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Encyclopedia > Jacques Maritain
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Important Documents

Rerum Novarum (1891)
Stone Lectures (Princeton 1898)
Graves de Communi Re (1901)
Quadragesimo Anno (1931)
Laborem Exercens (1981)
Sollicitudi Rei Socialis (1987)
Centesimus Annus (1991)
Rerum Novarum is an encyclical issued by Roman Catholic Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... The steeple of Alexander Hall Princeton Theological Seminary is a theological seminary located in Princeton Township, New Jersey in the United States. ... The steeple of Alexander Hall Princeton Theological Seminary is a theological seminary located in Princeton Township, New Jersey in the United States. ... Graves de Communi Re was an encyclical written by Pope Leo XIII in 1901, on Christian Democracy. ... Quadragesimo Anno is an encyclical by Pope Pius XI, issued 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum Novarum (thus the name, Latin for the fortieth year). Written as a response to the Great Depression, it calls for the establishment of a social order based on the principle of subsidiarity. ... Laborem Exercens was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1981, on human work. ... Sollicitudi Rei Socialis was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1987, on the twentieth anniversary of Populorum Progressio. ... Centesimus Annus (which is Latin for 100th year) was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1991, on the 100th anniversary of Rerum Novarum. ...

Important Figures

Aquinas · Leo XIII · Kuyper · Pius XI
Gilson · Maritain · Mounier · Day
Adenauer · De Gasperi · Schuman
Frei · John Paul II · Strauss · Kohl
Ramos · Fox · Merkel
Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Pope Leo XIII, born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... Portrait of Abraham Kuyper by Jan Veth Abraham Kuyper (1837-1920) was born in the town of Maassluis and was a Dutch Calvinist theologian, scholar, and statesman. ... Pius XI (Latin: ), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Etienne Gilson (1884-1978) was a French philosopher and historian, born in Paris. ... Emmanuel Mounier (philosophe français 1905-1950) Mounier was the guiding spirit in the French personalist movement, and founder and director of Esprit, the magazine which is the organ of the movement. ... Dorothy Day was declared Servant of God when a cause for sainthood was opened for her by Pope John Paul II. The Servant of God Dorothy Day (November 8, 1897 – November 29, 1980) was an American journalist turned social activist (she was an Industrial Workers of the World member) and... Konrad Hermann Josef Adenauer (January 5, 1876 – April 19, 1967) was a conservative German statesman. ... Alcide De Gasperi Alcide De Gasperi (3 April 1881 - 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman and politician. ... Robert Schuman (June 29, 1886 – September 4, 1963) was a noted Luxembourg-born French politician, a Christian Democrat (M.R.P.) who is regarded as one of the founders of the European Union. ... Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was the president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef Wojtyła [1] (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church for almost 27 years, from October 16, 1978 until his death, making his the second-longest pontificate, with the exception of St. ... Dr h. ... Dr. Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a Catholic German conservative politician and statesman. ... Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928) was the 12th President of the Philippines. ... Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942; see Iberian naming customs for an explanation on the use of his name) is the current president of Mexico. ... Angela Dorothea Merkel (pronounced //), born in Hamburg, Germany on July 17, 1954 is the current Chancellor of Germany. ...

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Jacques Maritain
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Jacques Maritain

Jacques Maritain (November 18, 1882April 28, 1973) was a French Catholic philosopher. He was a convert to Catholicism and the author of more than 60 books. He is responsible for reviving St. Thomas Aquinas for modern times. Pope Paul VI, a long time friend and mentor of Maritain, presented his "Message to Men of Thought and of Science" at the close of Vatican II to Maritain. Image File history File links Jacques-Maritain. ... Image File history File links Jacques-Maritain. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar with 43 days remaining. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... The Servant of God Pope Paul VI (Latin: ), born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 – August 6, 1978), reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1963 to 1978. ... The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ...

Contents


Life

Maritain was born in Paris, the son of Paul Maritain who was a lawyer and his wife Geneviève Favre, the daughter of Jules Favre and was reared in a liberal Protestant milieu. He was sent to the school, Lycée Henri IV. Later, he attended the Sorbonne, studying the natural sciences; chemistry, biology and physics. The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, as viewed from the Trocadéro This article is about the capital and largest city in France. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: Université de Paris) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganized as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ...


At the Sorbonne, he met Raïssa Oumansoff, a Russian Jewish émigré. They married in 1904. Furthermore, she was his intellectual partner who participated with his search for truth. This article describes some ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity; for a consideration of the Jewish religion, refer to the article Judaism. ... La Vérité by the French painter Jules Joseph Lefebvre Common dictionary definitions of truth mention some form of accord with fact or reality. ...


Soon, he became disenchanted with scientism at the Sorbonne for it could not, for him, address the larger existential issues of life. In light of this disillusionment Jacques and Raïssa made a pact to commit suicide together if they could not discover some deeper meaning to life within a year. Happily they were spared from following through on this because, at the urging of Charles Peguy, they attended the lectures of Henri Bergson at the Collège de France. Along with his deconstructionism of scientism, Bergson instilled in them "the sense of the absolute". Then, through the influence of Léon Bloy, they converted to the Roman Catholic faith in 1906. Scientism is a relatively newly coined word that refers to certain epistemologies based on science. ... Charles P guy (January 7, 1873-September 4, 1914) was a noted French poet and essayist. ... Image:Bergson. ...


The Maritains then moved to Heidelberg in the fall of 1907, where Jacques studied biology under Hans Driesch. Hans Driesch’s theory of neo-vitalism attracted Jacques because of its affinity with Henri Bergson. During this time, Raïssa fell ill and during her convalescence, their spiritual advisor, a Dominican friar named Fr. Humbert Clérissac, introduced her to the writings of St. Thomas Aquinas. So enthusiastic, she, in turn, exhorted her husband to examine the saint’s writings. In Thomas, he found a number of insights and ideas that he had believed all along, he wrote: Hans Adolf Eduard Driesch (October 28, 1867 - April 16, 1941) was a German biologist and philosopher. ...

"Thenceforth, in affirming to myself, without chicanery or dimunition, the authentic value of the reality of our human instruments of knowledge, I was already a Thomist without knowing it…When several months later I came to the Summa Theologiae, I would construct no impediment to its luminous flood."

From the Angelic Doctor (the honorary title of St. Aquinas), he was led to "The Philosopher" as St. Thomas christened him, Aristotle. Still later to further his intellectual development, he read the neo-scholastics. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Media:Example. ...


Beginning in 1912, Maritain taught at the Collège Stanislas and later moved to the Institut Catholique de Paris. For the 1916–1917 academic year, he taught at the Petit Séminaire de Versailles. In 1933, he gave his first lectures in North America in Toronto at the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. He also taught at Columbia University; at the Committee on Social Thought, University of Chicago; at the University of Notre Dame, and at Princeton University. Collège Stanislas, Paris Collège Stanislas de Paris (also Stanislaus College or College Stanislaus) is a private Catholic school in Paris, situated on the Rue Notre Dame in Montparnasse. ... Institut Catholique de Paris or the Catholic Institute of Paris is a university (in France, the term university can only be used for publicly-owned institutions of higher learning - prior to 1880, the institute was known as the University of Paris) devoted to the study of all aspects of Catholicism. ... On the campus of the University of St. ... Columbia University is a private university in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... The University of Notre Dame is a leading Roman Catholic institution of higher learning located in Notre Dame, Indiana, immediately northeast of South Bend, Indiana, United States. ... Princeton University is a coeducational private university located on an extensive campus mostly in the Borough of Princeton and partly in the Princeton Township in New Jersey, United States. ...


From 1945 to 1948, he was the French ambassador to the Vatican. Afterwards, he returned to Princeton University where he achieved the "Elysian status" (as he puts it) as a professor emeritus in 1956.


From 1961, Maritain lived with the Little Brothers of Jesus in Toulouse, France. He long had an influence in the order since its foundation in 1933 and eventually became a Little Brother in 1970. The Little Brothers of Jesus is a Roman Catholic congregation of religious brothers inspired by the life and writings of Charles de Foucauld. ...


Learning the death of his friend Maritain, the Pope Paul VI cried. Jacques and Raïssa Maritain are buried in the cemetery of Kolbsheim, a little French village where he had spent many summers (at his friends' - Antoinette and Alexander Grunelius - castle).


Work

The foundation of Maritain’s thought is Aristotle, St. Thomas and the Thomistic commentators, especially John of St. Thomas. He is eclectic in his use of these sources. Maritain’s philosophy is one based, like his champions, on evidence of being first by the senses and second that which is acquired by an understanding of first principles (metaphysics). Fundamentally, Maritain is a metaphysician who defended philosophy as a science against those who would degrade it. He promoted philosophy as the Queen of sciences. Philosopher in Meditation (detail), by Rembrandt. ...


In 1910, Jacques Maritain’s completed his first contribution to modern philosophy, a 28 page article titled, "Reason and Modern Science" published in Revue de Philosophie, (June issue). In it, he warned that science was becoming a divinity and it methodology usurping the role of reason and philosophy. Science was supplanting the humanities in importance.


In 1917, a committee of French bishops commissioned Jacques to write a series of textbooks to be used in Catholic colleges and seminaries. He wrote and completed only one of these projects titled Elements de Philosophie (Introduction of Philosophy) in 1920. It has been a standard text ever since in many Catholic seminaries. He wrote in his introduction:

"If the philosophy of Aristotle, as revived and enriched by St. Thomas and his school, may rightly be called the Christian philosophy, both because the church is never weary of putting it forward as the only true philosophy and because it harmonizes perfectly with the truths of faith, nevertheless it is not proposed here for the reader's acceptance because it is Christian, but because it is demonstrably true. This agreement between a philosophic system founded by a pagan and the dogmas of revelation is no doubt an external sign, an extra-philosophic guarantee of its truth; but from its own rational evidence, that it derives its authority as a philosophy".

Up to and during WWII, Jacques Maritain protested the policies of the Vichy government while teaching at the Pontifical Institute for Medieval Studies in Canada. "Moving to New York, Maritain became deeply involved in rescue activities, seeking to bring persecuted and threatened academics, many of them Jews, to America. He was instrumental in founding the Ecole Libre des Hautes Etudes, a kind of university in exile that was, at the same time, the center of Gaullist resistance in the United States". (1) After the war, he tried unsuccessfully to have the Pope speak on the issue of anti-semitism and the evils of the Holocaust. Media:Example. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Christian philosophy is a catch-all expression for a two-millennia tradition of rational thought that attempts to fuse the fields of philosophy with the religious teachings of Christianity. ... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France/Free France, United States, China, Canada, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma, Slovakia Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8... The Opera in Vichy. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Selection at the Auschwitz camp in 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ...


Many of his American papers are held by the University of Notre Dame, which established The Jacques Maritain Center in 1957. The Cercle d'Etudes Jacques & Raïssa Maritain is an association founded by the philosopher himself in 1962 in Kolbsheim (near Strasbourg, France), where the couple is also buried. The purpose of these centers is to encourage study and research of Maritain’s thought and expand upon them. It is also absorbed in translating and editing his writings. The University of Notre Dame is a leading Roman Catholic institution of higher learning located in Notre Dame, Indiana, immediately northeast of South Bend, Indiana, United States. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... City flag City coat of arms Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Département Bas-Rhin (67) Région Alsace Mayor Fabienne Keller (UMP) (since 2001) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 78. ...


Metaphysics and Epistemology

Maritain's philosophy is based on the view that metaphysics is prior to epistemology. Being is first apprehended implicitly in sense experience, and is known in two ways. First, being is known reflexively by abstraction from sense experience. One experiences a particular being, e.g. a cup, a dog, etc. and through reflexion ("bending back") on the judgement, e.g. "this is a dog", one recognizes that the object in question is an existent. Second, in light of attaining being reflexively through apprehension of sense experience one may arrive at what Maritain calls "an Intuition of Being". For Maritian this is point of departure for metaphysics, without the intuition of being one cannot be a metaphysician at all. The intuition of being involves rising to the apprehension of ens secundum quod est ens (being insofar as it is a being). In Existence and the Existent he explains: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Knowledge. ...


"It is being, attained or perceived at the summit of an abstractive intellection, of an eiditic or intensive visualization which owes its purity and power of illumination only to the fact that the intellect, one day, was stirred to its depths and trans-illuminated by the impact of the act of existing apprehended in things, and because it was quickened to the point of receiving this act, or hearkening to it, within itself, in the intelligible and super-intelligible integrity of the tone particular to it." (p. 20)


In view of this priority given to metaphysics Maritain advocates an epistemology he calls "Critical Realism". Maritain's epistemology is not "critical" in Kant's sense, which held that one could only know anything after undertaking a thorough critique of one's cognitive abilities. Rather, it is critical in the sense that it is not a naive or non-philosophical realism, but one that is defended by way of reason. Against Kant's critical project Maritain argues that epistemology is reflexive, you can only defend a theory of knowledge in light of knowledge you have already attained. Consequently, the critical question is not the question of modern philosophy - how do we pass from what is perceived to what is. Rather, "Since the mind, from the very start, reveals itself as warranted in its certittude by things and measured by an esse independent of itself, how are we to judge if, how, on what conditions, and to what extent it is so both in principle and in the various moments of knowledge?"


In contrast idealism inevitably ends up in contradiction, since it does not recognize the universal scope of the first principles of identity, contradiction, and finality. These become merely laws of thought or language, but not of being, which opens the way to contradictions being instantiated in reality.


Maritain's metaphysics ascends from this account of being to a critique of the philosophical aspects of modern science, through analogy to an account of the existence and nature of God as it is known philosophically and through mystical experience.


Ethics

Maritain was a strong defender of a natural law ethics. He viewed ethical norms as being rooted in human nature. For Maritain the natural law is known primarily, not through philosophical argument and demonstration, but rather through "Connaturality". Connatural knowledge is a kind of knowledge by acquaintence. We know the natural law through our direct acquaintence with it in our human experience. Of central importance, is Maritain's argument that natural rights are rooted in the natural law. This was key to his involvement in the drafting of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights.


Political Theory

Maritain advocated what he called "Integral Humanism". He argued that secular forms of humanism were inevitably anti-human in that they refused to recognize the whole person. Once the spiritual dimension of human nature is rejected, we no longer have an integral, but merely partial, humanism, one which rejects a fundamental aspect of the human person. Accordingly in Integral Humanism he explores the prospects for a new Christiandom, rooted in his philosophical pluralism, in order to find ways Christianity could inform political discourse and policy in a pluralistic age. In this account he develops a theory of cooperation, to show how people of different intellectual positions can nevertheless cooperate to achieve common practical aims. Maritain's political theory was extremely influential, and was a primary source behind the Christian Democratic movement.


Sayings

  • "Vae mihi si non Thomistizavero" [Woe to me if I do not Thomistize].
  • "Je n’adore que Dieu" [I adore only God].
  • "The artist pours out his creative spirit into a work; the philosopher measures his knowing spirit by the real."
  • "I do not know if Saul Alinsky knows God. But I assure you that God knows Saul Alinsky."

Saul Alinsky off the cover of Let Them Call Me Rebel: Saul Alinsky, His Life and Legacy by Sanford D. Horwitt. ...

References

  • Catholic Encyclopaedia Vol XVI Supplement 1967–1974, by J.W. Evans
  • "Forward" in Introduction to Philosophy, by Stephen J. Vicchio.
  • "The Ambassador & The Pope; Pius XII, Jacques Maritain & the Jews", Michael R. Marrus, Commonweal, Oct. 22, 2004
  • Maritain en notre temps, H. Bars, Paris, 1959.
  • Jacques Maritain: The Man and His Achievement, J. W. Evans, ed., NY, 1963.
  • The Philosophy of Jacques Maritain, C. A. Fecher, Westminister, MD, 1963.
  • The Achievement of Jacques and Raïssa Maritain: A Bibliography, 1906–1961, D. and I. Gallagher, NY, 1962.
  • Jacques Maritain, G. B. Phelan, NY, 1937.

==Writings of Maritain== (His most important and influential works.)

  • The Degrees of Knowledge,
  • Integral Humanism,
  • A Preface to Metaphysics,
  • Education at the Crossroads,
  • The Range of Reason,
  • The Person and the Common Good,
  • Approaches to God,
  • Creative Intuition in Art and Poetry,
  • Moral Philosophy,
  • Introduction to Philosophy, Christian Classics, Inc., Westminster, MD, 1st. 1930, 1991.
  • Existence and the Existent, An Essay on Christian Existentialism, trans. by Lewis Galantiere and Gerald B. Phelan, Image Books division of Doubleday & Co., Inc., Garden City, NY, 1948, Image book, 1956.
  • Man and The State, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILL, 1951.
  • The Peasant of the Garonne, An Old Layman Questions Himself about the Present Time, trans. Michael Cuddihy and Elizabeth Hughes, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, NY, 1968.
  • God and the Permission of Evil, trans. Joseph W. Evans, The Bruce Publishing Company, Milwaukee, WI, 1966.
  • Art and Scholasticism with other essays, Sheed and Ward, London, 1947

See also

Personalism is the school of thought that consists of three main principles: Only persons are real (in the ontological sense), Only persons have value, and Only persons have free will. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jacques Maritain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1870 words)
Maritain was born in Paris, the son of Paul Maritain who was a lawyer and his wife Geneviève Favre, the daughter of Jules Favre and was reared in a liberal Protestant milieu.
Jacques and Raïssa Maritain are buried in the cemetery of Kolbsheim, a little French village where he had spent many summers (at his friends' - Antoinette and Alexander Grunelius - castle).
Maritain's metaphysics ascends from this account of being to a critique of the philosophical aspects of modern science, through analogy to an account of the existence and nature of God as it is known philosophically and through mystical experience.
Jacques Maritain (8094 words)
Jacques Maritain (1882-1973), French philosopher and political thinker, was one of the principal exponents of Thomism in the twentieth century and an influential interpreter of the thought of St Thomas Aquinas.
Maritain's epistemology sought to explain not just the nature of knowledge found in science and philosophy, but religious faith and mysticism, and one of his aims was to show the different `kinds' of knowledge and their relations to one another.
Maritain held that natural rights are "fundamental and inalienable, [and] antecedent in nature and superior to society." Still, they should not be understood as `antecedent' in a temporal sense and do not form the basis of the state or of the civil law.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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