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Encyclopedia > Jaffna
Jaffna District.
Map of Jaffna Peninsula.

Jaffna or Yazhpanam (யாழ்ப்பாணம் in Tamil meaning யாழ்=harp, பாணம்=town of harper, යාපනය in Sinhala) the capital city of the Northern Province, Sri Lanka. Most of the residents of Jaffna are Sri Lankan Tamils with a presence of Sri Lankan Moors. It had been the second largest city in the country for several decades, until the recent civil conflict. Image File history File links Jaf. ... Image File history File links Jaf. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jaffnamap7. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jaffnamap7. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... The harp is a stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. ... // Harper refers to: Generally An older word for harpist, someone who plays the harp. ... Sinhala language Sinhala alphabet Sinhala people Sinhala place-names Sinhala Place Names, see Sinhala place-names Category: ... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... Islam in Sri Lanka is practiced entirely by Sri Lankan Muslims, who make up approximately 8% of the population, comprise a group of minorities practicing the religion of Islam in Sri Lanka. ...

Contents

History

Main article: Jaffna Kingdom

The Northern Sri Lankan city of Jaffna has a written history of 2000 years. Along with the Mahavamsa and Chulavamsa, The Yalpana Vaipava Malai, Kailaya Malai, and Irasamurai are some of the books containing historical facts of Jaffna. The Abitta Jataka in the Pali canon refers to the Brahmin sage Akitta (Agastya?) who had visited the island of Kara adjacent to Nagadipa. This is identified by some as the present Karaitivu or Karainagar. Jaffna Kingdom was a historically important regional power in medieval Sri Lanka. ... The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ...


The Mahavamsa mentions that Lord Buddha used his iddhi or yogic powers to visit Jaffna by air to resolve a crisis over a jewel between the Naga chieftains and introduced Buddhism to them. It refers to the port of Jambukola Pattuna, now known as Sambalturai, where ships embarked to India. The Mahavamsa Tika - a commentary to the chronicle, speaks of a Thera Dhammadinna in the island of Piyangudipa which is probably the present island of Punguduteevu. The Sangam era Tamil literature in the early centuries of the common era included poets from Mantai in what is today the Mannar district in Sri Lanka. The Tamil epic the Manimekalai refers to a place called Manipallavam which might well be Jaffna. The archeological ruins in Kantarodai might well confirm this literary reference. The Northern part of the Indian Oceans Island(todays Sri Lanka)throve during the Naga Kingdom from 6th century BC to the middle of the 3rd century AD. Naga people were of Tibeto-Burman origin, a Mongoloid race and migrated to India in 4000 BC, driven by some... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


The Jaffna Kingdom

Main article: Jaffna Kingdom

The development of the Dravidic tribes in the past twenty centuries gave rise to states like the Pallava, Pandyan, Chola, Chera and Vijayanagar kingdoms in Southern India. From time to time one or the other of these Dravidian states reached pre-eminence, but undoubtedly the greatest of these was the Chola Empire, which encompassed not only south India but Sri Lanka and the Maldives to the south to outposts in the Andaman islands, Malaya and Sumatra in the east. Jaffna Kingdom was a historically important regional power in medieval Sri Lanka. ... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... Vijayanagara (often written Vijayanagar), in northern Karnataka, is the name of the now ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagar empire in the Southern part of India. ... Scholars debate about what exactly constitutes an empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government). ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ...


Mudaliyar C. Rasanayagam of the Ceylon Civil Service in his "Ancient Jaffna" published in Madras in 1926 maintains that there were chiefs in Jaffna who intermittently ruled independently from fourth century CE to eighth century CE though more often under the Kings in Anuradhapura. He cites evidence in the Sangam era literature of the Tamils, Ptolemy, the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, Near Eastern travelers (Abu Zaid, El Edirisi and Ibn Battuta) and the Mahavamsa. The early Arab travelers referred to the kingdom of Zapage (Yalpaanam?) in north Ceylon. The historical validity of his conclusions remains to be confirmed.


The political, socio-economic and cultural impact and influence of the Chola empire under the kings Parantaka, Aditya, Raja Raja and Rajendra was extensive. It had a lasting politico-socio-economic and cultural impact and influence on Sri Lanka. The Cholas had annexed the northern half of the island of Ceylon in 993 CE but were evicted by a resurgent Sinhalese power in Polonnaruwa allied to both the Pandyas and Kalinga (Orissa) in 1070 CE. However, the Chola inter-regnum consolidated the Tamil presence in the northern districts of Ceylon as researched by Professor K. Indrapala in his PhD thesis - Early Tamil Settlements in Ceylon - submitted to the University of London. Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ...


S. Pathmanathan in his "Kingdom of Jaffna" published in Colombo in 1978 attributes the origins of the Tamil Hindu Kingdom in north Sri Lanka to Magha of Kalinga (Orissa) who had invaded the Polonnaruwa kingdom in 1215 CE and destroyed the economic underpinnings of the old Sinhalese hydraulic civilization that had been weakened by earlier Chola onslaughts. Magha depended on South Indian troops. The destruction of the Polonnaruwa kingdom facilitated the rise of the Kingdom of Jaffna.


According to Yalpana Vaipava Maalai (which was written by Mayilvagana Pulavar, during Dutch period), the first king in turn assumed the throne of Jaffna Kingdom in 1215 CE as "Segarajasekeran Singhai Ariyar Chakravarti" (Kulasekara Segarajasekeran Seliyasekaran Vijeyar Singhai Ariyar Chakravarti: 1215-1240).


By the end of his rule, he had subjugated most of Sri Lanka. The Batticaloa chronicle states that Segarajasekeran captured Polonnaruwa. The Chulavamsa and the Rajavaliya, another Sinhalese chronicle, mention that Segarajasekeran stationed troops at Trincomalee, Koddiyaram, Kantalai, Padavikulam, Kaddukkulam, Kayts, Pulachery and dominated Rajarata, the heartland of what had been the Sinhalese hydraulic civilization until then. Batticaloa District. ... The second most ancient of Sri Lankas kingdoms, Polonnaruwa was first declared the capital city by King Vijayabahu I, who defeated the Chola invaders in 1070 CE to reunite the country once more under a local leader. ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ... . ...


After Segarajasekeran's death in 1240, his son Kulasegaran succeeded to the throne under the name Pararajasekeran and ruled from Nallur in the Jaffna Peninsula. Nallur is a small town in the North Sri Lankan city of Jaffna. ...

Statue of King Sangili, Nallur.
Statue of King Sangili, Nallur.

In 1247 Chandrabhanu invaded the Island with the aid of Indianized armies from the Malay peninsula and inflicted heavy damage. Most probably the mercenaries under Chandrabhanu came from Kedah as it was a Hindu Javanese outpost though Chandrabanu himself appears to have had Buddhist antecedents. Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221 that influenced Kadaram. Chandrabhanu’s invasion was repulsed in 1263. Image File history File links Sangili2. ... Image File history File links Sangili2. ... During the thirteenth century, the declining Sinhalese kingdom faced threats of invasion from India and the expanding Tamil kingdom of northern Sri Lanka. ... Kediri was a Hindu kingdom based in East Java from 1045 to 1221. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Alor Star Royal Capital Anak Bukit Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah Chief Minister Dato Hj Mahdzir Bin Khalid Area 9,426 km2 Population  - Est year 2003 1 778 188 State anthem Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Kedah (Jawi:قدح, pop. ...


Kulathungan succeeded his father and reigned until 1279 under the name Segarajasekeran II. Vikraman, son of Kulothungan, reigned from 1279 to 1302. He was known under the throne name of Pararajasekeran II. Varothayan succeeded his father and reigned from 1302 to 1325 under the name of Segarajasekeran III. Varothayan's son Marthanda Perumal became the ruler as Pararajasekeran III. He reigned from 1325 to 1348.


When the Pandyan empire in Tamil Nadu - successors to the Chola - in turn collapsed as a result of inroads from the Delhi Sultanate in the early 1300s CE, waves of Tamil immigrants moved to the peninsula. The Yalpana Vaipava Malai documents this in considerable detail.


Gunapushanam succeeded his father and reigned as Segarajasekeran IV from 1348 to 1371. In 1371, Virothayan followed his father and reigned until 1380 as Pararajasekeran IV. From 1380 to 1410, Jeyaveeran, son of Virothayan, reigned as Segarajasekeran V. Virothayan's son Kunaveeran held the throne as Pararajasekeran V from 1410 to 1446.


The Jaffna Kingdom had control over the Jaffna Peninsula, Northern Vanni Districts, Mannar, Pearl rich western Puttalam coast and at times even Trincomalee port. Vavuniya is town in the the northern part of Sri lanka. ... Mannar is a district of Sri Lanka. ... Freshadama grade cultured freshwater pearls. ... Puttalam is a district situated near to the west coast of Sri Lanka. ...


Late medieval Sinhalese texts such as the Rajavaliya and the Nikaya Sangrahaya refer to the tax collectors of the Arya Chakravarti in Biyagama in what is today close to the Colombo airport and to naval attacks on Panadura south of Colombo. The Sinhalese turned to Alagakonara, a military genius of Kerala origin, to contain the inroads of the Arya Chakravarti. The tide changed with the Sinhalese temporarily occupying Jaffna under Parakrama Bahu VI in the 1400s CE.


The Tamil Hindu Kingdom of Jaffna had its distinct traditions of jurisprudence referred to as the Tesavalamai which has been documented by Dr. H.W. Tambiah's "The Laws and Customs of the Tamils of Jaffna" reprinted in Colombo in 2000.


Invasion and Colonization by the West

Colony of Portugal

Main article: Portuguese Ceylon

After lasting for over 400 years the Dravidian influenced Jaffna Kingdom finally lost its independence to the Portuguese in 1621. The Portuguese captured the King of Jaffna Sangili Kumaran and had took him to Goa in India along with his sons. After trial, the Portuguese found him guilty of treason and hanged him along with his sons. With the Jaffna Kingdom’s demise, the only indigenous independent political entity that was not Sinhalese and Buddhist in character came to an end in the Island. The Portuguese built the Jaffna Fort and the moat around it. The first Portuguese visiting Ceylon was Dom Lourenço de Almeida in 1505 or 1506. ... Jaffna Kingdom was a historically important regional power in medieval Sri Lanka. ... , Goa   (Konkani: गोंय goṃya; Marathi: govā; Portuguese: ) is Indias smallest state in terms of area and the fourth smallest in terms of population (after Sikkim, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh). ... Traitor redirects here. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ...


Colony of the Netherlands

Main article: Dutch Ceylon

The Tamils and the Kandyan Kingdom collaborated and conspired with the Dutch rulers of Batavia( today's Jakarta in Indonesia). The Dutch invasion from Batavia brought religious freedom for Tamils and Muslims.The Dutch and the later colonial English ruler reigned approximately 3 centuries in length with each ruling for approximately 150 years. The Jaffna Tamil has several Portuguese and Dutch words still in usage. The Tamils and the Kandyan Kingdom collaborated and conspired with the Dutch rulers of Batavia (todays Jakarta in Indonesia). ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are an ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Look up Batavia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jakarta (also Djakarta or DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta and Batavia is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Jaffna Tamil could mean Jaffna Tamil person of Jaffna, in Sri Lanka origin. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...


The islands of Palk Straits are renamed during Dutch rule in Dutch as Leiden, Kayts and other cities of the Netherlands. Dutch priest Rev Philippus Baldeus has written a great historical record similar to Mahawamsa on the Jaffna people and their culture and it was immediately published in Dutch and German with several beautiful pictures. Still at the Point Pedro Market Square a granite stone inscription marks the place where Rev Baldeus has preached to the Tamils under a big tamarind tree. This tamarind tree was uprooted during the cyclone of 1963. Father Philippus Baldeus was a Dutch priest. ...


Colony of Great Britain

Main article: British Ceylon

The British started their rule in 1798. Many eductional institutions were established during this period. English language was taught to the locals. The Jaffna Tamils were given higher ranks in government institutions. At this time American missionaries and Anglican missionaries were in close competition with Catholic missionaries and establishing churches and schools in every nook and corner. The Hindu Board of Education in turn established its own network of schools. Several high schools and western education became the hallmark of Jaffna. Jaffna Tamils became loyal subjects of the ever-expanding British Imperialism and took the middle-level positions in public service throughout South East Asian countries of the British Raj (Burma, Malaya, Borneo and Singapore) in the late 1800s/early 1900s. The Arms of the Ceylon Government(1875-1948) The British started their rule in 1798. ...


Etymology

The general area of Jaffna peninsula boasts a written history dating back to circa 4th century BC. Yakshaganam is a type of music found in India. Yazhpanam may be a similar name for Yakshaganam. Nagapatnam is a city 40 kilometers North across the Palk Straits in India. Mahavamsa is full of references to Yakshas, Nagas and Tamilas as Kings of Lanka at various times.


A prominent port in the area was known as Yapa Patuna in Sinhala and Yaalpaana Pattinam in Tamil since the medieval times. In the local Tamil dialect it currently spelt as Yaalpaanam and some local Tamils believe the term Yaalpaanam is derived from Yaal and Paanam meaning land of the lute player alluding to a myth of a blind lute player receiving the land as a royal grant. Currently in Sinhalese, it is known as Yapanaya. Jaffna may be a latter-day simplification of the names either Yapa Patuna or Yaalpaana Pattinam. Location of Sri Lanka // Many Place Names in the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka with Tamil sounding names appear to have etymologies originating in the Sinhala language. ... a resource to look at current viewpoints Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of Sri Lanka | Wikipedia cleanup | Language stubs ... A medieval era lute. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογείν mythologein to relate myths, from μύος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λόγος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Demography

Prior to the civil war most residents of Jaffna were Tamil speaking, Sri Lankan Tamils, with a notable Muslim(Moor) and Sinhalese presence. Thus the 1981 Census gives: Tamils 800,000; Moors 14,000; Sinhala 5,000. compared to 20,514 Sinhala speakers in 1971 and none by 1988. Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


85% of the population of the Jaffna and Kilinochchi districts were Hindus. The Hindus followed the Saivite tradition. The remainder were largely Roman Catholic or Protestant. The Tamils were divided along caste lines with farmer-caste Vellalar forming the majority. The maritime caste known as the Karaiyar dominated the coast. This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, etc. ... Vellalars are a dominant caste of agriculturalists of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Sri Lanka. ...


Culture

Most Jaffna tamils belong to the Dravidian cultural group and The Pongal, The Hindu New Year in April, Christmas, Deepavali, Navaratri and Shivaratri are some of the religious festivals celebrated. During the colonial period Jaffna people were attracted to western culture and these features can be identified even today in the Jaffna society. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (989x648, 144 KB) Summary Its a famous Hindu temple in Jaffna city. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (989x648, 144 KB) Summary Its a famous Hindu temple in Jaffna city. ... Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil, Jaffna Nallur Kandaswamy kovil is one of the most significant hindu temples in the jaffna district. ... Dravidian may refer to: Dravidian languages, including the Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada languages spoken especially in southern India and Sri Lanka. ... This article is about the Pongal festival. ... Diwali, also called Deepavali, is a major Indian festival that is very significant in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. ... A festival is an event, usually staged by a local community, which centers on some unique aspect of that community. ...


Arts

The traditional dance of the Sri Lankan Tamils is called Kooththu. These are a variety of stage dramas. Karthavarayan Kooththu, Sangiliyan Kooththu and Poothaththambi Kooththu are some of the famous Kooththus in Jaffna. The Poothaththambi Kooththu has been Staged from the Dutch era. These arts are mainly focused on the historical values of the community and to entertain the people. The villuppattu is one of the famous art of tamils. Oyilaattam is a notable variety of dance in the jaffna peninsula. The South Indian dance and music is also indigenous to Jaffna. Noteworthy here would be Bharata Natyam and Carnatic Music in the classical high tradition of Hinduism. Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Classical Indian dance India offers a number of Classical Indian dance forms, each of which can be traced to different parts of the country. ... Timeline and Samples Genres Classical (Carnatic and Hindustani) - Rock - Pop - Hip hop Awards Bollywood Music Awards - Punjabi Music Awards Charts Festivals Sangeet Natak Akademi – Thyagaraja Aradhana – Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Media Sruti, The Music Magazine National anthem Jana Gana Mana, also national song Vande Mataram Music of the states Andaman and...


Literature

A poet called Eelattu Poothanthevanar is mentioned in the ancient Tamil sangam existed in Madurai. He was most probably from the North of Sri lanka. The Chief Nalliyakodan of Mantai in what is today Mannar sponsored several Sangam era poets in the Tamil land. Kumanan, another chief from Kudiramalai, also sponsored poets. However, the precise identity of Nalliyakodan and Kumanan is under doubt. This is discussed in Mudaliyar C. Rasanayagam's "Ancient Jaffna". Eelattu Poothanthevanar; Classical Sri Lankan Poet Poothanthevanar constitutes the earliest known Sri Lankan Tamil poet and his poems were included in the Tamil cankam (sangam) poetry anthologies compiled in southern India before 250AD. A distinctly Sri Lankan Tamil literary tradition first developed in the 1940s with the works of the... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a population of less than 0. ...


The medieval Tamil court in Jaffna hardly produced any literature of worth except for the rare manuscript on astronomy or ayurveda.


Turning to modern times, Arumuga Navalar was born in Nallur in December 1822. He died in 1879. He helped develop modern Tamil prose and freed the language from what had become the stitled classicism of the past with his freer use of words. He had translated the Bible into Tamil and then researched Hindu doctrine. Navalar had written many Hindu religious books and was an outstanding orator. He was the pioneer of religious reforms in the Jaffna Hindu society. C.W Thamotheram pillai, another native of Jaffna, was one of the first two graduates in the Madras Presidency. He obtained his degree from the University of Madras in 1858 and contributed to Tamil studies. Dr. Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy contributed extensively to the study of Indian art in its social context. He was born in 1877. Arumuka Navalar ஆறுமுக நாவலர் the pre eminent Hindu reformer of Sri Lanka was a product of period of intense religious transformation amongst Sri Lankan Tamils. ...


Mallikai, Sudar, Samar, Siriththiran, Alai and Kathambam were some of the Tamil magazines published in 1970s. Many of them disappeared after the ethnic tension in late 1980s.


The term Pulampeyar Ilakkiyam is the literature of the Tamil speaking people migrated away from their native places. Viduthalai Ilakkiyam is the literature of various Tamil nationalist organizations. The history of the Sri Lankan tamil literature is starting from 1960s. ...


Economic activities

Sea products, red onion, and tobacco are the main products in Jaffna. Prior to the civil war it was a place of many small scale industries manufacturing household items as well as packaging and food processing for export. Most industrialists have left or closed shops. The present Jaffna economy is facing setbacks because of the unstable connectivity with the south. The prices of goods in Jaffna are relatively very high compared to the south. Currently the primary economic activity is related to trading. The foreign remittance from the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora sustains many people. The Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora also known as Jaffnese diaspora and Ceylonese diaspora refers to the global diaspora of the people of Sri Lankan Tamil origin. ...

Coconut Trees in Jaffna

Image File history File links Jaffnatree1. ... Image File history File links Jaffnatree1. ...

Jaffna Harbour

The pending Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project may increase the productivity of the Jaffna Harbour positively. Enlargement of the harbour will bring benefits to Sri Lanka. The strategic advantages derive from obtaining a navigable sea route close to the coast, with a reduction in travel distance of more than 350 nautical miles (650 km) (for larger ships). The project is expected to provide a boost to the economic and industrial development of coastal Tamil Nadu in India. The project will be of particular significance to Jaffna, Kankesanthurai, Mannar, Point Pedro and Tuticorin harbour. The proposed canal The Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project proposes linking the Palk Bay and the Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka by creating a shipping canal through the shallow sea sometimes called Setu Samudram, and through the island chain of Ramas Bridge. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Mannar is a district of Sri Lanka. ... Point Pedro is a relatively smaller city of Northern Sri Lanka, where Srilankan tamils live in majority. ... Thoothukudi (தூத்துக்குடி in Tamil), also known as Tuticorin is a city and district in Tamil Nadu, India. ...


Media

The first newspaper in Jaffna, Uthayatharakai (Morning Star) was published in 1841 by C.W. Thamotharampillai[1] C.W. Thamotharampillai (Tamil: ) occupies a position next to Arumuka Navalar in respect of the publication of Ancient Tamil texts in print. ...


Today it has number of newspapers including Eelamurasu and Uthayan.

Public Library, Jaffna
Public Library, Jaffna

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2400x1591, 402 KB) Jaffna Public library. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2400x1591, 402 KB) Jaffna Public library. ...

Educational instituitions

Jaffna is considered to be the most literate district in the whole of Sri Lanka[citation needed], which has a very high literacy level to begin with. In early days (before 1970s') Sri Lankan universities were dominated by Jaffna students but currently their enrollment is minimized due to the effects of district based quota system introduced in 1970s as well as the effects of the civil war. However, in 1974 the government opened the University of Jaffna which is de facto reserved for students from the region, while they have a quota based access to the other Sri Lankan universities as well. Peter Percival was a Wesleyan Missionary who started several schools in Jaffna including Jaffna Central College, Hartley College, Vembadi Girls School, and Methodist Girls High School. The first translation of Bible into Tamil was carried out by Fr Peter Percival and Arumuga Navalar. Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... The word student is etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb stŭdērĕ, meaning to direct ones zeal at; hence a student is one who directs zeal at a subject. ... University of Jaffna // Jaffna University has two campuses. ... Central College is a private liberal arts college located in Pella, Iowa. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Arumuka Navalar ஆறுமுக நாவலர் the pre eminent Hindu reformer of Sri Lanka was a product of period of intense religious transformation amongst Sri Lankan Tamils. ...


The Jaffna Hindu College is one of the leading schools in Jaffna. This institution was established by a Hindu asscociation in 1890. The Hindu Board of Education had established a network of grant-in-aid schools. Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan established Ramanathan College for Girls and Parameshwarar College for Boys.


Founded by American missionaries in 1819, Jaffna College, has records of Malaysian, Singaporean, South Indian and even Japanese students enrollment in 1930s and 1940s. American missionaries also founded many other institutions of higher learning that are still functioning today. Today most students are locals. Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ...


Ethnic conflict

Due to the current civil war, the city has witnessed wholesale massacres, disappearances of the civilian population and a deterioration in the human rights situation. Currently it is occupied by the Sri Lankan Army; prior to 1995 it was under control of the LTTE. Due to ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka, many residents had moved out of the city, and thus the population has been reduced dramatically. According to the 2001 census, the population of the municipality is about 145,600[citation needed]. The population of the district is currently estimated by the district administration at 600,000. Jaffna also functions as the economic and cultural capital of Sri Lankan Tamils. The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka is an ongoing conflict between the Government of Sri Lanka and a minority terrorist group consisting of Ethnic Sri Lankan Tamils on the island-nation of Sri Lanka. ... This article is being considered for deletion for the third time in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The situation of human rights in Sri Lanka is generally considered to be very poor[1]. Major human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have repeatedly expressed concern about the states of human rights in Sri Lanka. ... Navaly Church massacre or Navaly Church bombing was the result of bombing of The Church of St. ... Disappear redirects here. ... Sri Lankan Army Flag The Sri Lankan Army is a branch of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces with the responsbility of overseeing land-based operations. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka is an ongoing conflict between the Government of Sri Lanka and a minority terrorist group consisting of Ethnic Sri Lankan Tamils on the island-nation of Sri Lanka. ... Cultural capital (le capital culturel) is a sociological term used by Pierre Bourdieu. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ...


Jaffna was once a 'stronghold' of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a political and military organization seeking the establishment of an independent Tamil Eelam for Tamil-speaking people in Sri Lanka. However, it is now under the control of the government of Sri Lanka. Anthem: Political status      Unrecognized de facto quasi-independent state Languages      Tamil (de facto official) English Capital Trincomalee President Velupillai Prabhakaran[1] Independence (from Sri Lanka) No official declaration   Area           19,509 km² claimed[2] 6,600–9,750 km² administered (40–50% of claimed area) Population (of claimed area) 3...


The Jaffna Public library was burnt down by a Singhalese mob in June 1981, when ethnic tensions in the country were building steadily twoards war. It renovated in 2003 by the government of Sri Lanka. [2] Burning of Jaffna library was a watershed event in the ongoing Sri Lankan civil war. ...


Mass exodus and ethnic cleansing

Many of the Tamils from this region have moved out to other parts of the island or to foreign countries. This exodus of Tamils from Jaffna has occurred for a number of reasons. The Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora also known as Jaffnese diaspora and Ceylonese diaspora refers to the global diaspora of the people of Sri Lankan Tamil origin. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are an ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ...


The entire Muslim and Sinhalese population of Jaffna was forced to leave within 48 hours in 1990 due to an ethnic cleansing order by the LTTE allegedly to avenge the ethnic cleansing of Tamils in the East. There have been claims of human rights violations on both sides. Due to Jaffna becoming a constant battleground between the Sri Lankan military and the LTTE, many people have been displaced. The tense security situation over the years of the ceasefire has left Jaffna in a precarious position as it is likely to be a key target should the conflict renew in the future. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Christian missionary activity

Jaffna also has played an important role in the Roman Catholic religious administration of Sri Lanka. It also plays an important role in the administration of the Church of South India in Sri Lanka, a group of Protestant denominations. Some notable missionaries are Roman Catholicism in Jaffna dates back as far as the time of St. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...

Eliza Agnew (February 2, 1807-June 14, 1883), was an American Presbyterian missionary. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

References

  1. ^ (1967) Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Marquis Who's Who. 

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  • Tamilnation
  • THE JAFFNA PENINSULAR
  • The 16 PLACES OF VENERATION
  • Sojourn in Jaffna : A traveller's paradise
  • Nallur Rajadhani: City Layout
  • Lord Buddha's three visits
  • The story of Lanka: sifting facts from folklore and legend
  • The Extent of the Influence of Tamil on the Malay Language: A Comparative Study
  • Portuguese: Religious conversion and ending Tamils' Sovereignty
  • Marakkala: the Sri Lankan Moors
  • Tamil Kingdom in Jaffna-Early Beginnings to the Court of the Ariya Chakravartis by Prof. H.W.Tambiah
  • The Civil Wars of Sri Lanka during 13th to 15th Century
  • 4 BALDAEUS-A.J. DE JONG, Afgoderye der Oost-Indische Heydenen (door Ph. Baldaeus, Amsterdam, 1672). Orig. thesis [Utrecht university]. 's-Gravenhage, 1917. Original wraps., (lxxxv), 236pp., facsim. title-p. of the original, publ. 1672, extensive notes to the original reviewed text, register at end. EUR 145.00

¶ After an introd. on the presence of Europeans in the "Indies" (Spain, Portugual, England, Holland) & their missionaries, the author focuses on the life & work of Philippus Baldeus a Dutch Protestant minister in V.O.C. service, who arrived at Batavia 24 June 1655 to perform his duties, visiting India (Jaffna), Coromandel & Ceylon, his return to the Netherlands (1667). The 2nd. part of this thesis deals with the still curious & interesting work of Baldeus on Hindu-religion & mythology ("Afgoderye...", being the 3rd part of the whole publication). The text has been completely published, with ext. foot-notes & commentary. Fine, unopened copy.

Nagas were a group of people spread throughout India during the period of the epic Mahabharata. ...

External links

Flag of Sri Lanka
Sri Lankan Cities
Sri Lankan cities
Colombo(Commercial Capital) | Sri Jayewardenapura(National Capital) | Anuradhapura | Trincomalee | Jaffna | Kandy | Polonnaruwa | Galle | Batticaloa | Boralesgamuwa | Nuwara Eliya | Negombo | Kurunegala | Badulla | Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia | Moratuwa | Matara | Maharagama | Ratnapura

Coordinates: 9°40′N, 80°00′E Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: , District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... District Kotte Division, Colombo District Government  - Mayor Swarnalatha Silva (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 17 km²  (6. ... Anuradhapura, (අනුරාධපුර in Sinhala), is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, world famous for its well preserved ruins of the Great Sri Lankan Civilization. ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ... The Temple of the Tooth Relic in Kandy Kandy (මහනුවර/ සෙංකඩගල in Sinhala, கண்டி in Tamil) is the name used by British invaders for the city of Senkadagala (Mahanuwara) in the centre of Sri Lanka. ... The second most ancient of Sri Lankas kingdoms, Polonnaruwa was first declared the capital city by King Vijayabahu I, who defeated the Chola invaders in 1070 CE to reunite the country once more under a local leader. ... Galle (ගාල්ල in Sinhala; காலி in Tamil) (pronounced as one syllable, rhyming with Gaul in English, in Sinhalese, IPA /gaːlːə/) is a town situated on the southwestern tip of Sri Lanka, 119 km from Colombo. ... Batticaloa District. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... View of Nuwara Eliya from Unique View Road A temple to Hanuman near Nuwara Eliya A tea plantation near Nuwara Eliya A waterfall located in the surroundings of Nuwara Eliya Nuwara Eliya (pronounced approximately ), the City of Light, is a town in Sri Lanka. ... Negombo is a town of about 65,000, approximately 30 km north of Colombo in Sri Lanka. ... Å« The 88 feet giant Buddha Statue on top of the Ethagala. ... Badulla (?? in Sinhala; பதுளை in Tamil) is the capital of Uva Province, Sri Lanka. ... Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia is a newly created city lying immediately south of Colombo, the largest city in Sri Lanka. ... Moratuwa is a city in South Western Sri Lanka, near Colombo. ... Matara (or Metera), is an archeological site in Eritrea (a few kilometers south of Senafe), it was a major Aksumite & Pre-Aksumite City. ... Maharagama is a Town and Municipal Area in the Colombo District, Sri Lanka. ... Ratnapura (රත්නපුර in Sinhala; இரத்தினபுரி in Tamil) (City of Gems in Sinhala & Tamil) is the name of the provincial capital of Sabaragamuwa Province of Sri Lanka and the district in which the town is situated. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: , District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... The Temple of the Tooth Relic in Kandy Kandy (මහනුවර/ සෙංකඩගල in Sinhala, கண்டி in Tamil) is the name used by British invaders for the city of Senkadagala (Mahanuwara) in the centre of Sri Lanka. ... Galle (ගාල්ල in Sinhala; காலி in Tamil) (pronounced as one syllable, rhyming with Gaul in English, in Sinhalese, IPA /gaːlːə/) is a town situated on the southwestern tip of Sri Lanka, 119 km from Colombo. ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ... Å« The 88 feet giant Buddha Statue on top of the Ethagala. ... Anuradhapura, (අනුරාධපුර in Sinhala), is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, world famous for its well preserved ruins of the Great Sri Lankan Civilization. ... Badulla (?? in Sinhala; பதுளை in Tamil) is the capital of Uva Province, Sri Lanka. ... Ratnapura (රත්නපුර in Sinhala; இரத்தினபுரி in Tamil) (City of Gems in Sinhala & Tamil) is the name of the provincial capital of Sabaragamuwa Province of Sri Lanka and the district in which the town is situated. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ... Vavuniya, city of Sri Lanka Market In Vavuniya Being a frontline town, Vavuniya has been a strategic location in Sri Lanka’s conflict between the Government - Sri Lankan Army and LTTE forces. ... Batticaloa District. ... Mannar is a district of Sri Lanka. ... Kilinochchi District. ... Ampara is a remote city on the East Coast of Sri Lanka, about 320km from the capital city of Colombo. ... Mullaitivu is a small town on the north-eastern coast of Sri Lanka. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jaffna - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (797 words)
Jaffna is considered to be the most literate district in the whole of Sri Lanka that has a very high literacy level to begin with.
In early days (before 1970s') Sri Lankan universities were dominated by Jaffna students but currently their enrolment is minimized due to the effects of race based quota system introduced in 1970s as well as due to the effects of the civil war.
In the 13th Century, Jaffna Kingdom was established by Arya Chakaravarthi[1], a chieftain of the South Indian Pandyan Empire.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Diocese of Jaffna (804 words)
Situated in the northern portion of Ceylon, Jaffna comprises the northern and north-central provinces of the island.
The fort of Jaffna capitulated to the Dutch in 1658.
Jaffna convent, conducted by the Sisters of the Holy Family of Bordeaux, follows the same junior and senior courses, for the education of girls, as St. Patrick's.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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