakarta and the most vibrant too. ...

Nusantara Polo Club - Jakarta's Premiere Polo Facility
Nusantara Polo Club - Jakarta's Premiere Polo Facility

In 2011, Jakarta, together with Bandung, will once again host the Southeast Asian Games. Preparations to host the event have started since the conclusion of the 2007 Thailand Southeast Asian Games. The Indonesian Polo Association, as the governing body of polo in Indonesia, have stated its commitment to host the SEA Games polo tournament in Indonesia after polo is confirmed to be absent in the 2009 Laos Southeast Asian Games. The Indonesian Polo Team were placed last in the 2007 Southeast Asian Games.


Media

Telephones - main lines in use: 3. ...

Newspapers

Jakarta has several daily newspaper such as Bisnis Indonesia, Investor Daily, The Jakarta Post, Indo Pos , Seputar Indonesia, Kompas, Media Indonesia, Republika, Pos Kota, Warta Kota, Lampu Merah and Suara Pembaruan. Bisnis Indonesia is an Indonesian daily newspaper company, focusing on business sector in Indonesia. ... The Jakarta Post is a daily English-language newspaper in Indonesia. ... Seputar Indonesia (lit. ... With no doubt, Kompas is the most wide-spread newspaper in Indonesia. ... Media Indonesia, Indonesias daily newspaper published in Jakarta. ... Republika is one of some national daily newspapers in Indonesia. ...


Television

Government television: TVRI. Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI) is the oldest television station in Indonesia, and was the only television station until 1989. ...


Private national television: TPI, RCTI, Metro TV, Indosiar, StarANTV, SCTV, Trans TV, TV ONE (used to be Lativi), Trans 7, and Global TV. TPI (Indonesian Education Television) is an Indonesian private television station based in East Jakarta. ... RCTI (Rajawali Citra Televisi Indonesia) is Indonesias first privately-owned television network based in Jakarta. ... Metro TV, Indonesias first 24-hour news channel based in Jakarta. ... Indosiar logo Indosiar is a privately owned national television station in Indonesia, which has been operating from West Jakarta since 1994. ... Antv (Andalas Televisi) is an Indonesian television network. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... Trans TV logo Trans TV (Transformation TV Indonesia) is a national television station in Indonesia, owned by Chairul Tanjung and group. ... Trans 7 (formerly known as TV7) is an Indonesian commercial television station based in Central Jakarta. ... Global TV is a private television network in Indonesia established in early 1999 and first went on air in October 2001 with MTV programming. ...


Local television: Jak-TV, O-Channel, and Space-Toon.


Cable television: First Media, TelkomVision Satellite television: Indovision, ASTRO, TelkomVision Indovision is a subscription-based direct broadcast satellite (DBS) or direct-to-home satellite television and radio service initially in Indonesia. ... Astro may refer to: Astronomy Astrology Astro (Motorola), used to describe the digital voice radios produced by Motorola Astro (satellite TV), a Malaysian subscription-based multi-channel satellite TV & radio service Astro Nusantara, Indonesia subscription-based multi-channel TV service Astro (The Jetsons), a dog on the animated television series...


Radio

This is a list of FM & AM radio stations in Jakarta, Indonesia, and their frequencies: Arief Rahman Hakim (Global Radio): 88. ...

Problems

A trash dump in Bantar Gebang, Bekasi
A trash dump in Bantar Gebang, Bekasi

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 3766 KB) Slum life, Jakarta Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 3766 KB) Slum life, Jakarta Indonesia. ... Bekasi is a city to the east of Jakarta, Indonesia in the Jabotabek region. ...

Population in excess of infrastructure

Like many big cities in developing countries, Jakarta suffers from major urbanization problems. The population has risen sharply from 1.2 million in 1960 to 8.8 million in 2004, counting only its legal residents. The population of greater Jakarta is estimated at 23 million, making it the fourth largest urban area in the world. The rapid population growth has outgrown the government's ability to provide basic needs for its residents. As the third biggest economy in Indonesia, Jakarta has attracted a large number of visitors. The population during weekends is almost double that of weekdays, due to the influx of residents residing in other areas of Jabotabek. Because of government's inability to provide adequate transportation for its large population, Jakarta also suffers from severe traffic jams that occur almost every day. Air pollution and waste management are also severe problems. By 2025 the population of Jakarta may reach 24.9 million, not counting millions more in surrounding areas.[32] Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jabotabek, or Jabodetabek is the term given to the metropolitan area surrounding Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ...


Sanitation

Surveys show that "less than a quarter of the population is fully served by improved water sources. The rest rely on a variety of sources, including rivers, lakes and private water vendors. Some 7.2 million people are [without clean water]."[33]


Flooding

During the wet season, Jakarta suffers from flooding due to clogged sewage pipes and waterways, deforestation near rapidly urbanizing Bogor and Depok, and the fact that 40% of it is below sea level. Terrible floods occurred in 1996[34][35] when 5,000 hectares flooded [36] and 2007.[37] Losses from infrastructure damage and state revenue were at least 5.2 trillion rupiah (572 million US dollars) and at least 85 people were killed [38] and about 350,000 people forced from their homes.[39]. Approximately 70% to 75% of Jakarta's total area was flooded and water up to 4 meters deep in parts of city.[40] [41] [42] A wet season or rainy season is a season in which the average rainfall in a region is significantly increased. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Nickname: Kota Hujan (City of Rain) Location of Bogor in Indonesia Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Diani Budiarto Time zone WIB (UTC+7) Area code(s) 0251 Website: www. ... Depok is a city adjacent to the south of Jakarta, Indonesia. ...


The informal sector

In September 2007, a new law was brought into effect which attempted to regulate aspects of public order. It forbids the giving of money to beggars, buskers and hawkers, bans squatter settlements on river banks and highways, and prohibits spitting and smoking on public transportation. Unauthorized people cleaning car windscreens and managing traffic at busy intersections will also be penalized. Critics of the new legislation claim that such laws will be difficult to enforce and ignore the desperate poverty of many of the capital's inhabitants.[43]


Sister relationships

Jakarta has sister relationships with a number of towns and regions worldwide: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

, Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ... Peking redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... NSW redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ a b Badan Pusat Statistik: Population of Indonesia by Province (census 2000)
  2. ^ (2003) Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 
  3. ^ Turner, Peter (1997). Java (1st edition). Melbourne: Lonely Planet, page 37. ISBN 0-86442-314-4. 
  4. ^ (2005) Sundakala: cuplikan sejarah Sunda berdasarkan naskah-naskah “Panitia Wangsakerta” Cirebon. Yayasan Pustaka Jaya, Jakarta. 
  5. ^ (2007) The Sunda Kingdom of West Java From Tarumanagara to Pakuan Pajajaran with the Royal Center of Bogor. Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka. 
  6. ^ (2007) Three Old Sundanese Poems. KITLV Press. 
  7. ^ (1999) Sumber-sumber asli sejarah Jakarta, Jilid I: Dokumen-dokumen sejarah Jakarta sampai dengan akhir abad ke-16. Cipta Loka Caraka. 
  8. ^ a b History of Jakarta
  9. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan, p.29. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  10. ^ Heuken, Adolf (2000). Sumber-sumber asli sejarah Jakarta Jilid II: Dokumen-dokumen Sejarah Jakarta dari kedatangan kapal pertama Belanda (1596) sampai dengan tahun 1619 (Authentic sources of History of Jakarta part II: Documents of history of Jakarta from the first arrival of Dutch ship (1596) to year 1619). Jakarta: Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka. 
  11. ^ a b c d Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet, pages 138-139. ISBN 1-74059-154-2. 
  12. ^ Kusno, Abidin. 2000. Behind the Postcolonial: Architecture, Urban Space and Political Cultures. NY: Routledge. ISBN 0415236150; Schoppert, P., Damais, S., Java Style, 1997, Didier Millet, Paris, ISBN 962-593-232-1
  13. ^ Jakarta. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-09-17.
  14. ^ Douglas, M. (1989) 'The Environmental Sustainability of Development. Coordination, Incentives and Political Will in Land Use Planning for the Jakarta Metropolis', Third World Planning Review 11(2): 211–38; Douglas, M. (1992) 'The Political Economy of Urban Poverty and Environmental Management in Asia: Access, Empowerment and Community-based Alternatives', Environment and Urbanization 4(2): 9–32.
  15. ^ Turner, Peter (1997). Java (1st edition). Melbourne: Lonely Planet, page 315. ISBN 0-86442-314-4. 
  16. ^ Edsel E. Sajor (2003) "Globalization and the Urban Property Boom in Metro Cebu, Philippines" Development and Change 34(4), 713–742.
  17. ^ Friend, Theodore (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01137-6. ,p. 329
  18. ^ Friend, T. (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01137-6. 
  19. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Asia-Pacific | Jakarta holds historic election
  20. ^ The Betawi - due to their diverse origins - play a major role concerning ethnic and national identity in contemporary Jakarta; see Knörr, Jacqueline: Kreolität und postkoloniale Gesellschaft. Integration und Differenzierung in Jakarta, Campus Verlag: Frankfurt a.M. & New York, 2007, ISBN 978-3-593-38344-6
  21. ^ "Chinese diaspora: Indonesia" - BBC
  22. ^ see Knörr, Jacqueline: Kreolität und postkoloniale Gesellschaft. Integration und Differenzierung in Jakarta, Campus Verlag: Frankfurt a.M. & New York, 2007, ISBN 978-3-593-38344-6
  23. ^ a b Jakarta begins river boat service.
  24. ^ Azuma, Yoshifumi (2003). Urban peasants: beca drivers in Jakarta. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan.
  25. ^ Jakarta gets its first klong taxis.
  26. ^ Antara(Indonesian) http://www.antara.co.id/arc/2007/11/23/krl-dalam-kota-ciliwung-blue-line-dioperasikan/
  27. ^ Berita Aktual http://beritadotcom.blogspot.com/2007/12/kereta-lingkar-jakarta-resmi-meluncur.html
  28. ^ Silvey, R. "Unequal Borders: Indonesian Transnational Migrants at Immigration Control," Geopolitics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 265-279, 2007.
  29. ^ Universitas Indonesia | The University with world class perspectives | Posts
  30. ^ Web Universitas Nasional 1949
  31. ^ Football stadiums of the world - Stadiums in Indonesia
  32. ^ Far Eastern Economic Review, Asia 1998 Yearbook, p. 63.
  33. ^ United Nations Human Development Report 2006, p. 39 [1]
  34. ^ Asiaviews - Asian News
  35. ^ Situation Reports: Indonesia: Floods - Feb 2007, Indonesia: Floods in DKI Jakarta Province, updated 19 Feb 2007 Emergency Situation Report No. 6
  36. ^ 1996 Flood Archive
  37. ^ Bloomberg.com: Asia
  38. ^ Three killed, 90,000 evacuated in Jakarta floods: officials - Yahoo! News
  39. ^ Disease fears as floods ravage Jakarta
  40. ^ Jakarta Flood Feb 2007 « (Geo) Information for All
  41. ^ http://www.dartmouth.edu/~floods/Archives/2007sum.htm
  42. ^ Art and Nature Photography
  43. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/6989211.stm; "Condemned Communities: Forced Evictions in Jakarta" Human Rights Watch Sep 2006.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ANTARA is the official news agency of the government of Indonesia. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...

See also

The 2005 Java-Bali Blackout refers to a massive power outage on Java — the main island of Indonesia in which the capital Jakarta is located — and Bali on August 18, 2005. ... The 2007 Jakarta flood was a major flood in Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia and affected several other areas around the city, such as West Java and Banten. ... 2007 Java earthquake refers to a magnitude 7. ... Jakarta Old Town (Kota Tua Jakarta), also known as Old Jakarta, and Old Batavia (Oud Batavia), is a small area in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... This is a list of Governors of Jakarta. ... 27 metropolitan areas of at least 10 million people. ... Lubang Buaya A location in eastern Jakarta - Crocodile Hole near the Halim Perdanakusumah Air Force Base. ...

External links

Indonesia Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Official website
  • Jakarta travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Travelling to Jakarta
  • About Jakarta
  • Jakarta is at coordinates 6°07′60″S 106°45′00″E / -6.1333, 106.75 (Jakarta)Coordinates: 6°07′60″S 106°45′00″E / -6.1333, 106.75 (Jakarta)

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat) is a kota (formerly kotamadya) of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur) is a kota (formerly kotamadya) of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara) is a kota (formerly kotamadya) of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan) is a kota (formerly kotamadya) of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... West Jakarta (Indonesian: Jakarta Barat) is a city (kota) in Jakarta, the capital province of Indonesia. ... The Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu) are a chain of islands located on Jakarta Bay. ... The province (Indonesian: provinsi) is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Map of North Sumatra province within Indonesia North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... Motto: Tuah Sakato. ... Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. ... Map of Indonesia showing Riau province Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. ... The Riau Islands (Kepulauan Riau (Kepri for short) or sometimes Riau Kepulauan in Bahasa Indonesia) are a province and a group of islands in Indonesia, located south of Singapore, off the eastern coast of Riau province on Sumatra island. ... For other uses, see Jambi (disambiguation). ... Map of South Sumatra province in Indonesia South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... Lampung is a province of Indonesia, located on the southern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Bangka-Belitung Islands is a province of Indonesia, which includes two main islands, Bangka and Belitung, and several smaller ones that lie from the east of Sumatra to the northeast of South Sumatra province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Map showing West Java in Indonesia West Java (Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia, located on the island of Java. ... For the Banten meteorite of 1933, see Meteorite falls. ... Central Java (Indonesian: Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. ... The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is a province of Indonesia on the island of Java. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. ... Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah often abbreviated to Kalteng) is a province of Indonesia, one of four in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Provinces of Indonesia ... East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv. ... Map of Lesser Sunda Islands Satellite picture of the Lesser Sunda Islands The Nusa Tenggara (lit. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Map showing West Nusa Tenggara province in Indonesia West Nusa Tenggara (Indonesian: Nusa Tenggara Barat) is a province in south-central Indonesia. ... Map showing East Nusa Tenggara province in Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara (Indonesian: Nusa Tenggara Timur) a province of Indonesia, located in the eastern portion Lesser Sunda Islands, including West Timor. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... Map showing West Sulawesi province within Indonesia West Sulawesi or Sulawesi Barat (short form Sulbar) is the 33rd province of Indonesia, created in 2004. ... Map showing North Sulawesi province in Indonesia North Sulawesi or Sulawesi Utara is a province of Indonesia. ... Map of Central Sulawesi province within Indonesia Central Sulawesi (Sulawesi Tengah) is one of Indonesias provinces located in the heart of Sulawesi Island. ... Map showing South Sulawesi province within Indonesia South Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Selatan) is a province of Indonesia, located on Sulawesi island. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Provinces of Indonesia ... Map showing Gorontalo province in Indonesia Gorontalo is a province of Indonesia. ... Maluku redirects here. ... Maluku is a province of Indonesia, comprising, broadly, the southern part of the Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Molucca Islands or Moluccan Islands). ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Provinces of Indonesia ... Map showing West Papua province in Indonesia Map of West Papua West Papua (Indonesian: Papua Barat; formerly West Irian Jaya or Irian Jaya Barat) is a province of Indonesia on the western end of the island of New Guinea. ... Papua is a province of Indonesia comprising a majority part of the western half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands (see also Western New Guinea). ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (Бишкек) is the capital of Kyrgyzstan. ... Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - Total 100 km² (38. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Peking redirects here. ... This article is about the city. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Template:Infobox Settlementcookis and ceam For the band, see Ulan Bator (band). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... Thimphu (Tibetan script: ཐིམ་ཕུག།) is the capital of Bhutan, and also the name of the surrounding valley and dzongkhag, the Thimphu District. ... This article is about the capital city of India. ... Malé (Dhivehi: މާލެ), (pronounced: Maa-lay) population 81,647 (2004), is the capital of the Republic of Maldives located at the southern edge of North Male Atoll Kaafu Atoll. ... For the retail store chain, see Kathmandu (company). ... For other places called Islamabad, see Islamabad (disambiguation). ... , District Government  - Mayor Swarnalatha Silva (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 17 km²  (6. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque Bandar Seri Begawan, estimated population 46,229 (1991), is the capital and the royal town of the Sultanate of Brunei. ... Naypyidaw (also spelt Nay Pyi Taw, literally Royal City) is currently the national capital of Myanmar, located in Kyatpyae Village, Pyinmana Township of Mandalay Division. ... Nickname: Location of Phnom Penh, Cambodia Coordinates: , Country Province Settled 1372 Became Capital 1865 Government  - Type Municipality  - Mayor & Governor H.E. Keb Chutema (Khmer: )  - Vice Governors H.E. Than Sina, H.E. Map Sarin, H.E. Seng Tong Area  - Total 376 km² (145. ... Dili, also spelled Díli, Dilli or Dilly, is the capital of East Timor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... Motto: Bandar raya Taman, Bandar raya Bestari (English :Garden City, Intelligent City ) Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1995, October 19th Made into Federal Territory 2001, February 1st Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Putrajaya Putrajaya Corporation  - Chairman Samsudin Osman Area  - City 46 km²  (17. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Bahrain from space, June 1996 Manama (Arabic: المنامة Al-Manāmah) is the capital city of Bahrain and is the countrys largest city with a population of approximately 155,000, roughly a quarter of countrys entire population. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Georgia Established c. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Kuwait City Kuwait City (also Al-Kuwait - الكويت), population 32,403 (2005 Census), is the capital of the emirate of Kuwait and part of the Al-Asimah governorate. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Classification City Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said Area 3,500 km² [1] Population  - Total (2005)  - Density  - Oman calculated rank 606,024 [2] 184. ... For other uses, see Doha (disambiguation). ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Abu Dhabi or Abu Zaby (Arabic language: أبوظبي) is the largest of the seven emirates that comprise the United Arab Emirates and was also the largest of the former Trucial States. ... Building in San‘a’ Clay houses in San‘a’ The residence of Imam Yahya in the Wadi Dhar near San‘a’. Backstreet in Yemen (Arabic: ‎ , sometimes spelled Sanaa or Sanaa) is the capital of Yemen and the centre of San‘a’ Governorate. ... Israel has de facto control over all of Jerusalem. ... This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ordered according to population (as of 2007). ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... For the town of Yokohama in Aomori Prefecture, see Yokohama, Aomori. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Inchon redirects here. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... This article is about the city. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Osaka (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Japanese city. ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Gran Buenos Aires or Greater Buenos Aires is the metropolitan area next to the city of Buenos Aires and comprises the following 24 partidos (administrative subdivisions) of the Province of Buenos Aires. ... Peking redirects here. ... Shenzhen is a sub-provincial city of Guangdong province in southern China. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Lagos (disambiguation). ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Nagoya ) is the fourth largest city in Japan. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... Saigon redirects here. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... For other uses, see Bogotá (disambiguation). ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... Essen is a city in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the economic and cultural centres of Germany and western Europe. ... Madras redirects here. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hong Kong (香港; Cantonese IPA: ; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2; Yale: heūng góng; pinyin: Xiānggǎng; Wade-Giles: Hsiang-kang) is one of the two Special Administrative Regions of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... A map of Gauteng, showing the East Rand. ... , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... Dongguan (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Province Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - MPs List of MPs Dean Allison Chris Charlton David Christopherson Wayne Marston David Sweet  - MPPs List of MPPs Sophia Aggelonitis Andrea... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Miami redirects here. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


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Travelling to Indonesia (Jakarta) (2576 words)
Jakarta, the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia, is a special territory enjoying the status of a province, consisting of Greater Jakarta, covering an area of 637.44 square km.
Jakarta is a city of contrasts; the traditional and the modern, the rich and the poor, the sacral and the worldly, often stand side by side in this bustling metropolis.
Jakarta's zoo is situated in the suburb of Ragunan in the southern part of the city.
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