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Encyclopedia > Jade
A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons
A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons
Unworked Jade
Unworked Jade

Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. Nephrite jade consists of the calcium- and magnesium-rich amphibole mineral actinolite (aggregates of which also make up one form of asbestos). The rock called jadeitite consists almost entirely of jadeite, a sodium- and aluminium-rich pyroxene. Download high resolution version (700x769, 137 KB)A selection of antique, hand-made Chinese jadeite jade buttons. ... Download high resolution version (700x769, 137 KB)A selection of antique, hand-made Chinese jadeite jade buttons. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An ornamental stone is a stone used as a decoration. ... The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. ... There is also a community named Actinolite,_Ontario in Canada. ... For the logical fallacy, see Amphibology. ... Well-cleaved, dark, fine-grained chlorite-actinolite metadiabase intrudes light granitic gneiss Actinolite is an inosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Ca2(MgFe)5Si8O22(OH)2 // Mineralogy Actinolite is an intermediate member in a series between tremolite (Mg-rich) and ferro-actinolite (Fe-rich). ... Fibrous asbestos on muscovite Asbestos Asbestos Asbestos (a misapplication of Latin: asbestos quicklime from Greek : a, not and sbestos, extinguishable) describes any of a group of minerals that can be fibrous, many of which are metamorphic and are hydrous magnesium silicates. ... Jadeitite is a rare metamorphic rock found in blueschist grade metamorphic terrains. ... Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral with composition NaAlSi2O6. ... Figure 1:Mantle-peridotite xenolith with green peridot olivine and black pyroxene crystals from San Carlos Indian Reservation, Gila Co. ...


The English word 'jade' is derived from the Spanish term piedra de ijada (first recorded in 1565) or 'loin stone', from its reputed efficacy in curing ailments of the loins and kidneys. 'Nephrite' is derived from lapis nephriticus, the Latin version of the Spanish piedra de ijada.[1]


Because both were used by Stone and Bronze Age cultures for similar purposes, and they are both about as hard as quartz, exceptionally tough, beautifully coloured and can be delicately shaped, it was not until the 19th century that a French mineralogist determined that "jade" was in fact two different materials. In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed. ...


During the Stone Age of many cultures, jade was used for axe heads, knives, and other weapons. As metal-working technologies became available, jade's beauty made it valuable for ornaments and decorative objects. Jade has a Mohs hardness of between 6.5 and 7.0 [1], so it can be worked with quartz or garnet sand, and polished with bamboo or even ground jade. Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... traditional Norse knife A knife is a sharp-edged hand tool used for cutting. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ...


Nephrite can be found in a creamy white form (known in China as "mutton fat" jade) as well as in a variety of green colours, whereas jadeitite shows more colour variations, including dazzling blue, lavender-mauve, pink and emerald-green colours. Of the two, jadeite is rarer, documented in less than 12 places worldwide. Translucent emerald-green jadeitite is the most prized variety, both now and historically. As "quetzal" jade, bright green jadeitite from Guatemala was treasured by Mesoamerican cultures, and as "kingfisher" jade, vivid green rocks from Burma became the preferred stone of post-1800 Chinese imperial scholars and rulers. Burma (Myanmar) and Guatemala are the principal sources of modern gem jadeitite, and Canada of modern lapidary nephrite. Nephrite jade was used mostly in pre-1800 China as well as in New Zealand, the Pacific Coast and Atlantic Coasts of North America, Neolithic Europe, and southeast Asia. In addition to Mesoamerica, jadeitite was used by Neolithic Japanese and European cultures. The cultural areas of Mesoamerica Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Spanish: Mesoamérica) was a geographical culture area extending from central Honduras and northwestern Costa Rica on the south, and, in Mexico, from the Soto la Marina River in Tamaulipas and the Rio Fuerte in Sinaloa on the north. ...


Jade is the official gemstone of British Columbia, where it is found in large deposits in the Lillooet and Cassiar regions. It is also the official gemstone of the state of Alaska, found particularly in the Kobuk area. A two ton block of jade sits outside the Anchorage Visitor’s Center in downtown Anchorage, Alaska, mined from near Kobuk and donated to the city as a showpiece. This is a list of the symbols of Canadian provinces and territories. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 5th 944,735 km² 925,186 km² 19,549 km... Lillooet (formerly Cayoosh Flat) is a small but historic and highly scenic community on the Fraser River in western Canada, about 240 kilometres (150 miles) up the British Columbia Railway line from Vancouver. ... Cassiar is a ghost town in the province of British Columbia, Canada. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Kobuk is a city located in Northwest Arctic Borough, Alaska. ... Nickname: The City of Lights and Flowers Motto: BIG WILD LIFE Location in the state of Alaska Coordinates: Borough Municipality of Anchorage Government  - Mayor Mark Begich (D) Area  - City 5,079. ...

Contents

History

A Chinese Yuan Dynasty jade-carved dragon-head, 14th century, Freer Gallery of Art.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The entrance to the Freer Gallery. ...

Prehistoric and Historic China

During Neolithic times, the key known sources of nephrite jade in China for utilitarian and ceremonial jade items were the now depleted deposits in the Ningshao area in the Yangtze River Delta (Liangzhu culture 34002250 BC) and in an area of the Liaoning province in Inner Mongolia (Hongshan culture 47002200 BC). Jade was used to create many utilitarian and ceremonial objects, ranging from indoor decorative items to jade burial suits. Jade was considered the "imperial gem". From about the earliest Chinese dynasties until present, the jade deposits in most use were not only from the region of Khotan in the Western Chinese province of Xinjiang but also from other parts of Chian,like Lantian,Shaanxi. There, white and greenish nephrite jade is found in small quarries and as pebbles and boulders in the rivers flowing from the Kuen-Lun mountain range northward into the Takla-Makan desert area. River jade collection was concentrated in the Yarkand, the White Jade (Yurungkash) and Black Jade (Karakash) Rivers. From the Kingdom of Khotan, on the southern leg of the Silk Road, yearly tribute payments consisting of the most precious white jade were made to the Chinese Imperial court and there transformed into objets d'art by skilled artisans as jade was considered more valuable than gold or silver. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Yangtze River Delta The Yangtze River Delta (Chinese 长江三角洲/長江三角洲 chángjiāng sānjiÇŽozhōu) or Yangtze Delta, generally comprises the triangular-shaped territory of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province. ... The Liangzhu jade culture (3400-2250 BC) was the last Neolithic jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta of China and was spaced over a period of about 1300 years. ... (35th century BC - 34th century BC - 33rd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Stage IIIa2 of the Naqada culture in Egypt (dated in 1998) Significant persons Ur-Nina first king of Lagash in Mesopotamia (c. ... (Redirected from 2250 BC) (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia 2217 - 2193 BC - Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2205 BC - Foundation of the Xia... Liaoning (Simplified Chinese: 辽宁; Traditional Chinese: 遼寧; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... The Hongshan culture (红山文化) was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China. ... // Events 4860 BC - Mount Mazama in Oregon collapses, forming a caldera that later fills with water and becomes Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. ... (Redirected from 2200 BC) (23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - 21st century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2217 - 2193 BC -- Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2181 BC -- Egypt: End of Egypt: End of Seventh Dynasty, start of Eighth Dynasty 2160 BC -- Egypt: End... A jade burial suit (Chinese: 金縷玉衣; pinyin: ; literally gold-threaded jade suit) is a ceremonial suit made of pieces of jade in which some nobles in Han Dynasty China were buried. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... Region containing Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun mountain range (崑崙山) is one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3000 km. ... The Taklamakan is a desert of Central Asia, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Yarkand River is a river in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of western China. ... The White Jade River (Chinese: 白玉江) is a river in the Taklamakan desert of China. ... The Karakash or Black Jade River flows from its origin near Sumde on the northern slopes of the Karakorum Mountain range, the actual Aksai Chin on the Tibetan Plateau westward along the northern crest range of the Kuen Luns. ... The Kingdom of Khotan is an ancient Buddhist kingdom that was located on the branch of the Silk road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim basin. ... The Silk Road. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ...


Jadeitite, with its bright emerald-green, pink, lavender, orange and brown colours was imported from Burma to China only after about 1800. The vivid green variety became known as Feicui (翡翠) or Kingfisher (feathers) Jade. It quickly replaced nephrite as the imperial variety of jade.


Prehistoric and Historic Korea

The use of jade and other greenstone was a long-term tradition in Korea (c. 850 B.C. - A.D. 668). The craft production of small comma-shaped and tubular 'jades' using materials such as jade, microcline, jasper, etc in southern Korea originates from the Middle Mumun Pottery Period (c. 850-550 B.C.), when such ornaments appeared in burials and pit-house floors (Bale and Ko 2006). Comma-shaped jades are found on some of the gold crowns of Silla royalty (c. A.D. 300/400-668) and sumptuous elite burials of the Korean Three Kingdoms. After the state of Silla united the Korean Peninsula in A.D. 668, the widespread popularisation of death rituals related to Buddhism resulted in the decline of the use of jade in burials as prestige mortuary goods.. Korea (Korean: 한국 or 조선, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... The term comma has various uses; comma is the name used for one of the punctuation symbols: , The term comma is also used in music theory for various small intervals that arise as differences between approximately equal intervals. ... Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock forming tectosilicate mineral. ... Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... For the musician, see Burial (musician). ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Look up elite, élite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Three Kingdoms of Korea were Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. The Three Kingdoms period in Korea is usually considered to run from the 4th century CE until Sillas triumph over Goguryeo in 668. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion and a philosophy. ...


Māori

Nephrite jade in New Zealand is known as pounamu in the Māori language, and is highly valued, playing an important role in Māori culture. It is considered a taonga, or treasure, and therefore protected under the Treaty of Waitangi, and the exploitation of it is restricted and closely monitored. The South Island of New Zealand is Te Wai Pounamu in Māori - "The [land of] Greenstone Water" - because greenstone used to be easily obtainable in rivers. An alternative (and more probable) Maori place-name for the South Island is Te Wahi Pounamu -"The Place of Greenstone". Pounamu is the Maori word for greenstone (not to be confused with greenstone belts). ... Māori or Te Reo Māori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ... Languages Māori, English Religions Māori religion, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Polynesian peoples, Austronesian peoples The word Māori refers to the indigenous people of New Zealand and their language. ... ... Taonga is the Maori word for a treasured thing, whether tangible or intangible. ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) was signed on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. ... The South Island The South Island is one of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the North Island. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ...


Weapons and ornaments were made of it; in particular the 'mere' (short club), and the Hei-tiki (neck pendant). These were believed to have their own mana, handed down as valuable heirlooms, and often given as gifts to seal important agreements. With no metal tools, it was also used for a range of tools such as adzes. A mere is a Maori war club about 12 inches (30 cm) in length. ... In Polynesian mythology (specifically: Maori), Tiki is the first man, created by either Tu Matauenga or Tane. ... Mana is a traditional term that refers to a concept among the speakers of Oceanic languages, including Melanesians, Polynesians, and Micronesians. ... Adze The tool known as the adze [pronounced adds] serves for smoothing rough-cut wood in hand woodworking. ...


In New Zealand English the normal term is "greenstone" and jewellery of it in Māori designs is widely popular with locals of all races, and with tourists - although much of the jade itself is now imported from British Columbia and elsewhere. New Zealand English (NZE) is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Greenstone is a name given to several different types of mineral. ... Amber jewellery in the form of pendants. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 5th 944,735 km² 925,186 km² 19,549 km...


Mesoamerica

Jade pendant, found in a tomb in Tikal, Guatemala
Jade pendant, found in a tomb in Tikal, Guatemala

Jade was a rare and valued material in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. The only source from which the various indigenous cultures, such as the Olmec and Maya, for example, could obtain jade was located in the Motagua River valley in Guatemala. Jade was largely an elite good, and was usually carved in a variety ways, whether serving as a medium upon which hieroglyphs were inscribed, or shaped into symbolic figurines. Generally, the material was highly symbolic, and it was often employed in the performance of ideological practices and rituals. Pectoral decoration from the Maya area (195mm high) Jade use in Mesoamerica was largely influenced by the conceptualization of the material as a rare and valued commodity among pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, such as the Olmec, the Maya, and the various groups in the Valley of Mexico. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x604, 510 KB) Jade pendant from Tikal, Guatemala File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jade User:DVD R W Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x604, 510 KB) Jade pendant from Tikal, Guatemala File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jade User:DVD R W Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Tikal Temples I, II and III Tikal (or Tik’al, according to the more current orthography) is the largest of the ancient ruined cities of the Maya civilization. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The cultural areas of Mesoamerica Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Spanish: Mesoamérica) was a geographical culture area extending from central Honduras and northwestern Costa Rica on the south, and, in Mexico, from the Soto la Marina River in Tamaulipas and the Rio Fuerte in Sinaloa on the north. ... The word indigenous is an adjective derived from the Latin word indigena, meaning native, belonging to, aboriginal; and has several applications: Indigenous peoples, communities and cultures native or indigenous to a territory; Indigenous (band), a Native American blues-rock band; In biology, indigenous means native to a place or biota... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... 74. ... The Motagua River is a 400km long river in Guatemala. ... Look up elite, élite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A hieroglyph is one part of an ideographic writing system that is often found carved in stone. ... A rare Dresden porcelain figurine Figurine is a diminutive form of the word figure, and generally refers to a small human-made statue that represents a human (or deity or animal). ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ...


Today, Guatemala produces jadeite in a variety of colours, ranging from soft translucent lilac, blue, green, yellow, and black. It is also the source of new colours, including "rainbow jade" and the unique "Galactic Gold," a black jadeite with natural incrustations of gold, silver and platinum. [2]


Other names

Besides the terms already mentioned, jadeite and nephrite are sometimes referred to by the following:


Jadeite

Agate verdâtre, Feitsui, Jadeit, Jadeita, Natronjadeit, Yunnan Jade, Yu-stone, Sinkiang jade


Nephrite

Aotea, Axe-stone, B.C. Jade, Beilstein, Grave Jade, Kidney Stone, Lapis Nephriticus, Nephrit, Nephrita, Nephrite (of Werner), New Zealand Greenstone, New Zealand Jade, Spinach Jade, Talcum Nephriticus, Tomb Jade


Faux Jade

Many minerals are sold as jade. Some of these are: serpentine (also bowenite), carnelian, aventurine quartz, glass, grossularite, Vesuvianite, soapstone (and other steatites such as shoushan stone) and recently, Australian chrysoprase. "Korean jade," "Suzhou jade," "Styrian jade," "Canadian jade," "Olive jade" and "New jade" are all really serpentine; "Transvaal jade" is grossularite. Serpentine Serpentine is a group of common rock-forming hydrous magnesium iron phyllosilicate ((Mg, Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4) minerals; it may contain minor amounts of other elements including chromium, manganese, cobalt and nickel. ... Imprint of a carnelian seal with Brahmi inscription Kusumadasasya (Flowers servant). 4-5th century CE, probably Punjab. ... Aventurine is a form of quartz, characterised by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral occlusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect termed aventurescence. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. ... Vesuvianite is a green, brown, yellow, or blue metamorphic silicate mineral, Ca10Mg2Al4(SiO4)5(Si2O7)2(OH)4. ... The lid of a soapstone box to show the characteristic look of the stone. ... An Egyptian carved and glazed steatite scarab amulet. ... Chrysoprase (also chrysophrase) is a gemstone variety of chalcedony (fibrous form of quartz) that contains small quantities of nickel. ...


In almost all dictionaries, the Chinese character 'yù' (玉) is translated into English as 'jade'. However, this frequently leads to misunderstanding: Chinese, Koreans, and Westerners alike generally fail to appreciate that the cultural concept of 'jade' is considerably broader in China and Korea than in the West. A more accurate translation for this character on its own would be 'precious/ornamental rock'. It is seldom, if ever, used on its own to denote 'true' jade in Mandarin Chinese; for example, one would normally refer to 'ying yu' (硬玉, 'hard jade') for jadeite, or 'ruan yu' (軟玉, 'soft jade') for nephrite. The Chinese names for many ornamental non-jade rocks also incorporate the character 'yù', and it is widely understood by native speakers that such stones are not, in fact, true precious nephrite or jadeite. Even so, for commercial reasons, the names of such stones may well still be translated into English as 'jade', and this practice continues to confuse the unwary.


Enhancement

Jade may be enhanced (sometimes called "stabilized"). There are three main methods, sometimes referred to as the ABC Treatment System:

  • Type A jadeite has not been treated in any way except surface waxing. This type of jadeite, carat by carat, is the most expensive gem in the world, even more so than diamond.
  • Type B treatment involves exposing a promising but stained piece of jadeite to chemical bleaches and/or acids and impregnating it with a clear polymer resin. This results in a significant improvement of transparency and colour of the material. Currently, infrared spectroscopy is the only test for the detection of polymer in jadeite.
  • Type C jade has been artificially stained or dyed. The red colour of Red jade can be enhanced with heat. The effects are somewhat uncontrollable and may result in a dull brown. In any case, translucency is usually lost.

Type A treatment is the only enhancement acceptable to professional collectors. A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass consisting of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Insect trapped in resin. ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR Spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the IR region of the EM spectrum. ...


See also

A jade burial suit (Chinese: 金縷玉衣; pinyin: ; literally gold-threaded jade suit) is a ceremonial suit made of pieces of jade in which some nobles in Han Dynasty China were buried. ... The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... The Heavenly Horse Tomb, formerly Tomb No. ...

References

  1. ^ Easby, Elizabeth Kennedy. Pre-Columbian Jade from Costa Rica. (1968). André Emmerich Inc., New York
  2. ^ Mesoamerican Jade
  • Bale, Martin T. and Ko, Min-jung. Craft Production and Social Change in Mumun Pottery Period Korea. Asian Perspectives 45(2):159-187, 2006.
  • Scott-Clark, Cathy and Levy, Adrian. (2002) The Stone of Heaven: Unearthing the Secret History of Imperial Green Jade. ISBN 0316525960

Further reading

Professor Dame Jessica Rawson is the Warden of Merton College, Oxford University. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Jade

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