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Encyclopedia > Jainas

Jainism (pronounced in English as /ˈdʒeɪ.nɪzm̩/), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म) , is a classical religion with its origins in the prehistory of India. The Jains, although a small minority in India now, have continued to sustain the shraman (श्रमण) tradition. Jainism is significantly influential in both the ethical and economic spheres in India. Jainism places great stress on compassion to all living beings. Self-control (व्रत, vrata in Sanskrit) forms a central part of being a Jain. Dharma (Sanskrit, roughly law or way) is the way of the higher Truths. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


A lay Jain is termed a shravaka (श्रावक) i.e. a listener. The Jain Sangha (संघ) has four components: monks (साधु), nuns, lay men and women. Sravaka (Sanskrit śrāvaka; Tibetan nyan thos; Pali sāvaka) is a hearer, a term applied to the personal disciples of the Buddha, distinguished as mahā-śrāvaka; it is also applied to hearers, or disciples in general; but its general connotation relates it to Hīnayāna disciples who understand the four dogmas, rid... Sangha is a word in Indian languages that can be translated roughly as association or assembly. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ...

Contents


Overview of Jain Dharma

Indian philosophy
Hindu philosophy

Samkhya
Nyaya
Vaisheshika
Yoga
Purva Mimamsa
The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Carvaka philosophy See also Important publications in Indian philosophy This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Hindu philosophy (one of the main divisions of Indian philosophy) is traditionally seen through the prism of six different systems (called darshanas in Sanskrit) that are listed here and make up the main belief systems of Hinduism. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य) is a school of Indian philosophy, and is one of the six astika or Hindu philosophical schools of India. ... Nyaya (pronounced as nyα:yÉ™) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy - specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... // The Intention of Yoga The ultimate intention of Yoga is attainment of liberation (moksha) from worldly suffering and the cycle of birth and death (samsara). ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ...

Uttara Mimamsa

Carvaka
Jain
Buddhist
Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA []) is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of philosophy of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita (total six). ... Vishisthadvaita is a qualified monism in which God alone exists but admits plurality. ... Dvaita, a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu theology), made popular by Shri Madhvacharya, stresses strict distinction between God (expressed as Vishnu) and souls. ... Carvaka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka, and also known as Lokayata, is a thoroughly materialist and atheist school of thought with ancient roots in India. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha (c. ...


Logic The development of logic in India dates back to the analysis of inference by Aksapada Gautama, founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy, probably in the first or second centuries BCE, and so stands as one of the three original traditions of logic, alongside the Greek and Chinese traditions. ...

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According to Jain beliefs, Jain philosophy is a codification of eternal universal truths which at times lapse among humanity, but later reappear through the teachings of human beings who have gained enlightenment or omniscience (Keval Gnan). According to jain tradition, Lord Rishabha (ऋषभ, sometimes pronounced as रिषभ) was the first human to receive the philosophy in this part of the universe, in the present cycle, and more recently Vardhaman Mahavira (599–527 BCE), or Lord Mahavira (महावीर). Enlightenment (concept) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Lord Rishabha or Rishabanath who was the first Tirthankar of Jainism. ... Mahavira (वर्धमान महावीर) or Mahavir (the Great Hero -- Also, Vardhamana (increasing) or Niggantha Nathaputta -- 599 BC-527 BC, though possibly 549 BC-477 BC) was the 24th, and last, Jainist Tirthankara. ... ...


Jainism teaches that every single living thing is an individual and eternal soul, called jīva, which is responsible for its own actions. Jains see their faith as teaching the individual to live, think and act in ways that respect and honor the spiritual nature of every living being to the best of one's human abilities. Jains view God as the unchanging traits of the pure soul of each living being, chief among them being Infinite Knowledge, Perception, Consciousness, and Happiness ('Ananta Gnana, Darshan, Chaitanya,' and 'Sukh') — but as such does not believe in any single Omnipotent Supreme Being (see Ishvara). The universe itself is seen as being eternal, having no beginning and no end, precluding God from being any creator. The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the ethereal substance — spirit (Hebrew:rooah or nefesh) — particular to a unique living being. ... God is the term used to denote the Supreme Being believed by monotheistic religions to exist and to be the creator and ruler of the whole Universe. ... Ishvara (ईश्वर in devanagari script, pronunciation Ä«:shvÉ™rÉ™), also variously transliterated (romanized) as Īshvara, Īshwara, Īshwar, Īśvara, etc. ...


The primary figures of Jainism are the Tirthankaras. Jainism has two main variants: Digambar and Shvetambar. Jains believe in ahimsa (or ahinsā), asceticism, karma, samsara, and the jiva. Jain philosophy has many scriptures written over a long period of time. One of the most cited scripture among all Jains is Tattvartha Sutra, or Book of Realities written over 18 centuries ago by the monk-scholar Umasvati (also known as Umasvami). The holy Vedas of the orthodox Hindus is not regarded as authoritative, and hence, Jainism (along with Buddhism) is a Shramana Paramparā (monastic tradition) as opposed to orthodox Hinduism which is a Vaidika Paramparā (Vedic tradition). In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Fordmaker) is a human who achieved enlightenment, became a Jiva, and whose religious teachings have formed the canon of Jainism; although not Gods, statues of Tirthankaras are found in temples. ... Digambar, also spelt Digambara is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Svetambar. ... The Shvetambara (White-Clad) are a Jainist sect. ... Ahimsa is a religious concept which advocates non-violence and a respect for all life. ... Asceticism denotes a life which is characterised by refraining from worldly pleasures (austerity). ... Karma or Karm(Sanskrit: कर्म from the root kri, to do, meaning deed) or Kamma (Pali: meaning action, effect, destiny) is a term in several eastern religions that comprises the entire cycle of cause and effect. ... In Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and other related religions, samsara or saṃsāra refers to the concept of reincarnation or rebirth in Indian philosophical traditions. ... In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Acharya Umasvati is the author of Tatvartha Sutra, the best known Jain text. ... The Vedas (Sanskrit:- वेद), collectively refers to a corpus of ancient Indo Aryan religious literature that are considered by adherents of Hinduism to be revealed knowledge. ... The term Buddha is a word in ancient Indian languages including Pāli and Sanskrit which means one who has awakened. It is derived from the verbal root budh, meaning to awaken or to be enlightened, and to comprehend. It is written in devanagari script as Hindi: and pronounced as... The adjective Vedic may refer to The Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts. ...


Compassion to all fellow living beings (along with humans) is central to being a Jain. Jainism is the only religion where all followers, both monks and practicing lay persons, are traditionally vegetarian. In regions of India with strong Jain influence, often the majority of the population is vegetarian. In many towns, the Jains run animal shelters. In Delhi, there is a bird hospital run by a Jain temple. Many historians believe that Hinduism adopted vegetarianism as a recommendation (though never a requirement or a dogma) because of the strong influence of Jainism and Buddhism.


As part of its stance on nonviolence, Jainism goes even beyond vegetarianism, in that the Jain diet also excludes most root vegetables as Jains believe such vegetables have an infinite number of individual souls, invisible to the naked eye. Jains also do not eat certain other foods believed to be unnecessarily injurious. Observant Jains do not eat, drink or travel after sunset and always rise before sunrise. Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of not eating meat, beef, poultry, fish or their by-products, with or without the use of dairy products or eggs [1]. The exclusion may also extend to products derived from animal carcasses, such as lard, tallow, gelatin, rennet and cochineal. ... Root vegetables are underground plant parts used as vegetables. ...


Anekantavada, meaning simultaneous validity of multiple points of view is an important principle in Jainism. Another foundational principle of Jainism is the theory of relativity of knowledge, ie, Syādvāda. The Jains can be remarkably open minded towards other dharmas. There are several Hindu temples that are administered by Jain individuals. The Jain Heggade family has run the institutions of Dharmasthala including the Manjunath Temple for eight centuries. There are examples of Jains donating money for building churches and mosques. In India the Jains have often helped organize multi-religious discussions and functions. They have also sometimes been involved in activities to promote harmony among followers of rival faiths to help defuse communal tensions. Anekantavada is a basic principle of Jainism dealing with the fact that reality may be percieved diferently from different points of views. ... Padma Bhushan Shri D Veerendra Heggade Shri D. Veerendra Heggade (born November 25, 1948) is the eldest son of Shri Ratnavarma Heggade. ... Sri Manjunatheshwara Temple, Dharmasthala This place is of religious interest in the interiors of Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka, India). ...


Jains have been an important presence in Indian culture, contributing to Indian philosophy, art, architecture, sciences and the politics of Mohandas Gandhi which led to Indian independence. The culture of India is one of the oldest cultures in the world. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Carvaka philosophy See also Important publications in Indian philosophy This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Art Resources DEFINE.name Glossary Index ArtLex. ... Depending on the nature of the structure, the skills of the architect ranges from the complex, such as a hospital or a stadium, to something more simple, such as planning buildings in a residential area. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869–January 30, 1948) (Devanagari, Hindi: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी,Gujarati:મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was the spiritual and political leader of India who led the struggle for Indias independence from the British Empire, empowered by tens of millions of Indians. ... The Indian independence movement was a series of steps taken in the Indian subcontinent for independence from British colonial rule, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ...


Universal History and Jain Cosmology

According to Jain beliefs, the universe was never created, nor will it ever cease to exist. It is eternal but not unchangeable, because it passes through an endless series of cycles. Each of these upward or downward cycles is divided into six world ages (yugas). The present world age is the fifth age of one of these "cycles", which is in a downward movement. These ages are known as "Aaro" as in "Pehela Aara" or First Age, "Doosra Aara" or Second Age and so on. The last one is the "Chhatha Aara" or Sixth Age. All these ages have fixed time durations of thousands of years. The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. ... In Hindu philosophy, the existence of the world is divided into four Yugas (ages): Satya Yuga or Krita Yuga Treta Yuga Dwapara Yuga Kali Yuga According to the rishis of ancient India, the world goes through a continuous cycle of these ages. ...


When this reaches its lowest level, even Jainism itself will be lost in its entirety. Then, in the course of the next upswing, the Jain religion will be rediscovered and reintroduced by new leaders called Tirthankaras (literally "Crossing Makers" or "Ford Finders"), only to be lost again at the end of the next downswing, and so on.


In each of these enormously long alternations of time there are always twenty-four Tirthankaras. In the current world age, the twenty-third Tirthankar was Parshva, an ascetic and teacher, whose traditional dates are 877-777 BC, i.e., 250 years before the passing of the last Tirthankar Lord Mahavira in 527 BC. Jains regard him and all Tirthankars as a reformer who called for a return to beliefs and practices in line with the eternal universal philosophy upon which the faith is said to be based. Hence the epithet Bhagavan is applied to Mahavira and most other Tirathankaras in the sense of the Venerable One. In Jainism, Parshva, also called Parshvanatha or Parswanath, was twenty-third Tirthankara. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 920s BC 910s BC 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC Events and Trends 879 BC - Death of Zhou yi wang, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC Events and trends 778 BC - Agamestor, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 17 years and... Mahavira (वर्धमान महावीर) or Mahavir (the Great Hero -- Also, Vardhamana (increasing) or Niggantha Nathaputta -- 599 BC-527 BC, though possibly 549 BC-477 BC) was the 24th, and last, Jainist Tirthankara. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Bhagavan - (also Bhagawan or Bhagwan) is a religio/theological title associated with particular Hindu deities and/or saints, by their devotees. ...

Bhaktamara Stotra: Tirthankara is shelter from ocean of rebirths
Bhaktamara Stotra: Tirthankara is shelter from ocean of rebirths

The twenty-fourth and final Tirthankar of this age is known by his title, Mahāvīr, the Great Hero (599-527 BC). He too was a wandering ascetic teacher who attempted to recall the Jains to the rigorous practice of their ancient faith. ImageMetadata File history File links Bhavajale. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Bhavajale. ... In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Fordmaker) is a human who achieved enlightenment, became a Jiva, and whose religious teachings have formed the canon of Jainism; although not Gods, statues of Tirthankaras are found in temples. ... Mahavira (वर्धमान महावीर) or Mahavir (the Great Hero -- Also, Vardhamana (increasing) or Niggantha Nathaputta -- 599 BC-527 BC, though possibly 549 BC-477 BC) was the 24th, and last, Jainist Tirthankara. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC Events and Trends 598 BC - Jehoaichin succeeds Jehoiakim as King of Judah 598 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem...


Jains believe that reality is made up of two eternal principles, jiva and ajiva. Jiva consists of an infinite number of identical spiritual units; ajiva (that is, non-jiva) is matter in all its forms and the conditions under which matter exists: time, space, and movement. In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ... Ajiva - the nonspiritual or polar opposite of jiva. ...


Both jiva and ajiva are eternal; they never came into existence for the first time and will never cease to exist. The whole world is made up of jivas trapped in ajiva; there are jivas in rocks, plants, insects, animals, human beings, spirits, et cetera.


Any contact whatsoever of the jiva with the ajiva causes the former to suffer. Thus the Jains believed that existence in this world inevitably means suffering. Neither social reform nor the reform of individuals themselves can ever stop suffering. In every human being, a jiva is trapped, and the jiva suffers because of its contact with ajiva. The only way to escape from suffering is for the jiva to completely escape from the human condition, from human existence.


Karma and transmigration keep the jiva trapped in ajiva. Achieving release from the human condition is difficult. The Jains believe that the jiva continues to suffer during all its lives or reincarnations, which are of an indefinite number. They believe that every action that a person performs, be it good or evil, opens up channels of the senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell), through which an invisible substance, karma, filters in and adheres to the jiva within, weighing it down and determining the conditions of the next reincarnation. Karma or Karm(Sanskrit: कर्म from the root kri, to do, meaning deed) or Kamma (Pali: meaning action, effect, destiny) is a term in several eastern religions that comprises the entire cycle of cause and effect. ... Past Lives redirects here. ... Past Lives redirects here. ... Karma or Karm(Sanskrit: कर्म from the root kri, to do, meaning deed) or Kamma (Pali: meaning action, effect, destiny) is a term in several eastern religions that comprises the entire cycle of cause and effect. ...


The consequence of evil actions is a heavy karma, which weighs the jiva down, forcing it to enter its new life at a lower level in the scale of existence. The consequence of good deeds, on the other hand, is a light karma, which allows the jiva to rise in its next life to a higher level in the scale of existence, where there is less suffering to be endured. However, good deeds alone can never lead to release.

The swastika is one of the holiest Jain symbols. Worshippers often use rice grains to create swastika symbols around the temple altar.
The swastika is one of the holiest Jain symbols. Worshippers often use rice grains to create swastika symbols around the temple altar.

The way to moksha (release or liberation) is withdrawal from the world. Karma is the cause-and-effect mechanism by virtue of which all actions have inescapable consequences. Karma operates to keep the jiva chained in an unending series of lifetimes in which the jiva suffers to a greater or lesser extent. Thus the way of escape must involve an escape from karma, the destruction of all karma and the avoidance of new karma. Image File history File links Swastik4. ... Image File history File links Swastik4. ... A right-facing Swastika in decorative Hindu form For the town in Ontario, see Swastika, Ontario. ... Moksha (Sanskrit: मोक्ष, liberation) or Mukti (Sanskrit: विमुक्ति, release) refers, in general, to liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth. ...


Then, at death, with no karma to weigh it down, the jiva will float free of all ajiva, free of the human condition, free of all future embodiments. It will rise to the top of the universe to a place or state called Siddhashila, where the jiva, identical with all other pure jivas, will experience its own true nature in eternal stillness, isolation and noninvolvement. It will be totally free. The way to burn up old karma is to withdraw from all involvement in the world as much as possible, and close the channel of the senses and the mind to prevent karmic matter from entering and adhering to the jiva. Such kind of an eternal liberation from the unbinding of the Jiva and the Pudgala (ajiva), such that no new reincarnation occurs into the material world, is called as Moksha. Ignorance (ajñāna) is the cause of binding, and true knowledge (kevala jñāna) is the cause of liberation. Moksha (Sanskrit: मोक्ष, liberation) or Mukti (Sanskrit: विमुक्ति, release) refers, in general, to liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth. ...


S. Vernon McCasland, Grace E. Cairns and David C. Yu describe Jain cosmology after the following manner:

"In Jain tradition, the first teacher of the religion, Rishabha, lived in the third period of Avasarpini, during which half of the world cycle things are getting worse. Since evil had begun to be found, a teacher called a Tirthankara was needed in order for people to cope with the problems of life. In the fourth period, evils proliferated such that twenty-three more Tirthankaras came into the world to teach people how to defeat evil and achieve mokasha. The present time, part of the fifth period, is 'wholly evil.' Now, men live no longer than 125 years, but the sixth epoch will be even worse. 'Man's life span will be only sixteen to twenty years and his height will be reduced to the size of a dwarf. . . . But then the slow upward movement of the first half of the world cycle, Utsarpini, will begin. There will be steady improvement until, in the first era, man's needs will be fulfilled by wishing trees, and man's height will be six miles, and evil will be unknown.' However, eventually things will degenerate again, with a repeat of Avasarpini; Usarpini will come again afterwards, in a neverending cycle, according to Jain cosmology." (McCasland, Cairns, and Yu, Religions of the World, New York: Random House, 1969: pages 485-486)

Beliefs and practices

The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa, meaning non-injury and non-violence. The word in the middle of the wheel reads "ahimsa." The wheel represents the dharma-chakra. This logo represents halting the cycle of reincarnation through relentless pursuit of truth.
The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa, meaning non-injury and non-violence. The word in the middle of the wheel reads "ahimsa." The wheel represents the dharma-chakra. This logo represents halting the cycle of reincarnation through relentless pursuit of truth.

On one hand, there are the monks, who practice severe asceticism and strive to make this birth their last. On the other hand, there are the lay people, who pursue less rigorous practices, striving to attain rational faith and do good deeds in this birth. Due to the strict ethics embedded in Jainism, the laity must choose a profession and livelihood that does not involve violence to self and other living beings. This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Ahimsa is a religious concept which advocates non-violence and a respect for all life. ... Dharma-chakra is the wheel that represents the dharma. ... When someone sincerely agrees with an assertion, they are claiming that it is the truth. ...


In their effort to attain their highest and most exalted state of being a Siddha, which is the permanent release of the jiva from all involvement in worldly existence, the Jains believe that no spirit or divine being can assist them in any way. The Jains consider that the devas (angels or celestial beings) cannot help the jiva to obtain release. This has to be achieved by individuals through their own efforts. In fact, the devas cannot even gain their own release until they are reincarnated as humans and undertake the difficult actions of removing the karmas. Deva (देव in devanagari script) is the Sanskrit word for god, deity. It can be variously interpreted as a spirit, demi-god, angel, deity or any spernatural being of high excellence. ...


The ethical code of Jainism is taken very seriously. Summarized in the Five Vows, they are followed by both lay people and monastics. These are:

  1. Nonviolence (ahinsa, or ahimsa)
  2. Truth (satya)
  3. Non-stealing (asteya)
  4. Chastity (brahmacharya)
  5. Non-possession or Non-possessiveness (aparigrah)

For lay people, 'chastity' means confining sexual experience to the marriage relationship. For monks/nuns, it means complete celibacy. Nonviolence involves being strictly vegetarian. The Jain is expected to follow the principle of non-violence in all his/her thoughts, words and deeds, not only towards fellow human beings, but also towards all living creature. There are some Jains who wear masks over their mouths and noses to avoid any possibility of breathing in tiny insects. Ahimsa is a religious concept which advocates non-violence and a respect for all life. ... Ahimsa is a religious concept which advocates non-violence and a respect for all life. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Brahmacharya is a Sanskrit word. ...


Along with the above 5 traits JAINS also believe in forgiving others and keeping no harm feelings against any one in the heart. There is few more things which they completely believe in like AATMA can lead one to become PARMATMA but voice has to come form inner-self and no one can lead some one to any path but can only show the path. Also they think that one should not become angry as that is the biggest enemy on a human. They completely trust in the belief “JEEYO AUR JEENE DO” (live and let others live).


Mahatma Gandhi was deeply influenced by the Jain emphasis on a peaceful, non-harming way of life which is common to the Jain philosophy and made it an integral part of his own philosophy. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869–January 30, 1948) (Devanagari, Hindi: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी,Gujarati:મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was the spiritual and political leader of India who led the struggle for Indias independence from the British Empire, empowered by tens of millions of Indians. ...


Jain Symbols

Jains have few core symbols. One Jain symbol incorporates a wheel on the palm of the hand. The holiest one is a simple unadorned swastika or svastika. A right-facing Swastika in decorative Hindu form For the town in Ontario, see Swastika, Ontario. ...


Major Jains symbols include:

In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Fordmaker) is a human who achieved enlightenment, became a Jiva, and whose religious teachings have formed the canon of Jainism; although not Gods, statues of Tirthankaras are found in temples. ... Ashta-mangalas are a set of eight auspiciopus symbols. ... Aum (also Om, ॐ) is the most sacred syllable in Hinduism, first coming to light in the Vedic Tradition. ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ... According to the entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica, Vishnu is one of the principal Hindu deities, worshipped as the protector and preserver of the world and restorer of dharma (moral order). ... Dharma-chakra is the wheel that represents the dharma. ... Siddha-chakra is one of the Jain yantras. ...

Jain Literature

The oldest Jain literature is in Ardha-Magadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit (Agamas, Agama-tulya, Siddhanta texts etc). Many classical texts are in Sanskrit (Tatvartha Sutra, Puranas, Koshas, Shravakacharas, Mathematics, Nighantus etc). Jain literature was also written in Apabhramsha (Kahas, rasas, grammars etc), Hindi (Chhah-dhala, Mokshamarga Prakashaka etc), Tamil (Jivakachintamani, Kural etc), Kannada (Vaddaradhane etc.). See Jain literature for more details. Jainism puts great stress on learning. ... Moksha Marg Prakashak is a scripture written by Pt. ... Jeevaga-chintamani (transliterated with innumerable variations) is a classical Tamil language epic poem. ... Kural is one of the most important forms of traditional Tamil poetry. ... Jainism puts great stress on learning. ...


Jain Worship and Rituals

Jains have built temples where images of their Tirthankaras are venerated. Jain rituals can be elaborate and include offerings of symbolic objects, with the Tirthankaras being praised in chant. In some Jain sects, temples and images are not required.


Every day Jains bow their heads and say their universal prayer, the Navakar Mantra. All good work and events start with this prayer of salutation and worship.


Jain worship may or may not involve temples. The sadhumargi Shvetambar Jains and the followers of Shrimad Rajachandra sect do not have temples. The Taranpanthi Jains have temples, but have books in place of idols.


Jain rituals include:

  • Pancha-kalyanaka Pratishtha
  • Pratikramana
  • Guru-vandan, Chaitya vandan etc.

The Jain rituals for marriage and other family rites are distinct and uniquely Indian, usually minor variants of those in orthodox Hinduism.


Digambar and Shvetambar Traditions

It is generally believed that the Jain sangha became divided two major sects, Digambar and Shvetambar, about 200 years after the nirvana of Mahāvīr. Bhadrabahu, chief of the Jain monks, foresaw a period of famine and led about 12,000 people, to southern India. Twelve years later, they returned to find that the Svetambar sect had arisen. The followers of Bhadrabahu became known as the Digambar sect. Sangha is a word in Indian languages that can be translated roughly as association or assembly. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... A sect is a small religious group that has branched off of a larger established religion. ... Digambar, also spelt Digambara is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Svetambar. ... The Shvetambara (White-Clad) are a Jainist sect. ... Mahavira (वर्धमान महावीर) or Mahavir (the Great Hero -- Also, Vardhamana (increasing) or Niggantha Nathaputta -- 599 BC-527 BC, though possibly 549 BC-477 BC) was the 24th, and last, Jainist Tirthankara. ... Bhadrabahu is the legendary jain saint who was spiritual teacher of Chandragupta Maurya. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... A map of South India, its rivers, regions and water bodies. ... Svetambar (also spelt Svetambara or Shvetabmbar) is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Digambar. ... Digambar, also spelt Digambara is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Svetambar. ...


The Digambar monks do not wear any clothes, the Svetambar monks wear white clothes. The sadhvis (lady religiuos persons) of both sects wear white clothes. There are also minor differences in the enumeration and validity of each sect's Agama (sacred) literature. Digambar, also spelt Digambara is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Svetambar. ... Svetambar (also spelt Svetambara or Shvetabmbar) is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Digambar. ... The Agamas are sectarian and monotheistic texts dedicated to worship of Vishnu, Shiva or Devi. ...


However historians have noted that there was no clear division until the 5th century. The Valabhi council of 453 resulted in editing and compilation of scriptures of the Svetambar tradition.


Excavations at Mathura have revealed many Kushana period Jain idols. In all of them the Tirthankaras are represented without clothes. Some of them show monks with only one piece of cloth which is wrapped around the left arm. They are identified as belonging to the ardha-phalaka sect mentioned in some texts. The Yapaniaya sect is believed to have have originated from the Ardha-phalakas. They followed Digambara practice of nudity, but held several beliefs like the Svetambaras. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...


Both traditions are further subdivided into several sects. In recent decades, attempts have been made to bring the sects together. In 1974, a new religious text Samana Suttam was compiled by a committee consisting of representatives of all the sects.


Geographical spread and influence

Jain temple in Ranakpur
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Jain temple in Ranakpur

It has been advanced that the pervasive influence of Jain culture and philosophy in ancient Bihar gave rise to Buddhism. Ranakpur in the state of Rajasthan is one of the five most important pilgrimage sites of Jainism. ... The term Buddha is a word in ancient Indian languages including Pāli and Sanskrit which means one who has awakened. It is derived from the verbal root budh, meaning to awaken or to be enlightened, and to comprehend. It is written in devanagari script as Hindi: and pronounced as...


The Buddhists always maintained that by the time Buddha and Mahavira were alive, Jainism was already an ancient and deeply entrenched faith and culture in the region. For a discussion about the connections between Jainism and Buddhism see Jainism and Buddhism. Jainism and Buddhism It has been advanced that the pervasive influence of Jain culture and philosophy in ancient Bihar gave rise to Buddhism. ...


At 4 to 5 million adherents, Jainism is among the smallest of the major world religions, but in India its influence is much more significant than the numbers would suggest. The Jains live throughout India, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Gujarat have the largest Jain population among Indian states. Other states of India with relatively large Jain populations among its residents are Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. For a list of all religions, please see the article list of religions. ... Maharashtra (महाराष्ट्र in Devanagari) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Rajasthan (राजस्थान) is the geographically largest state in northwestern India. ... Gujarat (ગુજરાત in Gujarati) is the most industrialized state in India after Maharashtra and is located in western India, bordered by Pakistan to the northwest and Rajasthan to the north. ... Karnataka (ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ in Kannada) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Madhya Pradesh (मध्य प्रदेश) is a state in central India. ...


Jainism has a large following in the Indian region of Punjab, especially the town of Ludhiana and Patiala. There were many Jains in Lahore (Punjab's historic capital) and other cities before the Partition of 1947. Many then fled to the Indian section of Punjab. This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... Ludhiana in India is the largest city of Punjab situated on banks of the Sutlej River. ... Patiala is a city in the Punjab state of India. ... South section of the Hazuri Bagh, looking south towards the Roshnai Gate The Minar-e-Pakistan, south-side view Lahore (لاەور) is a major city in Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ... Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


It is practiced by adherents in all the metropolitan cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai as well as Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Hyderabad. Delhi is an ancient center of Jainism. ... Mumbai has one the largest populations of Jains among all the cities in India. ... Chennai (சென்னை in Tamil), formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is Indias fourth largest metropolitan city. ... Ahmedabad (અમદાવાદ in Gujarati) or Ahmadābād is the largest city in Gujarat and the 7th largest city in India with a population of 5 million. ... Bangalore (Kannada: ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು) (pronounced // in Kannada and // in English) is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Hyderabad or Hyderābād (హైదరాబాదు in Telugu, حیدر آباد in Urdu), the 5th largest metropolis of India [1], is the capital of the present day State of Andhra Pradesh. ...


There are 85 Jain communities in different parts of India and around the world. They speak local languages and sometimes follow different rituals. However they all follow essentially the same principles. There are 85 different Jain communities in India and overseas. ...


Outside of India, the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania & Uganda) have large Jain communities. Smaller Jain communities exist in Nepal, Japan, Singapore, Australia etc. Jainism as a religion was at various times found all over South Asia including Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, and Afghanistan, though in much minority as compared to Buddhism. East Africa is a region generally considered to include: Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Somalia Tanzania Uganda Burundi, Rwanda, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, and Sudan are sometimes considered a part of East Africa. ...


Jain philosophy and culture have been a major cultural, philosophical, social and political force since the dawn of civilization in South Asia, and its ancient influence has been traced beyond the borders of modern India into the Middle Eastern and Mediterranean regions. Jainism is presently a growing faith in the United States as well, where several Jain temples have been built. American Jainism tends to accommodate all the sects in its institutions. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Jains started arriving in significant numbers in early 1970s. ...


Over several thousand years, Jain influence on Hindu philosophy and religion have been considerable, while Hindu influence on Jain temple worship and rituals can be observed in certain Jain sects. For a detailed discussion see Jainism and Hinduism. {Text moved here from the article on Jainism} Traditionally the term Hindu has meant an original inhabitant of India. ...


Jain Contributions to Indian Culture

While the Jains are only 0.4% of the Indian population, their contributions to culture and society in India have been considerable.


The Jains are among the wealthiest of the Indians. They are also among the most philanthropic, they run numerous schools, colleges and hospitals. They have been the most important patrons of the Somapuras, the traditional temple architects in Gujarat.


Jains have greatly influenced the cuisine of Gujarat. Gujarat is dominantly vegetarian, and its dishes all have pleasing and soothing aromas due to the lack of foods with pungent odors, such as onions garlic etc.


According to the 2001 census, the Jains are the most literate community in India. India's oldest libraries at Patan and Jaisalmer have been preserved by Jain institutions. The Jains have contributed writings in many of the India's classical and popular languages. Some of the oldest known books in Hindi and Gujarati were written by Jain scholars. In Kannada almost entire early literature is of Jain origin. Many of the Tamil classics are also Jain. Practically all of the known texts of Apabhramsha language are Jain works. Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ ; also, less commonly, Kanarese) is one of the major Dravidian languages of southern India. ... The term Apabhramsha refers to the dialects of North India before the rise of modern North Indian languages. ...


Jainism and Indian Archaeology

Decipherment of Brahmi James Princep in 1788, permitted reading of ancient inscriptions in India, which established the antiquity of Jainism. Discovery of Jain manuscripts, a process that continues today, has added significantly to retracing the history of Jainism.


Jain archaeological findings are from Maurya, Sunga, Kushana, Rashtrakuta, Chalukya, and Rajput and later period.


Several western and Indian scholars have contributed to the reconstruction of Jain history. They include western historians like Bühler, Jacobi, and Indian scholars like Iravatham Mahadevan who has worked on Tamil Brahmi inscriptions.


Archaeological evidence such as various seals and other artifacts from the Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3000–1500 BC) has been cited by some scholars as attesting to the faith's roots in pre-Indo-Aryan migration India.[Citation needed] The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Hakra-Ghaggar river and their tributaries. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Holy sites

There are many Jain tirthas (pilgrimage sites) throughout India. ImageMetadata File history File links Palitana. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Palitana. ... Palitana is a major pilgrimage centre for Jains. ... A tirtha is a pilgrimage site. ... A tirtha is a pilgrimage site. ...

The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Shravanabelagola is a city located in the Hassan district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Hassan is the city and district in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Karnataka (ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ in Kannada) is one of the four southern states of India. ... The Jain Dilwara temples of India are located about 2½ kilometers from Mount Abu, Rajasthans only hill station. ... Mount Abu is the highest peak in the Aravalli Range of Rajasthan state, in western India. ... Rajasthan (राजस्थान) is the geographically largest state in northwestern India. ... Ranakpur in the state of Rajasthan is one of the five most important pilgrimage sites of Jainism. ... Ranakpur in the state of Rajasthan is one of the five most important pilgrimage sites of Jainism. ... Rajasthan (राजस्थान) is the geographically largest state in northwestern India. ... Palitana is a major pilgrimage centre for Jains. ... Gujarat (ગુજરાત in Gujarati) is the most industrialized state in India after Maharashtra and is located in western India, bordered by Pakistan to the northwest and Rajasthan to the north. ... Bawangaja is a famous Jain pilgrim centre in Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh in India. ... Barwani also known as Badwani or Siddh Nagar, is a town in southwestern Madhya Pradesh state of India. ... Madhya Pradesh (मध्य प्रदेश) is a state in central India. ... Teli-ka-Mandir Gwalior is a city in Madhya Pradesh, India. ... Shri Sammed Shikharji, located near Giridih, Parasnath district in Bihar, India, is one of the most sacred places for jains in the world. ... In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Fordmaker) is a human who achieved enlightenment, became a Jiva, and whose religious teachings have formed the canon of Jainism; although not Gods, statues of Tirthankaras are found in temples. ... ... Vataman or Vataman Chowkdi is a small village in the western state of Gujarat in India located at a crossroads about an hour and a half from Ahmedabad or Amdavad airport on the road to Palitana. ... Ahmedabad (અમદાવાદ in Gujarati) or Ahmadābād is the largest city in Gujarat and the 7th largest city in India with a population of 5 million. ... The Sanskrit word guna (guṇa) has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. // In Classical literature In Classical literature (e. ... Madhya Pradesh (मध्य प्रदेश) is a state in central India. ... Kundalpur (Bihar) is a historical site in India. ... View of ghantaghar at Damoh Damoh is a town in the Sagar Division of northeast Madhya Pradesh in India. ... Madhya Pradesh (मध्य प्रदेश) is a state in central India. ...

Jain Temples Outside India

  • UK
    • The Jain Centre in Leicester, England, the first Jain Temple consecrated in the western world
  • USA
    • The Jain Center of Greater Boston in Norwood, Massachusetts is the first Jain Center in North America.
    • The Jain Society of Metropolitan Chicago in Barlett, Illinois
    • The Jain Center of Northern California in Milpitas, California
    • The Jain Center of America in Elmhurst, New York
    • The Jain Center of Greater Atlanta in Atlanta, Georgia

Find more links at [http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/jainsoc.html]


Holy days

The Jain Calendar gives the dates for major Jain festivals, vratas and fairs. Categories: Possible copyright violations ... In Jainism, Mahavir Jayanti is the most important religious holiday. ... This article or section should be merged with Mahavir Swami Mahavir or Mahavira (the Great Hero -- Also, Vardhamana (increasing) or Niggantha Nathaputta -- 599 BC - 527 BC) was the 24th, and last, Jainist Tirthankara. ... Diwālī or Dīpāvali (also transliterated Deepavali; Sanskrit: row of lights) is the Hindu Festival of Lights. ... This article or section should be merged with Mahavir Swami Mahavir or Mahavira (the Great Hero -- Also, Vardhamana (increasing) or Niggantha Nathaputta -- 599 BC - 527 BC) was the 24th, and last, Jainist Tirthankara. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Jainism and other religions

India has a rich history of diverse philosophies. The term Hindu includes followers of Vedic, Vaishnava, Shaiva and other traditions. These traditions share a common cultural background with Jainism. Buddhism, like Jainism, represents the ancient Shramana tradition of India. Along with Jainism, Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism share the concept of dharma (hence these are called Arya Dharma, ie, noble religions). Connections among these are discussed at: A Hindu (also spelt Hindoo) is an adherent of philosophies and scriptures of Hindu religion. ... The adjective Vedic may refer to The Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... Śaivism, also transliterated Shaivism and Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ... The term Buddha is a word in ancient Indian languages including Pāli and Sanskrit which means one who has awakened. It is derived from the verbal root budh, meaning to awaken or to be enlightened, and to comprehend. It is written in devanagari script as Hindi: and pronounced as... A Shramana (Sanskrit) is a wandering monk in Indians shramana traditions, which include Jainism Buddhism Ajivikas, now extinct Mahavira, the 24th Jina, and Gautam Buddha were leaders of their shramana orders. ... Dharma (Sanskrit, roughly law or way) is the way of the higher Truths. ... Arya (árya-) is a Sanskrit term used by Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and others. ... Dharma (Sanskrit, roughly law or way) is the way of the higher Truths. ...

Even though Jainism is of Indian origin, it shared some principles with the Hellenic tradition, specially with Stoic and Pythagorean philosophies of Europe. A comparison with modern western religions can be found at: {Text moved here from the article on Jainism} Traditionally the term Hindu has meant an original inhabitant of India. ... Jainism and Buddhism It has been advanced that the pervasive influence of Jain culture and philosophy in ancient Bihar gave rise to Buddhism. ... Jainism and Sikhism Both Jainism and Sikhism are Indian, Eastern philosophical faiths. ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... The Pythagoreans were an Hellenic organization of astronomers, musicians, mathematicians, and philosophers; who believed that all things are, essentially, numeric. ...

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Jainism and Islam While Islam is one of the largest religions, Jainism is one of the smallest. ...

See also

There are 85 different Jain communities in India and overseas. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Delhi is an ancient center of Jainism. ... The Jains started arriving in significant numbers in early 1970s. ... Mumbai has one the largest populations of Jains among all the cities in India. ...

References

Introductory:

  • Duli C. Jain (Editor), Studies In Jainism: Primer, Jain Study Circle, 1997.
  • Vastupal Parikh Jainism and the New Spirituality, Peace Publications, 2002.

Detailed Introduction:

  • Natubhai Shah, Jainism : The World of Conquerors, Motilal Banarsidass, 2004.
  • Padmanabh S. Jaini, Jaina Path of Purification, Motilal Banarsidass, 2001.
  • Kurt Titze, Jainism : A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-Violence, Mohtilal Banarsidass, 1998.
  • Kristi Wiley, Historical Dictionary of Jainism, Scarecrow Press, 2004.
  • Mamta Mishra, Bharatiya Darshan, Kala Prakashan, Varanasi, 2000.

Specialized Sources:

  • Mary Pat Fisher, Living Religions (5th Edition), 2003, p.130
  • Bhaskar, Bhagchandra Jain, Jainism in Buddhist Literature. Alok Prakashan: Nagpur, 1972.
  • Campbell, Joseph, Oriental Mythology, 1962.
  • Nakamura, Hajime, Gotama Buddha: A Biography Based on the Most Reliable Texts. Kosei Publishing: Tokyo, 2000.
  • Ramachandran, T.N., Harrappa and Jainism 1987.
  • Subramaniyam, Ka Naa, Tiruvalluvar and his Tirukkural. Bharatiya Jnanpith: New Delhi 1987.
  • Thomas, Edward, Jainism, or the Early Faith of Asoka. Asian Educational Services: New Delhi, 1995 (reprint of the original by Trubner: London, 1877).

External links


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