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Encyclopedia > Jainism
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Jainism


Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Main Jain prayer
Navakar Mantra Navakar Mantra, also called the Namokar Mantra or the Namaskar Mantra, is the most important prayer used in Jainism. ...

Timeline Timeline of Jainism // ca. ...

Jain great vows
Ahimsa · Asteya
Brahmacharya · Satya
Nirvana · Aparigraha
Anekantavada The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa. ... Asteya is a Sanskrit word meaning avoidance of stealing or non-stealing. In Jainism, it is one of the five vows that all sravakas and shravikas as well as sadhus and sadhvis must take. ... Brahmacharya (pronounced /brʌmatʃərɪə/) is a Sanskrit word. ... Satya is a true badman. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... Aparigraha is the Jain concept of non-possessiveness. ... Anekantavada is a basic principle of Jainism dealing with the fact that reality may be percieved diferently from different points of views. ...

Key concepts
Kevala Jñāna · Cosmology
Samsara · Karma
Dharma · Moksha · Reincarnation
Swadhyay
( Sanskrit : केवलज्ञान ) in Jainism, also known as “absolute knowledge” , “Enlightement” and “Omniscience” is the highest form of transcendental knowledge that a soul can attain. ... According to Jain beliefs, the universe was never created, nor will it ever cease to exist. ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ... Karmic Theory The Jain religion places great emphasis on the theory of Karma. ... Jain texts assign a wide range of meaning to the word Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Prakrit: धम्म). It is often translated as “religion” and as such, Jainism is called as Jain Dharma by its adherents. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological concept. ... In Hinduism, Svadhyaya is the incorporation of the message of the Bhagavad Gita in ones life. ...

Major figures
The 24 Tirthankaras
Lord Rishabh to Mahavira
Acharyas · Ganadhars
Siddhasen Divakar · Haribhadra
The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... In Jainism, Lord Rishabh (also transliterated as Rishabanath and as Rushabh) was the first Tirthankar of Jainism. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... For the pen name of D. Murdock, see Acharya S. An acharya is an important religious teacher. ... Ganadhar((गणधर) means a group leader. ... Siddhasen Diwakar(Fifth century B.C.)(आचार्य सिद्दसैन दिवाकर) was highly intelligent Jain acharya of his time. ... Haribhadra Suri was an 8th Century Jainist author. ...

Practices and attainment
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramis · Meditation

Jainism by region
India · Western

Sects of Jainism
Svetambara · Digambara
Terapanthi · Early schools
Sthanakvasi · Bisapantha
Deravasi
The Shvetambara (White-Clad) are a Jainist sect. ... The Digambara (Sky-Clad) are a Jainist sect, these are the followers of Bhadrabahu. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Terapanth. ... Sthanakvasi is a sect of Jainism that believes that God is nirakar (i. ... Bisapantha is sub-sect of the Digambar sect of Jainism. ... Deravasi is a term for a sect of Jainism which includes all members of the Shvetambar sect who are not members of the Sthanakvasi division of the sect. ...

Texts
Kalpasutra
Agama (text) · Tattvartha Sutra
Sanmatti Prakaran
Kalpasutra is a Jain ancient text book containing the biography of the last two Jain Tirthankars, Parshvanath and Mahavira. ... Agama (Sanskrit:आगम) literally means that which has come down (i. ... Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra or Moksh-Shastra) is a Jaina text written by Acharya Umasvati or Umasvami. ...

List of topics
Portal: Jainism
Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Acaranga Sutra Adipurana Agama (text) Antakrddaasah Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh Arya Asteya Category: ...

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Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म), is one of the oldest religions in the world. It is a religion and philosophy originating in ancient India. A Jain is a follower of Jinas, or spiritual victors. The Jains follow the teachings of the 24 special Jinas (conquerors) who are known as Tirthankars (ford builders). The 24th Tirthankar, Lord Mahavira lived in ca. 6th century BC. One of the main characteristics of Jain belief is the emphasis on the immediate consequences of one's physical and mental behavior.[1] Jain may refer to: Jainism, the religion of Jains. ... Jaina can refer to: Jaina, Campeche, a site of the Mayan civilization. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture, also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ...


Jains are a small but influential religious minority with at least 8.2 million followers in modern India[2] and more in growing immigrant communities in the United States, Western Europe, the Far East including Australia and elsewhere. Jains continue to sustain the ancient Shraman (श्रमण) or ascetic tradition. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ...


Jains have significantly influenced the religious, ethical, political and economic spheres in India for over two millennia. Jainism stresses spiritual independence and equality of all life with particular emphasis on non-violence. Self-control (व्रत, vratae) is vital for attaining omniscience (Kevala Jnana) and eventually moksha, or realization of the soul's true nature. Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... For other uses, see Self control (disambiguation). ... ( Sanskrit : केवलज्ञान ) in Jainism, also known as “absolute knowledge” , “Enlightement” and “Omniscience” is the highest form of transcendental knowledge that a soul can attain. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ...


As per ancient and contemporary usage, as well as dictionary definitions, a follower of Jain Dharma, or Jainism, is called a Jain[3]


Jains have an ancient tradition of scholarship. The Jain community has the highest degree of literacy among all the religious communities in India,[4] and the Jain libraries are India's oldest.[5] The Jains in India have been the last direct representatives of the Shramana tradition in India. ...

Contents

History

Further information: Timeline of Jainism

Timeline of Jainism // ca. ...

Sources of history

Parshvanatha was the twenty-third Tirthankara (ford maker) in Jainism and is the earliest Jain leader that can be reliably dated.[6]. According to scholars he probably flourished in 9th Century BC[7] [8]. A 1097 representation of Parshvanath from Smithsonian Institute’s collections In Jainism, Parshva, (more correctly Parshvanatha; occasionally spelled Parswanath) was the twenty-third Tirthankara. ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ...


Kalinga (Modern Orissa) was home to many Jains in the past. Rishabh, the first Tirthankar, was revered and worshipped in the ancient city Pithunda, which was destroyed by Mahapadma Nanda when he conquered Kalinga and brought the statue of Rishabhanatha to his capital in Magadh. Rishabhanatha is revered as the 'Kalinga Jina'. Ashoka's invasion and his Buddhist policy also subjugated Jains greatly in Kalinga. However, in the 1st century BC Emperor Kharvela conquered Magadha and brought Rushabhnath's statue back and installed it in Udaygiri, near his capital, Shishupalgarh. The Khandagiri and Udaygiri caves near Bhubaneswar are the only stone monuments dedicated to Jainism surviving in Orissa. Many of the earlier buildings were made of wood, and were destroyed. , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... In Jainism, Rishabha Dev (ऋषभदेव) or Adinatha (other names used: Riá¹£habh, Riá¹£habhanāth, Rushabh, Rushabhdev, Adinath or Adishwar; Sanskrit ṛṣabha meaning best, most excellent besides bull) was the first of the 24 Tirthankara. ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... Mahapadma Nanda (450 B.C - 362 B.C) the first king of the nanda dynasty. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Ranigumpha (cave no-1) Udayagiri Ganeshagumpha (cave no-10) Udayagiri Hathigumpha (cave no-14) Udayagiri Khandagiri caves Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves are the caves of archaeological, historical and religious importance near Bhubaneswar in Orissa (India), situated on two hills Udayagiri and Khandagiri, mentioned as Kumari Parvat in Hathigumpha inscription, facing... , Bhubaneswar   (Oriya: ଭୁବେନଶ୍ବର, Hindi: भुवनेश्वर, in Sanskrit and Oriya/oDiA, The Lord of the Universe) is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of state of Orissa, India. ...


Deciphering of the Brahmi script, India's oldest script, believed to have been created by the first Tirthankara Rishabhanatha, by James Prinsep in 1788 enabled the reading of ancient inscriptions in India and established the antiquity of Jainism. Discovery of Jain manuscripts, a process that continues today, has added significantly to retracing the history of Jainism. Jain archaeological findings are often from Maurya, Sunga, Kishan, Gupta, Kalachuries, Rashtrakut, Chalukya, Chandel and Rajput and later periods. Several western and Indian scholars have contributed to the reconstruction of Jain history. They include western historians like Bühler, Jacobi, and Indian scholars like Iravatham Mahadevan, who has worked on Tamil Brahmi inscriptions. One who is a Buddhist can still profess Jain Beliefs. Variation of BrāhmÄ« with dates. ... James Prinsep (20 August 1799 - 22 April 1840) was an Anglo-Indian scholar and antiquary. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...


Geographical spread and influence

Jain temple in Ranakpur

Jainism has been a major cultural, philosophical, social and political force since the dawn of civilization in Asia, and its ancient influence has been noted in other religions, including Buddhism and Hinduism. Image File history File links RanakpurJainTem. ... Image File history File links RanakpurJainTem. ... Ranakpur in the state of Rajasthan is one of the five most important pilgrimage sites of Jainism. ...


The pervasive influence of Jain culture and philosophy in ancient Bihar possibly gave rise to Buddhism. The Buddhists have always maintained that during the time of Buddha and Mahavira, Jainism was already an ancient and deeply entrenched faith and culture in the region. For a discussion about the connections between Buddhism and Jainism see Buddhism and Jainism. Over several thousand years, Jain influence on Hindu philosophy and religion has been considerable, while Hindu influence on Jain rituals may be observed in certain Jain sects. For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... Jainism and Buddhism are the two branches of the Shramana tradition that still exist today. ...


For instance, the very concept of Puja is Jain. The Vedic Religion prescribed yajnas and havanas for pleasing god. Puja is a specifically Jain concept, arising from the Tamil words, "pu" (flower) and "ja" (offering). Please refer to "Jaya Gommatesh" for more details on this topic. {Patil, Bal. "Jaya Gommatesha". Foreword by Prof. Dr. Colette Caillat. Jainism is rapidly expanding in the West as non-Indians follow this religion. With 10 to 12 million followers,[9] Jainism is among the smallest of the major world religions, but in India its influence is much more than these numbers would suggest. Jains live throughout India; Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Gujarat have the largest Jain population among Indian states. Karnataka, Bundelkhand and Madhya Pradesh have relatively large Jain populations. There is a large following in Punjab, especially in Ludhiana and Patiala, and there were many Jains in Lahore (Punjab's historic capital) and other cities before the Partition of 1947, after which many fled to India. There are many Jain communities in different parts of India and around the world. They may speak local languages or follow different rituals but essentially follow the same principles. Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005 (Encyclopaedia Britannica). ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Rajasthan, a state in western India, has had a close historical connection with Jainism. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: , IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... Bundelkhand is a geographic region of central India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... For the district of the same name, see Ludhiana District. ... , Patiala   (Punjabi: ਪਟਿਆਲਾ) is a city in the Punjab state of India. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... This article is under construction. ... The Jains in India have been the last direct representatives of the Shramana tradition in India. ...


Outside India, the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) have large Jain communities today. Jainism is presently a strong faith in the United States and several Jain temples have been built there. American Jainism accommodates all the sects. Smaller Jain communities exist in Nepal, South Africa, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, Fiji, and Suriname. In Belgium the very successful Indian diamond community, almost all of which are Jain are also establishing a temple to strengthen Jain values in and across Western Europe.  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... The Jains started arriving in significant numbers in early 1970s. ...


Digambara and Svetambara traditions

It is generally believed that the Jain sangha divided into two major sects, Digambar and Svetambar, about 200 years after Mahāvīra's nirvana. Some historians believe there was no clear division until the 5th century. The best available information indicates that the chief Jain monk, Acharya Bhadrabahu, foresaw famine and led about 12,000 Digambar followers to southern India. Twelve years later, they returned to find the Shvetambar sect and in 453, the Valabhi council edited and compiled traditional Shvetambar scriptures. Differences between the two sects are minor and relatively obscure. In Jainism, Sangha can mean the assembly of monks, nuns, lay men and women (termed chatrividha sangha) of a region. ... A sect is a small religious group that has branched off of a larger established religion. ... Digambar, also spelt Digambara is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Svetambar. ... Svetambar (also spelt Svetambara or Shvetabmbar) is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Digambar. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... Acharya Bhadrabahu (433 B.C. - 357 B.C. ?) was a Jain monk. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ...

Diagramatic representation of Schisms within Jainism along with the timelines.
Diagramatic representation of Schisms within Jainism along with the timelines.

In Sanskrit, ambar refers to a covering like a garment. 'Dig', an older form of 'disha', refers to the cardinal directions. Digambar therefore means those whose garment is only the four directions, or "sky-clad". 'Svet' means white and Svetambars are those who wear white coverings.

  • Digambar Jain monks do not wear clothes because they believe clothes are like other possessions, increasing dependency and desire for material things, and desire for anything ultimately leads to sorrow.

Svetambar Jain monks wear white seamless clothes for practical reasons and believe there is nothing in Jain scripture that condemns wearing clothes. Sadhvis (nuns) of both sects wear white. These differing views arise from different interpretations of the same holy books. There are minor differences in the enumeration and validity of each sect's literature.

  • Digambars believe that women cannot attain moksha in the same birth, while Svetambars believe that women may attain liberation and that Mallinath, a Tirthankar, was female.
  • Digambars believe that Mahavir was not married, whereas Shvetambars believe the princely Mahavir was married and had a daughter.
  • They also differ on the origin of Mata Trishala, Mahavira's mother.
  • In the first Jain prayer, the Namokara Mantra. Sthanakavasis and Digambars believe that only the first five lines are formally part of the Namokara Mantra, whereas Svetambaras believe all nine form the mantra. Other differences are minor and not based on major points of doctrine.

Excavations at Mathura revealed many Jain statues from the Kushana period. Tirthankaras, represented without clothes and monks, with cloth wrapped around the left arm, are identified as 'ardhaphalaka' and mentioned in some texts. The Yapaniya sect, believed to have originated from the Ardhaphalaka, follows Digambara nudity, along with several Shvetambara beliefs. For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource If the page can be edited into an encyclopedic article, rather than merely a copy of the source text, please do so and remove this message. ... Navakar Mantra, also called the Namokar Mantra or the Namaskar Mantra, is the most important prayer used in Jainism. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...


Svetambaras are further divided into sub-sects, such as Sthanakavasi, Terapanthi and Deravasi. Some are murtipujak ( revering statues) while non-murtipujak Jains refuse statues or images. Most simply call themselves Jains and follow general traditions rather than specific sectarian practices. In 1974, a committee with representatives from every sect compiled a new text called the Samana Suttam. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Terapanth. ... Deravasi is a term for a sect of Jainism which includes all members of the Shvetambar sect who are not members of the Sthanakvasi division of the sect. ... Samana Suttam, or Saman Suttam, is the religious text created in 1974 by a committee consisting of representatives of each of the major sects of Jainism to reconcile the teachings of the sects. ...


Beliefs

Tirthankaras

The statue of Gomateshwara of Digambar tradition in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka is the tallest monolith of its kind in the world
The statue of Gomateshwara of Digambar tradition in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka is the tallest monolith of its kind in the world

Jains does not have a single founder and the truth is said to have been revealed at different times by a Tirthankara (a teacher who 'makes a ford' i.e., shows the way). A tirthankar is considered omniscient, a role model, not a god. There have been 24 tirthankars in what the Jains call the 'present age'. Historical records about only the last two Tirthankars remain: Parshvanath and Mahavir (the 23rd and 24th). Image File history File links The image shows the 58 foot, 8 inch statue of the Jain prophet Gomatheswara. ... Image File history File links The image shows the 58 foot, 8 inch statue of the Jain prophet Gomatheswara. ... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Gomateshwara is a monolithic statue standing at 60 feet above a hill in a place called Shravanabelagola in the Hassan district of Karnataka state, India. ... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Shravanabelagola is a city located in the Hassan district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ...


The 24 tirthankaras in chronological order are - Adinath (or Rishabhnath), Ajitanath, Sambhavanath, Abhinandananath, Sumatinath, Padmaprabh, Suparshvanath, Chandraprabhu, Pushpadantanath (or Suvidhinath), Sheetalanath, Shreyansanath, Vasupujya, Vimalanath, Anantanath, Dharmanath, Shantinath, Kunthunath, Aranath, Mallinath, Munisuvratanath, Neminath, Arishthanemi, Parshvanath and Mahavir (or Vardhamana). The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource If the page can be edited into an encyclopedic article, rather than merely a copy of the source text, please do so and remove this message. ... A 1097 representation of Parshvanath from Smithsonian Institute’s collections In Jainism, Parshva (877-777 B.C.E.), (more correctly Parshvanatha; occasionally spelled Parswanath) was the twenty-third Tirthankara. ... This article or section should be merged with Mahavir Swami Mahavir or Mahavira (the Great Hero -- Also, Vardhamana (increasing) or Niggantha Nathaputta -- 599 BC - 527 BC) was the 24th, and last, Jainist Tirthankara. ...


Beliefs

Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura
Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura

Jains believe that every human is responsible for his/her actions and all living beings have an eternal soul, jīva. Jains believe all souls are equal because they all possess the potential of being liberated and attaining Moksha. Tirthankaras are role models only because they have attained Moksha. Jains insist that we live, think and act respectfully and honor the spiritual nature of all life. Jains view God as the unchanging traits of the pure soul of each living being, chiefly described as Infinite Knowledge, Perception, Consciousness, and Happiness (Ananta Jnāna, Ananta Darshana, Ananta Cāritra, and Ananta Sukha). Jains do not believe in an omnipotent supreme being, creator or manager (kartā), but rather in an eternal universe governed by natural laws. Image File history File links Mathura_ayagapatta3. ... Image File history File links Mathura_ayagapatta3. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Jains hold that this temporal world is full of miseries and sorrow and hence in order to attain lasting bliss one must transcend the cycle of transmigration. Otherwise, one will remain eternally caught up in the never-ending cycle of transmigration. The only way to break out of this cycle is to practice detachment through rational perception, rational knowledge and rational conduct.


Jain scriptures were written over a long period of time, but the most cited is the Tattvartha Sutra, or Book of Reality written by the monk-scholar, Umasvati (aka Umāsvāmi) almost 1800 years ago. The primary figures are Tirthankaras. There are two main sects called Digambar and Svetambar, and both believe in ahimsa (or ahinsā), asceticism, karma, sanskār, and jiva. Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra or Moksh-Shastra) is a Jaina text written by Acharya Umasvati or Umasvami. ... Acharya Umasvati is the author of Tatvartha Sutra, the best known Jain text. ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... Digambar, also spelt Digambara is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Svetambar. ... Svetambar (also spelt Svetambara or Shvetabmbar) is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Digambar. ... The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Jainism. ... In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ...


Differences between the two main sects are mainly conduct related. Doctrinally, Jainism is uniform with great emphasis placed on rational perception, rational knowledge and rational conduct. {"samyagdarśanajñānacāritrāṇimokṣamārgaḥ", Tattvārthasūtra, 1.1}


Compassion for all life, human and non-human, is central to Jainism. Human life is valued as a unique, rare opportunity to reach enlightenment. To kill any person, no matter what crime they committed, is considered unimaginably abhorrent. It is the only religion that requires monks and laity, from all its sects and traditions, to be vegetarian. Some Indian regions have been strongly influenced by Jains and often the majority of the local non-Jain population has also become vegetarian.


History suggests that various strains of Hinduism became vegetarian due to strong Jain influences[10]. Jains run animal shelters all over India. For example, Delhi has a bird hospital run by Jains. Every city and town in Bundelkhand has animal shelters run by Jains where all manner of animals are sheltered, even though the shelter is generally known as a Gaushala. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Jainism's stance on nonviolence goes far beyond vegetarianism. Jains refuse food obtained with unnecessary cruelty. Many practice a lifestyle similar to Veganism due to the violence of modern dairy farms, and others exclude root vegetables from their diets in order to preserve the lives of the plants from which they eat.[11] Potatoes, garlic and onions in particular are avoided by Jains.[12] Devout Jains do not eat, drink, or travel after sunset and prefer to drink water that is first boiled and then cooled to room temperature[citation needed]. Many Jains abstain from eating green vegetables and root vegetables one day each week. The particular day is determined by the lunar calendar and is Ashtami (eighth day of the lunar month) and New Moon and followed by the second Ashtami and Full Moon night. Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... Vegan redirects here. ... Root vegetables are underground plant parts used as vegetables. ...


Anekantavada, a foundation of Jain philosophy, literally means "The Multiplicity of Reality", or equivalently, "Non-one-endedness". Anekantavada consists of tools for overcoming inherent biases in any one perspective on any topic or in reality in general. Another tool is The Doctrine of Postulation, Syādvāda. Anekantavada is defined as a multiplicity of viewpoints, for it stresses looking at things from others' perspectives. Anekantavada is a basic principle of Jainism dealing with the fact that reality may be percieved diferently from different points of views. ... Syādvāda (Syadvada) is the Doctrine of Postulation of Jainism. ...


Jains are usually very welcoming and friendly toward other faiths and often help with interfaith functions. Several non-Jain temples in India are administered by Jains. A palpable presence in Indian culture, Jains have contributed to Indian philosophy, art, architecture, science, and to Mohandas Gandhi's politics, which led to the mainly non-violent movement for Indian independence.[1] The culture of India has been shaped by the long history of India, all the while absorbing customs, traditions and ideas from both immigrants and invaders, yet resiliently preserving the ancient Vedic culture derived from the Indus Valley Civilization. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about building architecture. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... The Indian independence movement was a series of steps taken in the Indian subcontinent for independence from British colonial rule, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ...


Creation and cosmology

Main article: Jain Cosmology
Bhaktamara Stotra: A Tirthankara is a shelter from ocean of rebirths.
Bhaktamara Stotra: A Tirthankara is a shelter from ocean of rebirths.

According to Jain beliefs, the universe was never created, nor will it ever cease to exist. Therefore, history of the universe is shaswat (infinite). It has no beginning or end, but time is cyclical in nature with progressive and regressive spirituality phases. According to Jain beliefs, the universe was never created, nor will it ever cease to exist. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Bhavajale. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Bhavajale. ... Bhaktamara Stotra illustration: A Tirthankara is a shelter from ocean of rebirths Bhaktamara Stotra is the most famous of the Jain sanskrit prayers. ... In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Fordmaker) is a human who achieved enlightenment, became a Jiva, and whose religious teachings have formed the canon of Jainism; although not Gods, statues of Tirthankaras are found in temples. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ...


In other words Jains divide time into Utsarpinis (Progressive Time Cycle) and Avsarpinis (Regressive Time Cycle). An Utsarpini and a Avsarpini constitute one Time Cycle (Kalchakra). Every Utsarpini and Avsarpini is divided into six unequal periods known as Aras. During the Utsarpini half cycle, humanity develops from its worst to its best: ethics, progress, happiness, strength, health, and religion each start the cycle at their worst, before eventually completing the cycle at their best and starting the process again. During the Avsarpini half-cycle, these notions deteriorate from the best to the worst. Jains believe we are currently in the fifth Ara of the Avsarpini phase, with approximately 19,000 years until the next Ara. After this Avsarpini phase, the Utsarpini phase will begin, continuing the infinite repetition of the Kalchakra.


Jains also believe that at the upswing of each time cycle, people will lose religion again. All things people want will be given by wish-granting trees (Kalpavrksa), and people will be born in sets of twins (Yugalika) with one boy and one girl who stay together all their lives. This can be seen as a symbol of an integrated human with male and female characteristics balanced.


Jain philosophy is based upon eternal, universal truths, according to its followers. During the first and last two Aras, these truths lapse among humanity and then reappear through the teachings of enlightened humans, those who have reached enlightenment or total knowledge (Kevala Jnana), during the third and fourth Aras. Traditionally, in our universe and in our time, Lord Rishabha (ऋषभ) is regarded as the first to realize the truth. Lord Vardhamana (Mahavira, महावीर) was the last Tirthankara to attain enlightenment (599-527 BCE), who was himself preceded by twenty-three other Tirthankaras, thus making a total of twenty-four Tirthankaras. Lord Rishabha or Rishabanath who was the first Tirthankar of Jainism. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Fordmaker) is a human who achieved enlightenment, became a Jiva, and whose religious teachings have formed the canon of Jainism; although not Gods, statues of Tirthankaras are found in temples. ...


It is important to note that the above description stands true "in our universe and in our time" for Jains believe there have been infinite sets of 24 Tirthankaras, one for each half of the time cycle, and this will continue in the future. Hence, Jainism does not trace its origins to Rishabh Deva, the first, or Mahavira, the twenty-fourth, Tirthankara.


According to Jainism, the Universe consists of Infinite amount of Jiva'(life force or souls), and the design is similar to a form of a man standing with his arms bent while resting his hands at his waist. The narrow waist part comprises various 'Kshetras' which act as place of 'vicharan' (roaming) for humans, animals and plants. Currently we are in the Bharat Kshetra of 'Jambu Dweep' (dweep meaning Island) .


The Deva' Loka (Heavens) are situated at the symbolic chest part of the Creation, where all the Devas (demi gods) reside. Similarly beneath the waist part are the Narka Loka (Hell). There are such Seven Narka Lokas, each for a varying degree suffering a jiva' has to go through to face the consequences of its papa' karma (sins). From the first to the seventh Narka, the degree of suffering increases and the amount of Light reaching into it decreases (no light at all in the seventh Narka).


The sidhha kshetra or moksha is situated at the symbolic forehead of the creation, where all the jivas having attained nirvana reside in a state of complete peace and eternal happiness. Outside the symbolic figure of this creation nothing but aloka or akaasha (sky) exists.

The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... In Jainism, Rishabha Dev (ऋषभदेव) or Adinatha (other names used: Riṣhabh, Riṣhabhanāth, Rushabh, Rushabhdev, Adinath or Adishwar; Sanskrit ṛṣabha meaning best, most excellent besides bull) was the first of the 24 Tirthankara. ... Ajitnatha was the second Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini). ... Sambhavanath was the third Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Abhinandannatha or Abhinandan Swami was the fourth Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Sumatinatha or Sumatinath Swami was the fifth Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Padmaprabha was the sixth Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avsarpini). ... Suparshvanath was the seventh Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Chandraprabha was the eighth Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Pushpadanta or Suvidhinath was the ninth Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Sheetalnath was the third Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Shreyansanath was the eleventh Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Vasupujaya was the twelve Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Vimalnath was the thirteen Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Anantnath was the fourteen Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Dharmanath was the fifteen Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Shantinath was the sixteen Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Kunthunath was the seventeen Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Aranath was the eighteen Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource If the page can be edited into an encyclopedic article, rather than merely a copy of the source text, please do so and remove this message. ... Munisuvrata was the twentyth Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... Naminatha was the ninteen Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini)According to Jain beliefs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A 1097 representation of Parshvanath from Smithsonian Institute’s collections In Jainism, Parshva (877-777 B.C.E.), (more correctly Parshvanatha; occasionally spelled Parswanath) was the twenty-third Tirthankara. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ...

Jain philosophy

Main article: Jain Philosophy

The holiest Jain symbol is the right facing swastika, or svastika, shown above. ...

Karma theory

Main article: Karma in Jainism

The Jain religion places great emphasis on Karma. Essentially, it means that all jivas reap what they sow. A happy or miserable existence is influenced by actions in previous births. These results may not occur in the same life, and what we sow is not limited to physical actions. Physical, verbal, and mental activities affect future situations. Karma has long been an essential component of Jainism, and other Indian religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism and Sikhism. It is believed generally that an omniscient Tirthankar can foresee all things, long before science. This article is about Jainism. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ... This article is about Jainism. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ...


The backbone of the Jain philosophy are seven fundamental concepts (Tattvas). Please note that some Jain commentators include two more additional concepts to the following seven namely merit (punya) and demerit (papa) karmas. Without knowing these seven basic concepts, one cannot progress towards liberation. They are:

  1. Jiva - Souls and living things
  2. Ajiva - Non-living things
  3. Asrava - Influx of karma
  4. Bandha - The bondage of karma
  5. Samvara - The stoppage of influx of karma
  6. Nirjara - Shedding of karma
  7. Moksha - Liberation or Salvation

A simple example: A man rides a wooden boat to reach the other side of the river. The man is Jiva, the boat is ajiva. Now the boat has a leak and water flows in. That incoming of water is Asrava and accumulating there is Bandha. When this man tries to save the boat by blocking the hole, that blockage is Samvara and throwing the water outside is Nirjara. Moksha is when this man crosses the river and reaches his destination. In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ... Ajiva - the nonspiritual or polar opposite of jiva. ... Bandha (pron. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ...


Customs and practices

The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa, meaning non-violence. The word in the middle is "Ahimsa." The wheel represents the dharmacakra, to halt the cycle of reincarnation through relentless pursuit of truth.
The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa, meaning non-violence. The word in the middle is "Ahimsa." The wheel represents the dharmacakra, to halt the cycle of reincarnation through relentless pursuit of truth.

Jain monks and nuns practice strict asceticism and strive to make their current birth their last, thus ending their cycle of transmigration. The laity, who pursue less rigorous practices, strive to attain rational perception and to do as much good as possible in order to get closer to the goal of attaining freedom from the cycle of transmigration. Following strict ethics, the laity usually choose professions that revere and protect life and totally avoid violent livelihoods. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa. ... The Dharmacakra (Sanskrit) or Dhammacakka (Pāli), Tibetan , Chinese fălún 法轮, Wheel of Dharma is an auspicious Buddhist symbol representing a Buddhas teaching of the path to enlightenment. ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ...


Jains practice Samayika, which is a Sanskrit word meaning equanimity and derived from samaya (the soul). The goal of Samayika is to attain equanimity. Samayika is begun by achieving a balance in time. If this current moment is defined as a moving line between the past and the future, Samayika happens by being fully aware, alert and conscious in that moving time line when one experiences Atma, one's true nature, common to all life forms. Samayika is especially significant during Paryushana, a special period during the monsoon, and is practiced during the ritual known as Samvatsari Pratikramana. Jain Meditation Jain sadhvis in Samayika The Jain Samayika is done to practice meditation generally by sitting in the Shiva , Buddha or Parshvanath[1] posture. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


Jains believe that Devas (demi-gods or celestial beings) cannot help jiva to obtain liberation, which must be achieved by individuals through their own efforts. In fact, Devas themselves cannot achieve liberation until they reincarnate as humans and undertake the difficult act of removing karma. Their efforts to attain the exalted state of Siddha, the permanent liberation of jiva from all involvement in worldly existence, must be their own. For other uses, see Deva (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ... In Jainism, a soul that has achieved its ultimate objective, Nirvana or liberation, is called Siddha. ...


The strict Jain ethical code for both laity and monks/nuns is:

  1. Ahimsa (Non-violence)
  2. Satya (truth)
  3. 'Achaurya Or Asteya' (non-stealing)
  4. Brahmacharya (purity of mind and body)
  5. Aparigraha (non-attachment to temporal possessions)

For laypersons, 'brahmacharya' means confining sexual experiences to marriage. For monks/nuns, it means complete celibacy. The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Satya is a true badman. ... Brahmacharya (pronounced /brʌmatʃərɪə/) is a Sanskrit word. ... Aparigraha is the Jain concept of non-possessiveness. ... Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ...


Nonviolence includes the concepts of vegetarianism. Jains are expected to be non-violent in thought, word, and deed, both toward humans and toward all other living beings, including their own selves. Jain monks and nuns walk barefoot and sweep the ground in front of them to avoid killing any insects or other tiny beings. Even though all life is considered sacred by the Jains, human life is deemed the highest form of life. For this reason, it is considered vital never to harm or upset any person. A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets...


While performing holy deeds, Svetambara Jains wear cloths, muhapatti, over their mouths and noses to avoid saliva falling on texts or revered images. Some wear the muhapatti to avoid accidentally inhaling germs. Many healthy concepts are entwined within the Jain religion. For example, Jains do not drink unboiled water because it contains billions of micro-organisms. In ancient times, a person might get ill by drinking unboiled water, which would prevent one from remaining in equanimity, as illness may precede or engender intolerance. The muhapatti (variously spelled mahapatti, muhpatti or mahpatti) is a square of white cloth worn across the face and tied behind the ears. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ...


True spirituality, according to enlightened Jains, starts when a follower attains Samyak darshana, or true perception. Samyak drashti souls are on the correct path to moksha,striving to remain in the nature of the soul. This is characterized by being in the state of knowing and observing only,the worldly affairs,without raag(attachment) and dwesh(being repelled); being in a state of pure knowledge and bliss. Attachment to worldly life collects new karmas, and traps one in a cycle of birth, death, and suffering. The worldly life is recognized by its dualistic nature (for example, the dualities of love and hate, suffering and pleasure, etc.), for the perception of one state cannot exist without the contrasting perception of the other.


Jain Dharma shares some beliefs with Hinduism. Both revere the same Devas and Devis (heavenly beings), and the theory of Karma and reincarnation. However, the Jain version of the Ramayana and Mahabharata is different from Hindu beliefs, for example. Generally, Hindus believe that Rama was a reincarnation of God, whereas Jains believe he attained moksha (liberation) because they do not believe in God the creator. (Note: some Hindus, such as Yogis, accept many aspects of Jain Dharma.) For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


Along with the Five Vows, Jains avoid harboring ill will toward others and practice forgiveness. They believe that atma (soul) can lead one to becoming Parmatma (liberated soul) and this must come from one's inner self. Jains refrain from all violence (Ahimsa) and recommend that sinful activities should be eradicated. The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ātmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ...


Mahatma Gandhi was deeply influenced (particularly through the guidance of Shrimad Rajchandra) by Jain tenets such as peaceful, protective living and honesty, and made them an integral part of his own philosophy.[13] Jainism has a distinct idea underlying Tirthankar worship. The physical form is not worshiped, but the Gunas (virtues, qualities) which are praised. Tirthankars are only role-models, and sects such as the Sthanakavasi stringently reject the worship of statues. “Gandhi” redirects here. ... To know more about Dharampur Ashram, Param Pujya Gurudev Shri Rakeshbhai Zaveri and their disciples visit this link :- http://www. ... Gandhism (or Gandhi-ism) is an informal reference to the vision, core inspirations, principles, beliefs and philosophy of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian Independence Movement. ...


Jain fasting

Main article: Fasting in Jainism

Fasting is common among Jains and a part of Jain festivals. Most Jains fast at special times, during festivals, and on holy days. Pajushan is the most prominent festival, lasting eight days in Svetambara Jain tradition and ten days in Digambar Jain tradition during the monsoon. The monsoon is a time of fasting. However, a Jain may fast at any time, especially if he or she feels some error has been committed. Variations in fasts encourage Jains to do whatever they can to maintain self control This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Some Jains revere a special practice, where a person who is aware that he or she may die soon, and feels he has completed all his duties, ceases to eat or drink until death. This form of dying is called santhara. It is considered to be extremely spiritual and creditable. This has recently led to a controversy in India, where in Rajasthan, a lawyer petitioned the High Court of Rajasthan to declare Sallekhana illegal. Jains see Sallekhana as spiritual detachment. It is a declaration that a person has finished with living in this world and now chooses to leave.


Jain worship and rituals

Every day most Jains bow and say their universal prayer, the Namokara Mantra, aka the Navkar Mantra. Jains have built temples, or Basadi or Derasar, where images of Tirthankars are worshiped. Jain rituals may be elaborate because symbolic objects are offered and Tirthankaras praised in song. But some Jain sects refuse to enter temples or worship images. All Jains accept that images of Tirthankaras are merely symbolic reminders of the path that they have to take, in order to attain moksha. Jains are clear that the Jinas reside in moksha and are completely detached from the world. // The rituals are interwoven with the daily life of a pious Jain. ... Navkar Mantra is the primary mantra of Jainism. ... Ellora Jain cave basadi basadi (also basti) is a Jain shrine or temple. ...


Jain rituals include:

  • Pancakalyanaka Pratishtha
  • Pratikramana
  • Samayika
  • Guru-Vandana, Chaitya Vandana, and other sutras to honor ascetics.

Jain Meditation Jain sadhvis in Samayika The Jain Samayika is done to practice meditation generally by sitting in the Shiva , Buddha or Parshvanath[1] posture. ...

Jain symbolism

The fylfot (swastika) is among the holiest of Jain symbols. Worshippers use rice grains to create a fylfot around the temple altar.
The fylfot (swastika) is among the holiest of Jain symbols. Worshippers use rice grains to create a fylfot around the temple altar.

The holiest symbol is a simple swastika. Another important symbol incorporates a wheel on the palm of a hand, symbolizing ahimsa. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the symbol. ... This article is about the symbol. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ...


Other major Jain symbols include:

  1. Svastika -Signifies peace and well-being
  2. Shrivatsa -A mark manifested on the centre of the Jina's chest, signifying the Jina's pure soul.
  3. Nandyavartya -Large svastika with nine corners
  4. Vardha­manaka -A shallow earthen dish used for lamps. This symbol is suggestive of increase of wealth, fame and merit due to the grace of the Jina.
  5. Bhadrasana -Throne. It is considered auspicious because it is sanctified by the feet of the blessed Jina
  6. Kalasha -Pot filled with pure water signifying wisdom and completeness
  7. Minayugala -A fish couple. It signifies Cupid's banners coming to worship the Jina after defeating of the God of Love
  8. Darpana -The mirror reflects one's true self because of its clarity

The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ... According to the entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica, Vishnu is one of the principal Hindu deities, worshipped as the protector and preserver of the world and restorer of dharma (moral order). ... Chakravarti (Sanskrit cakravartin), literally meaning turner of the wheel is a term used for a successful conqueror or imperial ruler of all or most of the subcontinent of India, both in legend and in history. ... The Dharmacakra (Sanskrit) or Dhammacakka (Pāli), Tibetan , Chinese fălún 法轮, Wheel of Dharma is an auspicious Buddhist symbol representing a Buddhas teaching of the path to enlightenment. ... Siddha-chakra is one of the Jain yantras. ...

Jain contributions to Indian culture

A Jain temple in Kochi, Kerala, India.
A Jain temple in Kochi, Kerala, India.

While Jains represent less than 1% of the Indian population, their contributions to culture and society in India are considerable. Kochi may refer to: Kochi, India, a city in the state of Kerala, India, formerly known as Cochin. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


Jains have wielded great influence on the culture and language of Karnataka and Southern India. Jainism has influenced Gujarat most significantly. The earliest known Gujarati text, Bharat-Bahubali Ras, was written by a Jain monk. Some of the most important people in Gujarat's Jain history were Acharya Hemacandra Suri and his pupil, the Calukya ruler Kumarapala. This article is for the Indian state. ... Hemachandra Surī (Sanskrit: ) (1089–1172) was an Indian Jain scholar, poet, and polymath who wrote on grammar, philosophy, prosody, and contemporary history. ... Badami Chalukya Territories Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Jains are both among the wealthiest of Indians and the most philanthropic. They run numerous schools, colleges and hospitals and are some of the most important patrons of the Somapuras, the traditional temple architects in Gujarat. Jains have greatly influenced Gujarati cuisine. Gujarat is predominantly vegetarian (as is Jainism; see Jain vegetarianism), and its food has a mild aroma as onions and garlic are omitted. Gujarati cuisine refers to the cuisine of the people from the state of Gujarat in the West region of India. ... Jain vegetarianism is the diet of the Jains, the followers of Jainism. ...


Jains encourage their monks to do research and obtain higher education. Jain monks and nuns, particularly in Rajasthan, have published numerous research monographs. This is unique among Indian religious groups and parallels Christian clergy. The 2001 census states that Jains are India's most literate community and that India's oldest libraries at Patan and Jaisalmer are preserved by Jain institutions.


Jain literature

10th century Kannada writers Chavundaraya and Nemichandra who excelled in Jain literature, © Kamat's Potpourri
10th century Kannada writers Chavundaraya and Nemichandra who excelled in Jain literature, © Kamat's Potpourri

Jains have contributed to India's classical and popular literature. For example, almost all early Kannada literature and Tamil literature was authored by Jains. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... Gomateshwara monolith at Shravanabelagola (982-983 CE) Chavundraya (Kannada: ಚಾವುಂಡರಾಯ) (or Chamundaraya, 940 - 989) was a military commander and a minister in the court of the Western Ganga Dynasty of Talakad (in present day Karnataka). ... Kannada literature refers to the literature in Kannada language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...

  • Some of the oldest known books in Hindi and Gujarati were written by Jain scholars. The first autobiography in Hindi, [Ardha-Kathanaka] was written by a Jain, Banarasidasa, an ardent follower of Acarya Kundakunda who lived in Agra.
  • Several Tamil classics are written by Jains or with Jain beliefs and values as the core subject.
  • Practically all the known texts in the Apabhramsha language are Jain works.

The oldest Jain literature is in Shauraseni and Ardha-Magadhi Prakrit (Agamas, Agama-Tulya, Siddhanta texts, etc). Many classical texts are in Sanskrit (Tatvartha Sutra, Puranas, Kosh, Sravakacara, mathematics, Nighantus etc). "Abhidhana Rajendra Kosha" written by Acharya Rajendrasuri, is only one available Jain encyclopedia or Jain dictionary to understand the Jain Prakrit, Sanskrit, and Ardha-Magadhi and other Jain languages, words, their use and references with in oldest Jain literature. Later Jain literature was written in Apabhramsha (Kahas, rasas, and grammars), Hindi (Chhahadhala, Mokshamarga Prakashaka, and others), Tamil (Jivakacintamani, Kural, and others), and Kannada (Vaddaradhane and various other texts). Jain versions of Ramayana and Mahabharata are found in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabhramsha and Kannada. Kundakunda (also Kundkund) is a celebrated [[Jainism|Jain[[ Acharya, who may have lived around the first or second century CE, although the exact ime is uncertain. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... For other uses of Sangam see Sangam (disambiguation). ... The term Apabhramsha refers to the dialects of North India before the rise of modern North Indian languages. ... Agama (Sanskrit:आगम) literally means that which has come down (i. ... A text containg about 350 sutras (aphorisms), composed by Acharya Umasvati in about 200 AD. It is used by all the sects of Jains. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... Acharya Rajendra Suri Acharya Rajendrasuri (1827-1906) (आचार्य राजैंद्रसुरी)was the major reformer of 18th and 19th century in Shvetambar sect of Jainism. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The term Apabhramsha refers to the dialects of North India before the rise of modern North Indian languages. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Moksha Marg Prakashak is a scripture written by Pt. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Seevaga-chintamani (transliterated with innumerable variations) is a classical Tamil language epic poem. ... Kural is one of the most important forms of traditional Tamil poetry. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... Vaddaradhane by Shivakotiacharya is the earliest extant prose work in Kannada. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


Jain monks and nuns (Sadhu or Muni Maharaj)

Main article: Jain Monks and Nuns

In India there are thousands of Jain Monks, of which categories have been defined like Acarya, Upadhyaya and Muni. Trainee ascetics are known as Ailaka and Ksullaka in the Digambar tradition.

There are two categories of ascetics in Jainism. ImageMetadata File history File links Palitana. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Palitana. ... , Palitana   is a city, a municipality and former princely state in Bhavnagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat. ... A tirtha is a pilgrimage site. ...


Sadhu (monk) and Sadhvi (nun) They practice the five Mahavratas, three Guptis and five Samitis:


5 Mahavratas


अहिंसा Ahimsa: Non-violence in thought, word and deed


सत्य Satya: Truth which is (hita) beneficial, (mita) succinct and (priya) pleasing


अचौर्य Acaurya: Not accepting anything that has not been given to them by the owner


ब्रह्मचर्य Brahmacarya: Absolute purity of mind and body


अपरिग्रह Aparigraha: Non-attachment to non-self objects


3 Guptis


मनगुप्ती Managupti: Control of the mind


वचनगुप्ती Vacanagupti: Control of speech


कायगुप्ती Kayagupti: Control of body


5 Samitis


ईर्या समिति Irya Samiti: Carefulness while walking


भाषा समिति Bhasha Samiti: Carefulness while communicating


एषणा समिति Eshana Samiti: Carefulness while eating


आदान निक्षेपण समिति Adana Nikshepana Samiti: Carefulness while handling their fly-whisks, water gourds, etc.


प्रतिष्ठापना समिति Pratishthapana Samiti: Carefulness while disposing of bodily waste matter


________


Male Digambara monks do not wear any clothes. They are completely nude as they practise non-attachment to the body and hence, wear no clothes.


Shvetambara monks and nuns all wear white clothes.


Shvetambaras believe that monks and nuns may wear simply un-stitched white clothes as long as they are not attached to them. Whereas Digambaras believe the male Digambara ascetics cannot wear any clothes since clothes signify attachment to a non-self object (the body).


Jain monks and nuns travel on foot. They do not use any mechanical means of transport.


Holy days

  • Paryushan Parva, 10/8 (Digambar/SVetambar) day fasts, and for observe, 10/8 important principles.
  • Mahavir Janam Kalyanak, Lord Mahavir's birth,it is also popularly known as 'Mahavir Jayanti' but the term 'jayanti' is considered in-appropriate for a Thirtahnkar,as this term is used for mortals.
  • Kshamavaani, The day for asking everyone's forgiveness.

Categories: Possible copyright violations ... This article or section should be merged with Mahavir Swami Mahavir or Mahavira (the Great Hero -- Also, Vardhamana (increasing) or Niggantha Nathaputta -- 599 BC - 527 BC) was the 24th, and last, Jainist Tirthankara. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Jainism and other religions

See also: Buddhism and Jainism , Jainism and Islam , and Jainism and Sikhism

Jainism, while having no creator God, is not atheistic. The notion of god is replaced by the notion of "the own nature of things" (vastu-svs-bhavah-dharmah). Jainism and Buddhism are the two branches of the Shramana tradition that still exist today. ... Jainism and Islam While Islam is one of the largest religions, Jainism is one of the smallest. ... Both Jainism and Sikhism have originated in South Asia and are Eastern philosophical faiths. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ...


Jains are not a part of the Vedic Religion (Hinduism).[14] [15] [16] Ancient India had two philosophical streams of thought: The Shramana philosophical schools, represented by Jainism and Buddhism; and the Brahmana/Vedic/Puranic schools represented by Vedanta, Vaishnava and other movements. Both streams are subset of the Dharmic family of faith and have existed side by side for many thousands of years, influencing each other.[17] Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A (Sanskrit) or (Pāli) is a wandering monk in certain ascetic traditions of ancient India, including: Jainism Buddhism Ājīvika religion (now extinct) Mahavira, the 24th Jina, and Gautama Buddha were leaders of their shramana orders. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... Vedic may refer to: Ancient India the Vedic civilization the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts Vedic Sanskrit, their language (see also Vedic meter, Vedic accent, Vedic chant and Shrauta) the historical Vedic religion traditional Hindu culture: Vedic astrology the Ayurveda (Vedic medicine) Ancient Vedic weights and measures modern... ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... The word Dharmic is an adjective of the word Dharma. ...


The Hindu scholar, Lokmanya Tilak credited Jainism with influencing Hinduism and thus leading to the cessation of animal sacrifice in Vedic rituals. Bal Gangadhar Tilak has described Jainism as the originator of Ahimsa and wrote in a letter printed in Bombay Samachar, Mumbai:10 Dec, 1904: "In ancient times, innumerable animals were butchered in sacrifices. Evidence in support of this is found in various poetic compositions such as the Meghaduta. But the credit for the disappearance of this terrible massacre from the Brahminical religion goes to Jainism." Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa. ... The Bombay Samachar is the oldest newspaper in India. ...


Swami Vivekananda [18] also credited Jainsim as influencing force behind the Indian culture. Swami Vivekananda (Sanskrit: , Svāmi Vivekānanda) (January 12, 1863 – July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (Bengali: , Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga. ...


"What could have saved Indian society from the ponderous burden of omnifarious ritualistic ceremonialism, with its animal and other sacrifices, which all but crushed the very life of it, except the Jain revolution which took its strong stand exclusively on chaste morals and philosophical truths?...


Jains were the first great ascetics, and they did some great work. "Don't injure any and do good to all that you can and that is all the morality and ethics, and that is all the work there is, and the rest is all nonsense... Throw it away." And then they went to work and elaboratted this one principle all through, and it is a most wonderful ideal: how all that we call ethics they simply bring out from one great principle of non-injury and doing good."


Even though Jainism is of Indian origin, it shared some principles with the Hellenic tradition, specially with Stoic and Pythagorean philosophies of Europe. Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... The Pythagoreans were an Hellenic organization of astronomers, musicians, mathematicians, and philosophers; who believed that all things are, essentially, numeric. ...

  • Relationship between Jainism and Hinduism-To quote from the Encyclopædia Britannica Article on Hinduism,[2]"...With Jainism which always remained an Indian religion, Hinduism has so much in common, especially in social institutions and ritual life, that nowadays Hindus tend to consider it a Hindu sect. Many Jains also are inclined to fraternization..."
  • Independent Religion - From the Encyclopædia Britannica Article on Jainism: "...Along with Hinduism and Buddhism, it is one of the three most ancient Indian religious traditions still in existence. ...While often employing concepts shared with Hinduism and Buddhism, the result of a common cultural and linguistic background, the Jain tradition must be regarded as an independent phenomenon. It is an integral part of South Asian religious belief and practice, but it is not a Hindu sect or Buddhist heresy, as earlier scholars believed."[3] The author Koenraad Elst in his book, Who is a Hindu?, summarises on the similaries between Jains and the mainstream Hindu society.

Koenraad Elst is a Belgian orientalist, writer and researcher[1]. He has authored fifteen books on topics related to Hinduism, Indian history, and Indian politics. ... Who is a Hindu? is a book by Koenraad Elst published in 2001 by Voice of India. ...

Languages used in Jain literature

Jain literature exists in Prakrit, Sanskrit, Apabhramsha, Rajasthani, Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Kutchi, Kannada, Tulu, Telugu, Tamil, Dhundhari (Old Marwari), English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Russian. Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The term Apabhramsha refers to the dialects of North India before the rise of modern North Indian languages. ... Rajasthani (राजस्थानी) is a language of the Indo-Aryan languages family. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Kutchi language originates from Kutch, India. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Tulu is one of the minor languages of India with under 2,000,000 speakers. ... Telugu may refer to: Telugu language Telugu literature Telugu people Telugu script Telugu films Look up Telugu in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... The Marwari language (also variously Marvari, Marwadi, Marvadi) is spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan, but is also found in the neighboring state of Gujarat and in Eastern Pakistan. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Constitutional status of Jainism in India

In 2005, the Supreme Court of India declined to issue a writ of Mandamus towards granting Jains the status of a religious minority throughout India. The Court noted that Jains have been declared a minority in 5 states already, and left it to the rest of the States to decide on the minority status of Jain religion.[4] // The Recent Legal Debate on Jainism The Bal Patil Judgment In 2005, Honble Supreme Court of India declined to issue a writ of Mandamus towards granting Jains the status of a religious minority throughout India. ... A writ of mandamus or simply mandamus, which means we order in Latin, is the name of one of the prerogative writs and is a court order directing someone, most frequently a government official, to perform a specified act. ...


In 2006, the Supreme Court opined that "Jain Religion is indisputably not a part of the Hindu Religion". (para 25, Committee of Management Kanya Junior High School Bal Vidya Mandir, Etah, U.P. v. Sachiv, U.P. Basic Shiksha Parishad, Allahabad, U.P. and Ors., Per Dalveer Bhandari J., Civil Appeal No. 9595 of 2003, decided On: 21.08.2006, Supreme Court of India) [2]


See also

Jainism Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... The Jains in India have been the last direct representatives of the Shramana tradition in India. ... Jain - Five Coloured Flag The flag of Jainism has five colours: White, Red, Orange, Green and Dark Blue (or Black). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This is a list of Jains, the followers of Jainism. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Tobias, Michael (1991). Life Force. The World of Jainism. Berkeley, California: Asian Humanities Press, 6-7, 15. 
  2. ^ 2001 India Census http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/index.html
  3. ^ The term Jainist which is found on some Internet websites is not used in either literature or common parlance.
  4. ^ Census of India 2001
  5. ^ The Jain Knowledge Warehouses: Traditional Libraries in India, John E. Cort, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 115, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1995), pp. 77–87
  6. ^ Jarl Charpentier: The History of the Jains, in: The Cambridge History of India, vol. 1, Cambridge 1922, p. 153; A.M. Ghatage: Jainism, in: The Age of Imperial Unity, ed. R.C. Majumdar/A.D. Pusalkar, Bombay 1951, p. 411-412; Shantaram Bhalchandra Deo: History of Jaina Monachism, Poona 1956, p. 59-60.
  7. ^ "Parshvanatha". Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online. (2007). 
  8. ^ Bowker, John (2000). "Parsva". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 
  9. ^ Basic Faith Group Information
  10. ^ South India Handbook: The Travel Guide By Robert Bradnock, 2000 Footprint Travel Guides, p. 543, Vegetarianism: A History By Colin Spencer, 2002 Thunder's Mouth Press, p. 342
  11. ^ Viren, Jain. RE Today. Retrieved on 2007-06-14.
  12. ^ At the Root of Root Vegetables. Anekant Education Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-06-14.
  13. ^ http://hirr.hartsem.edu/ency/jainism.htm].
  14. ^ J. L. Jaini, (1916) Jaina Law, Bhadrabahu Samhita, (Text with translation ) Arrah, Central jaina publishing House) " As to Jainas being Hindu dissenters, and, therefore governable by Hindu law, we are not told this date of secession [...] Jainism certainly has a longer history than is consistent with its being a creed of dissenters from Hinduism." P.12-13
  15. ^ P.S. Jaini, (1979), The Jaina Path to Purification, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, p. 169 "Jainas themselves have no memory of a time when they fell within the Vedic fold. Any theory that attempts to link the two traditions, moreover fails to appreciate rather distinctive and very non-vedic character of Jaina cosmology, soul theory, karmic doctrine and atheism"
  16. ^ Y. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions, Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi, ISBN 8120808150 “There is no evidence to show that Jainism and Buddhism ever subscribed to vedic sacrifices, vedic deities or caste. They are parallel or native religions of India and have contributed to much to the growth of even classical Hinduism of the present times.” Page 18
  17. ^ Harry Oldmeadow (2007) Light from the East: Eastern Wisdom for the Modern West, World Wisdom, Inc ISBN 1933316225 "What is historically known is that there was a tradition along with vedic Hinduism known as sramana dharma. Essentially, the sramana tradition included it its fold, the Jain and Buddhist traditions, which disagreed with the eternality of the Vedas, the needs for ritual sacrifices and the supremacy of the Brahmins". Page 141
  18. ^ Dulichand Jain (1998) Thus Spake Lord Mahavir, Sri Ramakrishna Math Chennai, ISBN 81-7120-825-8 Page 15

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Further reading

  • Alsdorf, Ludwig. Jaina Studies: Their Present State and Future Tasks. Eng. tr. Bal Patil. Edited by Willem Bollée. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 1. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, 2006.
  • Amiel,Pierre. " Les Jaïns aujourd'hui dans le monde" Ed. L'Harmattan, Paris, 2003.
  • Balbir, Nalini (Ed.) Catalogue of the Jain Manuscripts of the British Library. Set of 3 books. London: Institute of Jainology, 2006.
  • Bollée, Willem. The Story of Paesi Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 2. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, 2005.
  • Bollée, Willem. Vyavahara Bhasya Pithika. Prakrit text with English translation, annotations and exhaustive Index by Willem Bollée. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 4. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, 2006.
  • Caillat, Colette "La cosmologie jaïna" Ed. du Chêne, Paris 1981.
  • Chand, Bool. "Mahavira-Le Grand héros des Jaïns" Maisonneuve et Larose, Paris 1998.
  • Hynson, Colin. Discover Jainism. Ed. Mehool Sanghrajka. London: Institute of Jainology, 2007.
  • Jain, DuliChand. English version of "Baghawan Mahavir ki Vani" - Thus Spake Lord Mahavir. Chennai, Sri Ramakrishna Math, 1998.
  • Jain, Duli Chandra (Ed.) Studies in Jainism. Set of 3 books. New York: Jain Stucy Circle, 2004.
  • Jalaj, Jaykumar. The Basic Thought of Bhagavan Mahavir. Ed. Elinor Velasquez. (5th edition) Jaipur: Prakrit Bharati Academy, 2007.
  • Joindu. Paramatmaprakasha. Apabhramsha text with Hindi tr. by Jaykumar Jalaj. Ed. Manish Modi. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 9. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, 2007.
  • Joindu. Yogasara. Apabhramsha text with Hindi tr. by Jaykumar Jalaj. Ed. Satyanarayana Hegde. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 10. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, 2008.
  • Kapashi, Vinod. Nava Smarana: Nine Sacred Recitations of Jainism. Ed. Signe Kirde. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, 2007.
  • Kundakunda. Atthapahuda Prakrit text with Hindi tr. by Jaykumar Jalaj. Ed. Manish Modi. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 6. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, 2006.
  • Mardia, K.V. The Scientific Foundations of Jainism. Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi, latest edition 2007. ISBN 81-208-0659-x (Jain Dharma ki Vigyanik Adharshila. Parsvanath Vidhyapitha, Varanasi. 2004. ISBN 81-86715-71-1).
  • Mehta, T.U. Path of Arhat - A Religious Democracy, Volume 63, Faridabad: Pujya Sohanalala Smaraka Parsvanatha Sodhapitha, 1993.
  • Patil, Bal. Jaya Gommatesha. Foreword by Colette Caillat. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, 2006.
  • Prabhacandra. Tattvarthasutra. Sanskrit text with Hindi tr. by Jaykumar Jalaj. Preface by Nalini Balbir. Ed. Manish Modi. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 7. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, 2008.
  • Pujyapada. Samadhitantra. Sanskrit text with Hindi tr. by Jaykumar Jalaj. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 5. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, 2006.
  • Pujyapada. Istopadesha. Sanskrit text with Hindi tr. by Jaykumar Jalaj. Ed. Manish Modi. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 14. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, 2007.
  • Rankin, Aidan. 'The Jain Path: Ancient Wisdom for the West.' Winchester/Washington DC: O Books, 2006.
  • Reymond Jean-Pierre "L'Inde des Jaïns" Ed. Atlas 1991.
  • Samantabhadra. Ratnakaranda Sravakacara. Sanskrit text with Hindi tr. by Jaykumar Jalaj. Preface by Paul Dundas. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series Volume 3. Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, 2006.
  • Sangave Vilas. 'Le Jaïnisme-Philosophie et Religion de l'Inde" Editions Trédaniel Paris 1999.
  • Todarmal. Moksamarga Prakashaka. Jaipur: Todarmal Smarak Trust, 1992.
  • Vijayashri. Sachitra Pacchis Bol. Agra: Mahasati Kaushalya Devi Prakashan Trust, 2005.

The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... The development of logic in India dates back to the analysis of inference by Aksapada Gautama, founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy, probably in the first or second centuries BCE, and so stands as one of the three original traditions of logic, alongside the Greek and Chinese traditions. ... Hindu idealism is a precursor of western idealism and the philosophical opposite of materialism. ... // In Hinduism the Vedic pantheon comprises clans of anthropomorphic deities as well as deified natural phenomena. ... Atheism (Sanskrit: , lit. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. ... (Sanskrit ni-āyá, literally recursion, used in the sense of syllogism, inference)) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... Raja Yoga (lit. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... Nastika is a Sanskrit term meaning: It is the antonym of astika, or one who asserts. ... (or Cārvāka Hindi चारवाक) is a system of Indian philosophy that assumed various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. ... The holiest Jain symbol is the right facing swastika, or svastika, shown above. ... Anekantavada is a basic principle of Jainism dealing with the fact that reality may be percieved diferently from different points of views. ... Syādvāda (Syadvada) is the Doctrine of Postulation of Jainism. ... Buddhist Teachings deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit), Suññatā (Pāli), stong pa nyid (Tibetan), Kuu, 空 (Japanese) qoÉ£usun (Mongolian), generally translated into English as Emptiness or Voidness, is a concept of central importance in the teaching of the Buddha, as a direct realization of Sunyata is required to achieve liberation from the cycle of... Madhyamaka (Also known as Åšunyavada) is a Buddhist Mahayāna tradition popularized by Nāgārjuna and AÅ›vaghoá¹£a. ... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as consciousness-only or mind-only (Sanskrit: cittamātra) (although scholars increasingly... The Sautrāntika school of Buddhism split from the Sarvāstivādins sometime between 50 BCE and c. ... The Svatantrika Madhyamaka school of Buddhism is a form of Madhyamaka in which reasoning is used to establish that phenomena (dharmas) have no self-nature, and further arguments to establish that the true nature of all phenomena is emptiness. ... Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005 (Encyclopaedia Britannica). ... Abrahamic religions symbols designating the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Abrahamic religion is a term commonly used to designate the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam[1][2] – which claim Abraham (Hebrew: Avraham אַבְרָהָם ; Arabic: Ibrahim ابراهيم ) as a part of their sacred history. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement, or Rasta, is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... Ayyavazhi (IPA: )(Tamil:அய்யாவழி [1] -Path of the father) is a dharmic belief system[2] which originated in South India in the 19th century. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Yarsan or Ahl-i Haqq (Kurdish:Yarsan/Yaresan or Kakeyi, Arabic,Persian:اهل حق, Ahl-e Haqq, derived from an Arabic phrase translatable as People of the Truth and as Men of God[1]) is a religious sect, and its followers are primarily found in western Iran. ... Mazdak was a proto-socialist Persian philosopher who gained influence under the reign of the Sassanian king Kavadh I. He was hanged and his followers were massacred by Khosrau I, Kavadhs son. ... Religions Yazdânism (Yazidism) Scriptures Kitêba Cilwe (Book of Illumination) Languages Kurmanji, Arabic The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: Êzidîtî or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزيدي) are adherents of the smallest of the three branches of Yazdânism, a Middle Eastern religion with ancient Indo-European roots. ... A traditional representation of The Vinegar Tasters, an allegorical image representing Buddhists, Confucianists and Taoists. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... Cao Dais Holy See, called the Tay Ninh Holy See, is located in Tay Ninh, Viet Nam Caodaism (Vietnamese:  ) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... This article is about Kardecist spiritism. ... Tenrikyo Headquarters, Tenri Tenrikyo (天理教; Tenrikyō, lit. ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... African traditional women and male priests, Togo, West Africa, 2006. ... Afro-American religions are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas among African slaves and their descendants in various countries of the Caribbean Islands and Latin America, as well as parts of the southern United States. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... For the academic study of religion in general, see Religious studies. ... Prehistoric religion is a general term for the hypothetical religious belief system of prehistoric peoples. ... The Religions of the Ancient Near East were mostly polytheistic, with some early examples of emerging Henotheism (Akhenaton, early Judaism). ... Ancient Semitic religion spans the polytheistic religions of the Semitic speaking peoples of the Ancient Near East. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... Hellenistic religion refers to any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the Eurasian peoples who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (ca. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Religion in ancient Rome combined several different cult practices and embraced more than a single set of beliefs. ... Slavic mythology and Slavic religion evolved over more than 3,000 years. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... Religious belief refers to a faith or creed concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... Religion and mythology differ, but have overlapping aspects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ... For other senses of this word, see denomination. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Religious disaffiliation means leaving a faith, or a religious group or community. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Truth. ... Religious studies is the designation commonly used in the English-speaking world for a multi-disciplinary, secular study of religion that dates to the late 19th century in Europe (and the influential early work of such scholars as Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the... The anthropology of religion involves the study of religious institutions in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures. ... There are a number of models regarding the ways in which religions come into being and develop. ... For the academic study of religion in general, see Religious studies. ... The Major religious groups of the world. ... Psychology of religion is psychologys theory of religious experiences and beliefs. ... // The sociology of religion is primarily the study of the practices, social structures, historical backgrounds, development, universal themes, and roles of religion in society. ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article covers various areas of the interaction between religion and politics. ... Christianity - Percentage by country Islam - Percentage by country Buddhism - Percentage by country Hinduism - Percentage by country The table above is compiled from the relevant Wikipedia pages listing Religions by Country. ... Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ... There are several different religions claimed to be the “fastest growing religion”. Such claims vary due to different definitions of “fastest growing”, and whether the claim is worldwide or regional. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... The term national church is usually a reference to a church organization in Christianity that claims pastoral jurisdiction over a nation. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Christian Left or Religious Left are terms used to describe those who hold a strong Christian belief and share left-wing, liberal, or socialist ideals. ... Minority religion is the religion held by a minority of the population of a country, state, or region. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Religious violence Throughout history, religious beliefs have provoked some believers into violence. ... For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... Look up fundamentalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fascist (epithet). ... This article is about secularism. ... The criticism of religion includes criticism of the concept of religion, the validity of religion, the practice of religion, and the consequences of religion for humanity. ... Science and Religion are portrayed to be in harmony in the Tiffany window Education (1890). ... Atheist redirects here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about secularization. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Jacques Derrida Deconstruction-and-religion -- also known as weak theology and religion without religion -- is a nontheistic mode of thought that proceeds from a theological and deconstructive framework. ... The field of secular theology, a subfield of liberal theology advocated by Anglican bishop John A. T. Robinson somewhat paradoxically combines secularism and theology. ... Many Wikipedia articles on religious topics are not yet listed on this page. ... For a more comprehensive list, see List of religious topics Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that (generally) involve a faith in a spiritual nature and a study of inherited ancestral traditions, knowledge and wisdom related to understanding human life. ... This list of deities aims to give information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... The list of people considered to be deities consists of those notable human beings who were considered deities by themselves or others. ... The following is a list of religions and spiritual traditions. ... This List of new religious movements (NRMs), lists groups founded after 1800 that either identify themselves as religious, ethical or spiritual organizations or are generally seen as such by religious scholars, which are independent of older denominations, churches, or religious bodies. ... This list indexes a diverse set of groups and organizations indicated in the popular press and elsewhere as a cult or a sect. Inclusion is based on a single reference: as a cult directly in North American English, a sect in British English or any equivalent foreign-language word; as... The following figures are believed to have founded or inspired religions or religious philosophies, or to have been the founders of specific churches or denominations or first codifiers or best-known proponents of older known religious tradition. ... The following is a list of religion scholars. ... This is a list of the largest historic gatherings of people for a single event. ... The following is a list of religions and spiritual traditions. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Jainism (1168 words)
Jainism (pronounced in English as /ˈdʒeɪ.nɪzm̩/), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म), is a religion and philosophy originating in the prehistory of South Asia.
Jainism is an ancient religion from India that teaches that the way to liberation and bliss is to live a life of harmlessness and renunciation.
Jainism is one of the oldest religions known today and its origins lie in the country of India.
Jainism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6857 words)
Jainism (pronounced in English as /ˈdʒeɪ.nɪzm̩/), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म), is a religion and philosophy originating in ancient India.
Jainism stresses spiritual independence and equality of all life with a particular emphasis on non-violence.
Though Jainism is slowly declining in India, it is rapidly expanding in the West as non-Indians convert to the religion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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