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Encyclopedia > Jaffa, Israel

Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا Yāfā; also Japho, Joppa), is an ancient city located in Israel. It is now part of the municipality of Tel Aviv-Yafo in the Tel Aviv District, where the tell ("mound") of ancient Jaffa in “Old Jaffa,” is now part of a park in south-western Tel Aviv. Jaffa is a port city on the Mediterranean Sea and the historic gateway into Israel. It is mentioned twice in the Hebrew Bible, once as the port-of-entry for the cedars of Lebanon for Solomon's Temple (2 Chronicles2) and according to the Book of Jonah 1:3 it was where the prophet Jonah embarked for Tarshish. It was an important city in the Arab Middle East, before Israel was established. During the Crusades it was the County of Jaffa, a stronghold of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by 6 million people mainly in Israel, parts of the Palestinian territories, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Tel Aviv at night Dizengof Center Allenby Street Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew תל אביב-יפו; Arabic تل ابيب-يافا Tal Abīb-Yāfā) is an Israeli city on the coast of the Mediterranean sea. ... The Tel Aviv District of Israel includes the following towns and cities: Bat Yam בת ים Bene Beraq בני ברק Givatayim גבעתיים Herzliyya הרצליה Holon חולון Or Yehuda אור יהודה Qiryat Ono קריית אונו Ramat-Gan רמת גן Ramat Ha-Sharon רמת השרון Tel Aviv-Yafo תל-אביב - יפו See... See also Tell (poker). ... Satellite image Map of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible refers to the common portions of the Jewish and Christian canons. ... Binomial name Cedrus libani A. Rich. ... 1584 drawing of the Temple by Christian van Adrichom According to tradition, Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ... (Redirected from 2 Chronicles) The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... // Overview of Contents The Book of Jonah is a book in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Jonah (יוֹנָה Dove, Standard Hebrew Yona, Tiberian Hebrew Yônāh) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh, the son of Amittai, from the Galilean village of Gath-hepher, near Nazareth. ... Tarshish - a Sanscrit or Aryan word, meaning the sea coast. ... This article is about the medieval Crusades . ... The double County of Jaffa and Ascalon was one of the four major seigneuries of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, according to 13th-century commentator John of Ibelin. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a short-lived country established in the 12th century by the First Crusade. ...

Jaffa port
Jaffa port

Contents

Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 613 KB)jaffa port. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 613 KB)jaffa port. ...


History

Name sources

Jaffa (or Yaffo) is one of the most ancient port cities in the world. Some claim that Jaffa was named after Japheth, one of the three son of Noah, who built it after the Great Flood. An Hebrew etimiology says that the city is called Jaffa because of its beauty (yofi in Hebrew). The Hellenist tradition refers the names to "Iopeia", which is Cassiopeia, the mother of Andromeda. Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... Japheth (יֶפֶת / יָפֶת Enlarge, Standard Hebrew Yéfet / Yáfet, Tiberian Hebrew Yép̄eṯ / Yāp̄eṯ) is one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ... Noah or Nóach (Rest, Standard Hebrew נוֹחַ Nóaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew × Ö¹×—Ö· Nōªḥ; Arabic نوح Nūḥ), is a character from the Book of Genesis and the Quran who builds an ark to save his family and the worlds animals from the Deluge, the universal flood. ... This article is on mythology involving great floods. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by 6 million people mainly in Israel, parts of the Palestinian territories, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... The term Hellenistic, established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen, is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of various ethnicities, and from the political dominance of the city-state to that of larger monarchies. ... The Boast of Cassiopeia is a story from Greek mythology, associated with Perseus. ... Paul Gustave Doré painted Andromeda exposed to the sea-monster, nude, as she is depicted in the story. ...


Ancient period

The ancient site of Jaffa is now a 40-meter (130 ft.) high hill (Tel Yafo, or "Jaffa Hill"), the accumulation of debris, from its historical destructions and modern fill increasing the original strategic advantage of its wide field of view which overlooked the coastline. Moreover, the hill was suitable for fortifications and defense. At the foot of the hill there were springs which supplied fresh water. See also Tell (poker). ... Nakhal Fort, one of the best-preserved forts in Oman. ...


Jaffa's natural harbor has been occupied since the Bronze Age. It is first referred to in an Ancient Egyptian letter from 1470 BC, glorifying its conquest by Pharaoh Thutmose III, who used an old trick: he hid armed warriors in large baskets and gave the baskets as a present to the Canaanite city's governor. The city is also referred to in the Amarna letters under its Egyptian name Ya-Pho. In 1991, a replica of the Egyptian gate lintels, bearing the titles of Pharaoh Ramesses II, was re-erected on its original site. The city was under Egyptian rule until around 800 BC. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt as a general historical term broadly refers to the civilization of the Lower Nile Valley, between the First Cataract and the mouths of the Nile Delta, from circa 3300 BC until the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based... (Redirected from 1470 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC - 1470s BC - 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC Events and Trends Significant People Hatshepsut of Egypt starts her rule Categories: 1470s... Pharaoh (פַּרְעֹה, Standard Hebrew Parʿo, Tiberian Hebrew Parʿōh) is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ... nomen or birth name Granite statue of Pharaoh Thutmose III Thutmose III (also written as Tuthmosis III; called Manahpi(r)ya in the Amarna letters) (d. ... This article is about the land called Canaan. ... The Amarna letters is the name popularly given to a cache of correspondence, mostly diplomatic, found at Amarna, the modern name for the capital of the Egyptian New Kingdom primarily from the reign of pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known as Akhenaten (1369 - 1353 BCE). ... Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC - 800s BC - 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC Events and Trends 804 BC - Hadad-nirari IV of Assyria conquers Damascus. ...


Jaffa is mentioned in the Book of Joshua as the border of the Tribe of Dan's territory. It appears that many of the descendants of Dan, for whom the entire coastal plain is named (Gush Dan), lived along the shore and earned their living from shipmaking and sailing. This is mentioned in the "Song of Deborah" the prophetess, in her complaint "דן למה יגור אוניות": "Why will Dan dwell in ships?" [1], for Dan did not help Judge Barak Ben Avinoam in their war. The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Tribe of Dan (דָּן Judge, Standard Hebrew Dan, Tiberian Hebrew Dān) is one of the Hebrew tribes, which the bible claims was founded by Dan, son of Jacob and Bilhah, Rachels maidservant (Genesis 30:4). ... Dan (דָּן Judge, Standard Hebrew Dan, Tiberian Hebrew Dān) is one of the sons of Jacob and Bilhah, Rachels maidservant (Genesis 30:4). ... In geography, a coastal plain is an area of flat, low-lying land adjacent to a seacoast and separated from the interior by other features. ... Gush Dan (Hebrew גּוּשׁ דָּן, Standard Hebrew Guš Dan) is the Hebrew name of the Tel Aviv metropolitan area including areas from both the Tel Aviv District and the Central District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast. ... Deborah or Dvora (דְּבוֹרָה Bee, Standard Hebrew Dəvora, Tiberian Hebrew Dəḇôrāh) was the fourth judge and only female judge of pre-monarchy Israel in the Old Testament / Tanakh. ... Barak (בָּרָק Lightning, Standard Hebrew Baraq, Tiberian Hebrew Bārāq) is one of the judges from the Book of Judges in the Bible. ...


King David and his son King Solomon conquered Jaffa and ruled it, and via its port the cedars which were used in the construction of the First Temple arrived from Tyre. The city remained in Jewish hands even after the split of the Kingdom of Israel. In 701 BC the city port was used by Sennacherib, king of Assyria, to invade Israel in the time of King Hezekiah (חזקיהו). This page is about the Biblical king David. ... Solomon or Shlomo (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה; Standard Hebrew: Å É™lomo; Tiberian Hebrew: Å É™lōmōh, meaning peace) in the Tanakh (Old Testament), also called Jedidiah, was the fourth and last King of united Israel (including Judah), builder of the temple in Jerusalem, renowned for his great wisdom and wealth and power, but also... Species Cedrus deodara Cedrus libani    var. ... Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ... Tyre (Arabic الصور aṣ-Ṣūr native Phoenician Ṣur, ) is an ancient Phoenician city in Lebanon on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, about 23 miles, in a direct line, north of Acre, and 20 south of Sidon. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew: מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʼel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YiÅ›rāʼēl) was the Kingdom proclaimed by the Israelite nation around 1050 BCE. The nation itself was formed as the Israelites left the Land of Goshen, Egypt during the Exodus at an uncertain date, often... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Sennacherib in his chariot Sennacherib (in Akkadian Sin-ahhe-eriba, Sin (the moon god) has taken the place of brothers to me) was the son of Sargon II, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria in (705–681 BC). ... Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the city of Asshur (or Ashshur). ... Hezekiah (which means whom God has strengthened) was king of Judah, the son of Ahaz (2 Kings 18:1; 2 Chronicles 29:1). ...


Jaffa was a Seleucid port, until the Maccabean rebel princes took it (1 Maccabees x.76, xiv.5). During the Jewish Revolt, Jaffa was taken and burned by Cestius and 8000 inhabitants were massacred (according to Josephus). Pirates operating from the rebuilt port incurred the wrath of Vespasian, who razed the city and erected a citadel in its place, in which he placed a Roman garrison. The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... The Maccabees were a Jewish family who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was probably written about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... The Great Jewish Revolt (66–73 CE), sometimes called The first Jewish-Roman War, was the first of two major rebellions by the Jews of Judea against the Roman Empire (the second was Bar Kokhbas revolt in 132-135). ... Josephus (c. ... A pirate digging for treasure. ... Emperor Vespasian Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 18, CE 9 – June 23, 79), originally known as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and best known as Vespasian, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... This article is about a type of fortification. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ...


Christian Jaffa

According to the New Testament it was at Jaffa that St. Peter raised to life the widow Tabitha, a name interpreted Dorcas (Acts, ix, 36-42), whose tomb is still the object of popular pilgrimage. Being unimportant during the first centuries of Christianity, Jaffa did not have a bishop until the fifth century AD. It was captured during the Crusades, and became the County of Jaffa and Ascalon, one of the vassals of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. One of its counts, John of Ibelin, wrote the principal book of the Assizes of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. During the period of the Crusades, the Jewish traveller Benjamin of Tudela (1170) sojourned at Jaffa, and found there just one Jew , a dyer by trade. Saladin took it in 1187. It was surrendered to King Richard the Lionheart in 1192. The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Tabitha is a female given name. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... This article is about the medieval Crusades . ... The Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, created in 1099, was divided into a number of smaller seigneuries. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a short-lived country established in the 12th century by the First Crusade. ... John of Ibelin (1215– December, 1266), count of Jaffa and Ascalon, was a noted jurist and the author of the longest legal treatise from the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... Benjamin of Tudela was a medieval Spanish Jewish Rabbi, traveler and explorer. ... This article is about the Muslim general, for the British armoured vehicle named after him, see Alvis Saladin. ... Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ... Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ...


According to the traveler Cotwyk, Jaffa was a heap of ruins at the end of the 16th century.


The Ottoman period

Napoleon captures Jaffa

On March 7, 1799 Napoleon I of France captured Jaffa and his troops proceeded to kill more than 2,000 Albanian captives. March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in Leap years). ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Bonaparte as general, by Antoine-Jean Gros. ...


Rabbi Kook becomes Jaffa's chief rabbi

Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook was chief rabbi of Jaffa from 1904-1921.
Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook was chief rabbi of Jaffa from 1904-1921.

In 1904 Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook (1864-1935) moved to the Land of Israel and took up the position of chief rabbi of Jaffa: Popular common picture of a smiling Rabbi A.Y. Kook. ... Abraham Isaac Kook (1864 - 1935) is known in Hebrew as הרב אברהם יצחק הכהן קוק HaRav Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook, and by the acronym HaRaAYaH. Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook The first official Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of then British-controlled Palestine (a position which was later succeeded by that of Chief... Chief rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that countrys Jewish community. ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... brendan is gay ... Abraham Isaac Kook (1864 - 1935) is known in Hebrew as הרב אברהם יצחק הכהן קוק HaRav Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook, and by the acronym HaRaAYaH. Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook The first official Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of then British-controlled Palestine (a position which was later succeeded by that of Chief... 1864 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ ישראל Eretz Yisrael) is the land that made up the ancient Jewish Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. ... Chief rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that countrys Jewish community. ...

In 1904, he came to the Land of Israel to assume the rabbinical post in Jaffa, which also included responsibility for the new secular Zionist agricultural settlements nearby. His influence on people in different walks of life was already noticeable, as he attempted to introduce Torah and Halakha into the life of the city and the settlements. [2]

In 1921 Rabbi Kook moved to Jerusalem when he was apponited as the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of the British Mandate of Palestine and is still regarded as Israel's first chief rabbi as well. Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the... Halakha (הלכה or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish rabbinic law, custom and tradition. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jerusalem (31°46′ N 35°14′ E; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim; Arabic: القدس al-Quds; see also names of Jerusalem) is an ancient Middle Eastern city of key importance to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ...


End of Ottoman rule

In 1917, the Ottomans banished all of the Jaffa's residents as they feared the British army would occupy the city. The British did indeed occupy the city (see Sinai and Palestine Campaign), but let its residents return after a year. 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Sinai and Palestine Campaign during World War I: Sinai campaign Battle of Romani Battle of Magdhaba Battle of Rafa Palestine campaign First Battle of Gaza Second Battle of Gaza Third Battle of Gaza Battle of Beersheba Battle of Megiddo Categories: Battles of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign ...


Under the British mandate

Jaffa was well known for its cash crops such as citrus and bananas. In 1945, Arabs planted 146,316 dunams with citrus, and Jews planted 66,403 dunams. (One dunam equals 1196 square yards.) Until the establishment of Tel Aviv and the era of the British Mandate of Palestine, Jaffa was the most advanced city in Palestine in the development of its commercial, banking, fishing, and agriculture industries. Jaffa had many factories specializing in cigarette making, cement making, tile and roof tile production, iron casting, cotton processing plants, traditional handmade carpets, leather products, wood box industry for Jaffa orange, textile, presses and publications. It should also be noted that the majority of all publications and newspapers in Palestine were published in Jaffa. Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantium Citrus limetta Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus x aurantifolia - Lime Citrus x hystrix - Kaffir Lime Citrus x ichangensis - Ichang Lemon Citrus x limon - Lemon Citrus x limonia - Rangpur Citrus x paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus x sinensis - Sweet... Species Hybrid origin; see text A banana is a tree-like plant (though strictly a herb) of the genus Musa in the family Musaceae, closely related to plantains. ... A dunam (or dönüm) is a unit of land area enclosing 1000 square metres. ... This article is about the unit of measure known as the yard. ... Tel Aviv at night Dizengof Center Allenby Street Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew תל אביב-יפו; Arabic تل ابيب-يافا Tal Abīb-Yāfā) is an Israeli city on the coast of the Mediterranean sea. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


During 1917-1920, there were thousands of Jewish residents in Jaffa. A wave of Arab pogrom attacks during 1920 and 1921 (known as the Meoraot Tarpa by the Jews) caused many Jewish residents to flee and resettle in Tel Aviv. The 1921 riots started on a May Day parade (May 1, 1921) which soon turned into a violent event. The Arab rioters started attacking Jewish people and buildings, and among their victims were the residents of "The House of Immigrants" and the Jewish author Yosef Haim Brenner. A pogrom (from Russian: погром (meaning wreaking of havoc) is a massive violent attack on a particular ethnic or religious group with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Tel Aviv at night Dizengof Center Allenby Street Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew תל אביב-יפו; Arabic تل ابيب-يافا Tal Abīb-Yāfā) is an Israeli city on the coast of the Mediterranean sea. ... May Day is a name for various holidays celebrated on May 1 (or in the beginning of May). ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Yosef Haim Brenner, alternately Yosef Chaim Brenner, (1881 - 1921) was a Ukrainian-born Hebrew-language author, one of the pioneers of literature in modern Hebrew. ...


At the end of 1922 Jaffa had 32,000 residents while Tel Aviv had 15,000. However, in 1927, Tel Aviv had 38,000 residents. The Jews of Jaffa lived on the outskirt of Jaffa, close to Tel Aviv. The old city of Jaffa, which was controlled by the Arabs, was almost empty of Jews. During the 1930s both cities had a combined population of 80,000 residents. 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Great Arab Uprising

The 1936-1939 Great Arab uprising caused Jaffa great damage and loss of economical power. The Great Uprising, or Great Revolt, was a violent rebellion by Arabs in the British Mandate of Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ...

  • Urban warfare between the British forces and Arab rioters caused much destruction to the city's narrow alleys. The British demolished many houses belonging to rioters and militants.
  • Jewish and British citizens preferred to do their business in safer places, and therefore moved their businesses out of Jaffa.
  • As a reaction to the strike of the Arab seaport workers, the Jews built a modern seaport in Tel Aviv, which stopped the dependence on Jaffa's Arab seaport and caused Jaffa to lose a major source of income.

Urban warfare simulations are part of U.S. Army war exercises. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... Tel Aviv at night Dizengof Center Allenby Street Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew תל אביב-יפו; Arabic تل ابيب-يافا Tal Abīb-Yāfā) is an Israeli city on the coast of the Mediterranean sea. ...

The 1948 Arab-Israeli War

Prior to the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the UN's Special Commission on Palestine in 1947 recommended that Jaffa would become part of the planned Jewish state, but due to the large Arab majority it had been redesignated as an enclave in the Arab state before the 1947 UN Partition Plan was adopted by the General Assembly. // The 1948 Arab-Israeli War, called the War of Independence (Hebrew: מלחמת העצמאות) by Israelis and al Nakba (Arabic: النكبة, the catastrophe) by Arabs, was the first in a series of wars in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Map showing the UN Partition Plan. ...


The Arabs rejected the plan and the day following November 29, 1947, launched a wave of riots and attacks on nearby Jewish settlements. During December 1947, Arab residents of Jaffa and the nearby Salame village attacked the "The Hope Neighborhood" (Shechunat ha-Tikva) in Tel Aviv. As a result, the Irgun started to launch counter-raids against Jaffa, often also hurting the civilian population. In February 1948, Jewish workers were slain by the Arabs in a factory after being disarmed by the British. The killing caused a great uprising and Jaffa became a battle ground between Arabs and Jews. On March 13, 1948, the first Davidka mortars were used and the bombardment caused many Arab residents to flee, although the noise created by the mortar was much larger than the damage it caused. November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Tel Aviv at night Dizengof Center Allenby Street Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew תל אביב-יפו; Arabic تل ابيب-يافا Tal Abīb-Yāfā) is an Israeli city on the coast of the Mediterranean sea. ... Irgun poster showing their view of the Land of Israel Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a paramilitary Zionist group that operated in the British Mandate of Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... February is the second month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Soldier Firing the M224 60mm Mortar. ...


On May 25, 1948, the Irgun (Etzel) paramilitary group began an assault on the city, occasioning the mass flight of most of the inhabitants. At one stage British forces engaged the Irgun in battle, but they did not commit enough resources to defend the city. Later, Hagannah fighters assisted the Etzel. A formal surrender to the Jewish forces was made on May 13, one day before the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel. To comemorate the conquest of Jaffa, the "Conquest Garden" was planted in the city. Irgun poster showing their view of the Land of Israel Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a paramilitary Zionist group that operated in the British Mandate of Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... Etzel is the Hebrew acronym of Irgun, an organisation considered as terrorist by many the name of Attila the Hun in the Nibelungenlied This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Haganah (Hebrew: Defense, הגנה) was a Zionist military organization in Palestine during the British mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ...


Prior to May 1948 the average Arab population of around 75,000 was already down to 55,000. On the day of surrender less than three weeks later, only about 4,500 Arabs remained. Most of the Arab population fled, while others, particularly the poor segments living in Jaffa's Old City, remained. They form the basis of the modern Arab population of Jaffa.


Displacement of the Arab Population

Stop! The neutrality of this section is disputed.

in what he called 'a shameful and distressing spectacle'." Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Modern Jaffa

By the beginning of the twentieth century, the population of Jaffa had swelled considerably and new suburbs were built on the sand dunes along the coast. By 1909, the new Jewish suburbs north of Jaffa were reorganized as the city of Tel Aviv. Tel Aviv at night Dizengof Center Allenby Street Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew תל אביב-יפו; Arabic تل ابيب-يافا Tal Abīb-Yāfā) is an Israeli city on the coast of the Mediterranean sea. ...


Modern Jaffa has a heterogeneous population of Jews, Christians, and Muslims. The city is now an integral part of the municipality of Tel Aviv-Yafo. Tel Aviv at night Dizengof Center Allenby Street Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew תל אביב-יפו; Arabic تل ابيب-يافا Tal Abīb-Yāfā) is an Israeli city on the coast of the Mediterranean sea. ...


Jaffa is a major tourist attraction with an exciting combination of old, new and restored. It offers art galleries, souvenir shops, exclusive restaurants, sidewalk cafes, boardwalks and shopping opportunities and a rich variety of culture, entertainment and food (fish restaurants).

Download high resolution version (1200x900, 217 KB)picture by Yann Forget, uploaded from fr. ... Download high resolution version (1200x900, 217 KB)picture by Yann Forget, uploaded from fr. ... There are eight (nine) gates in Jerusalems Old City Walls. ... Jerusalem (31°46′ N 35°14′ E; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim; Arabic: القدس al-Quds; see also names of Jerusalem) is an ancient Middle Eastern city of key importance to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ...

Restoration of the Old City

The poverty of the population threatened the continuation of active life in Jaffa as a thriving city. In 1968, the government of Israel and the Tel Aviv-Jaffa municipality decided to establish a corporation for the development of Old Jaffa, entrusting to it the task of averting the total destruction of Old Jaffa's glorious past. 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ...


Old Jaffa has since become one of Israel's tourist attractions. It is filled with artists' quarters, studios and art galleries. Shops catering for Judaica, archaeology, jewelry and art, line its narrow alleys which are named after the signs of the Zodiac. This article is about the astrological concept. ...


Visitors arriving at Ben-Gurion Airport in Israel can hear about the old homes in a booklet called "The Opinionated Tourist Guide". The guide is given to tourists, who can read that "the most beautiful homes in the country are the old Arab ones made of stone, built in the early part of the century, that dot the capital and some streets of Haifa and Jaffa. They cost a fortune, however: a price of $1,000,000 is not uncommon and there are not many of them for sale." Front view of Terminal 1 at Ben Gurion International Airport Ben Gurion International Airport or Ben Gurion Airport, (named after David Ben-Gurion), located near Lod and once known as Lod Airport, is 15 km southeast of Tel Aviv, and is the largest international airport in Israel. ...


Places to see

  • The Clock Square, built in 1906 in honor of Sultan Abed al-Hamid II's 25th anniversary, became the center of Jaffa, and it is centered between Jaffa's markets.
  • The Abulafia bakery in Yeffeth Street (the main street of Jaffa) is a famous restaurant and a symbol of Jewish-Arab coexistence.
  • Mahamoudia Mosque which was built by Abu Nabut (the city governor during the 19th century) and includes a water fountain (Savil) for pilgrims.
  • St. Peter Church, a Franciscan church, built in the 19th century on the remains of Crusaders' fortress, which serves also as a hostel. It is told that Napoleon stayed in that church while it was a hostel.
  • The Andromeda rock, according to legends this was the rock to which beautiful Andromeda was chained.
  • The Zodiac alleys, a network of restored alleys, full with art galleries, which lead to the Jaffa seaport.
  • Jaffa's Old Seaport.
  • Jaffa's Hill, a center for archeological excavations of the ancient cities. The most ancient are the Ancient Egyptian gates, about 3,500 years old, which were restored.
  • The Libyan Synagogue called Beit Zunana was purchased by the Jewish landlord Zunana in the 18th century. During the 19th century it stopped being used as a synagogue, and became a hostel and later a soap factory. In 1948 it was re-established as a synagogue for Libyan Jewish immigrants, and in 1995 it became a museum.

1906 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings muslim monarch ruling under the terms of shariah The title carries moral weight and religious authority, as the rulers role was defined in the Quran. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Bonaparte as general, by Antoine-Jean Gros. ... Paul Gustave Doré painted Andromeda exposed to the sea-monster, nude, as she is depicted in the story. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... A synagogue or synagog (from Greek συναγωγη, transliterated sunagoge, place of assembly literally meeting, assembly) is a Jewish house of prayer and study. ... This article is about a common cleaning mixture. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A museum is typically a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment. ...

References

  • Morris, Benny. The Birth of the Palestine Refugee Problem. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Nakhleh, Issa. Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem. (2 vols.). New York: Intercontinental Books, 1991.
  • Palumbo, Michael. The Palestinian Catastrophe: The 1948 Expulsion of a People from their Homeland. Boston: Faber and Faber, 1987.
  • Quigley, John. Palestine and Israel: A Challenge to Justice. Durham: Duke University Press, 1990.
  • Segev, Tom. The First Israelis. New York: The Free Press, 1986.
  • Silver, Eric. Begin: The Haunted Prophet. New York: Random House, 1984.

External links

  • Tel Aviv official website (English) (Hebrew)
  • Arab Jaffa seized before Israel's creation in 1948. Washington Report on Middle East Affairs.
  • Jewish Encyclopedia: Jaffa
  • Jacqueline Schaalje, "Jaffa"
  • "Web Site of the Palestinian Arab City of Jaffa". By: Norman Ali Khalaf. (English and German). Palestinian perspective.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jaffa, Israel - definition of Jaffa, Israel - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (1325 words)
During the Crusades it was the centre of the County of Jaffa, part of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The capture of Jaffa differed from the earlier conquests in that under the U.N. plan it was supposed to remain as a Palestinian enclave between neighbouring Tel Aviv and areas to the south and east designated as part of the Jewish state.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, the population of Jaffa had swelled considerably and new suburbs were built on the sand dunes along the coast.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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