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Encyclopedia > Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac

22nd President of the French Republic
5th President of French Fifth Republic
Co-Prince of Andorra
In office
17 May 1995 – 16 May 2007
Prime Minister Alain Juppé, Lionel Jospin, Jean-Pierre Raffarin and Dominique de Villepin
Preceded by François Mitterrand
Succeeded by Nicolas Sarkozy

159th Prime Minister of France
10th Prime Minister of French Fifth Republic
In office
27 March 1986 – 10 May 1988
President François Mitterrand
Preceded by Laurent Fabius
Succeeded by Michel Rocard

In office
27 May 1974 – 26 August 1976
President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Preceded by Pierre Messmer
Succeeded by Raymond Barre

In office
27 February 1974 – 28 May 1974
Prime Minister Pierre Messmer
Preceded by Raymond Marcellin
Succeeded by Michel Poniatowski

Born November 29, 1932 (1932-11-29) (age 74)
Flag of France Paris, France
Political party UDR, RPR and UMP
Spouse Bernadette Chirac
Occupation Civil servant
Religion Roman Catholic

Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician and a former President of France. He served from May 17 1995 until May 16, 2007 and was re-elected in 2002. As President he was also an ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra and Grand Master of the French Légion d'honneur. Chirac may refer to: Jacques Chirac, the President of the French Republic. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Symbol of the French government The President of the French Republic (French: ) colloquially referred to as President of France, is Frances elected Head of State. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This is a list of Co-Princes of Andorra. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Alain Marie Juppé (born 15 August 1945) is Frances Minister of State, Minister of Ecology and Sustainable Development ; among other positions, he was Prime Minister of France from 1995 to 1997. ... Lionel Robert Jospin (born July 12, 1937 in Meudon, a suburb of Paris) is a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997-2002. ... Jean-Pierre Raffarin Jean-Pierre Raffarin   listen? (born August 3, 1948) is a French conservative politician. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) was President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Nicolas Sarkozy (IPA: —  ), (born Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa on 28 January 1955 in Paris, France) is the current President of France. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) was President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Laurent Fabius (born 20 August 1946) is a former Socialist Prime Minister of France. ... Michel Rocard, French politician Michel Rocard (born August 23, 1930) is a French Socialist politician, former French Prime minister, and currently a member of the European Parliament. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... On May 29, 1974 Jacques Chirac (left) replaced Pierre Messmer (right) as prime minister on the steps of the Hôtel Matignon. ... Raymond Barre was born on April 12, 1924 in Saint Denis, the capital of the French island of La Réunion in the Indian Ocean. ... The entrance to the Ministry in Place Beauvau is guarded by one gendarme (to the left) and one policewoman (to the right). ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... On May 29, 1974 Jacques Chirac (left) replaced Pierre Messmer (right) as prime minister on the steps of the Hôtel Matignon. ... Categories: People stubs | 1914 births | 2004 deaths | French politicians | Nonagenarians ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Union of Democrats for the Republic (French : Union des Démocrates pour la République), also known as the Gaullist Party was a political party of France. ... The Rally for the Republic, also known by its French acronym RPR (Rassemblement pour la République), was a French political party. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... Bernadette Chirac, born Bernadette Chodron de Courcel (born May 18, 1933) is the wife of President Jacques Chirac of France. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Symbol of the French government The President of the French Republic (French: ) colloquially referred to as President of France, is Frances elected Head of State. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ... This is a list of Co-Princes of Andorra. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ...


After completing his studies at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris and the École Nationale d'Administration, Jacques Chirac began his career as a high-level civil servant, and soon entered politics. He subsequently occupied various senior positions, including Minister of Agriculture, Prime Minister, Mayor of Paris, and finally President of France. Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (English: Paris Institute of Political Studies), often referred to as Sciences Po (pronounced see-ahns po), is a Grand Établissement in Paris, France. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Byzantine civil service in action. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... This is a list of mayors of Paris (maire de Paris). ...


His internal policies included lower tax rates, the removal of price controls, strong punishment for crime and terrorism;[citation needed] and business privatization.[citation needed] He has also argued for more socially responsible economic policies, and was elected in 1995 after campaigning on a platform of healing the "social rift" (fracture sociale). His economic policies at various times also included both laissez-faire and dirigiste (state directed) ideas.[citation needed] Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        A tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed on... In economics, incomes policies are wage and price controls used to fight inflation. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Dirigisme (from the French) (in English also dirigism although per the OED both spellings are used) is an economic term designating an economy where the government exerts strong directive influence. ...


Chirac was the second-longest serving President of France (two full terms, first seven years and second five), behind Francois Mitterrand. He and his predecessor were also the only presidents to serve two full terms in the Élysée Palace. François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (October 26, 1916 - January 8, 1996) was a French politician and President of France from May 1981, re-elected in 1988, until 1995. ... The entrance to the Élysée Palace. ...


Chirac is the only person to have served twice as Prime Minister under the Fifth Republic. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

Early Life

Born on 29 November 1932 in the Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire clinic (fifth district of Paris), Jacques René Chirac is the son of Abel François Chirac (1893–1968), a company administrator, and Marie-Louise Valette (1902–1973), a housewife. Both families were of peasant stock — despite the fact his two grandfathers were teachers - from Sainte-Féréole in Corrèze. According to Chirac, his name "originates from the langue d'oc, that of the troubadours, therefore that of poetry". He is a Roman Catholic. is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An engraving of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Corrèze is a département in the center of France, named after the Corrèze River. ... OC redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic...


The young Chirac was an only child (his elder sister, Jacqueline, died in infancy before his birth), and was educated in Paris at the Lycée Carnot and at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. After his baccalauréat, he did a three month stint as a sailor on a coal-transporting ship. This article is about the capital of France. ... The Lycée Carnot is a public high-school located in Paris, in the seventeenth arrondissement. ... The Lycée Louis-le-Grand, in Paris is one of the most famous lycées providing preparatory classes for grandes écoles. ... For other uses of Baccalaureate, see Baccalaureate (disambiguation). ...


In 1956, he married Bernadette Chodron de Courcel, with whom he later had two daughters, Laurence (born 4 March 1958) and Claude (14 January 1962). Claude has long been his public relations assistant and personal advisor,[1] while Laurence, who suffered from anorexia nervosa in her youth, does not participate in the political activities of her father.[2] Chirac is the grandfather of Martin Rey-Chirac by the relationship of Claude with French judoka Thierry Rey. Bernadette Chirac, born Bernadette Chodron de Courcel (born May 18, 1933) is the wife of President Jacques Chirac of France. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the symphonic black metal band, see Anorexia Nervosa (band) For other uses, see Anorexia Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes an eating disorder characterized by low body weight and body image distortion with an obsessive fear of gaining weight. ... Judo (Japanese: 柔道 Jūdō) is a martial art, a sport and a philosophy which originated in Japan. ...


Jacques and Bernadette Chirac have also a foster daughter, Anh Dao Traxel. Anh Dao Traxel is the foster daughter of French President Jacques Chirac. ...


Early political career (1950s–1973)

Inspired by General Charles de Gaulle to enter public life, Chirac continued pursuing a civil service career in the 1950s. During this period, he joined the French Communist Party; he sold copies of L'Humanité, and took part in meetings of a communist cell.[3] In 1950, he signed the Soviet-inspired Stockholm Appeal for the abolition of nuclear weapons–enough for him to be questioned when he applied for his first visa to the United States.[4] In 1953, after graduating from Sciences Po, he attended Harvard University's summer school before entering the École Nationale d'Administration (ENA), the elite, competitive-entrance college that trains France's top civil servants, in 1957. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ... Soviet redirects here. ... March 1950: The World Peace Council releases the Stockholm Appeal calling for an absolute ban on nuclear weapons. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Chirac trained as a reserve officer in armoured cavalry at Saumur, from which he was ranked first among his year's students.[5] He then volunteered for fighting in the Algerian war of independence, using personal relations to be sent there despite the reservations of his superiors, who suspected him of Communism and did not want to make him an officer.[6] It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Saumur is a small city and commune in the Maine-et-Loire département of France on the Loire River, with an approximate population of 30,000 (in 2001). ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam...


After leaving ENA in 1959, he became a civil servant in the prestigious Court of Auditors and rose rapidly through the ranks. As early as April 1962, Chirac was appointed head of the personal staff of Prime Minister Georges Pompidou. This appointment launched Chirac's political career. Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was President of France from 1969 until his death in 1974. ...


Pompidou considered Chirac his protégé and referred to him as "my bulldozer" for his skill at getting things done. The nickname "Le Bulldozer" caught on in French political circles. Chirac still maintains this reputation. "Chirac cuts through the crap and comes straight to the point...It's refreshing, although you have to put your seat belt on when you work with him", said an anonymous British diplomat in 1995. This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


At Pompidou's suggestion, Chirac ran as a Gaullist for a seat in the National Assembly in 1967. He was elected deputy for Corrèze département, the place of his family's origin but a stronghold of the left. This surprising victory in the context of a Gaullist ebb permitted him to enter the government as state secretary (vice-minister) of social affairs. Although more of a "Pompidolian" than a "Gaullist", Chirac was well-situated in de Gaulle's entourage, being related by marriage to the general's sole companion at the time of the Appeal of 18 June 1940. Gaullism is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... Corrèze is a département in the center of France, named after the Corrèze River. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Gaullism is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... General de Gaulle speaking on the BBC on 18 June 1940 The Appeal of 18th June was a famous speech by Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces, in 1940. ...


In 1968, when student and worker strikes rocked France (see May 1968), Chirac played a central role in negotiating a truce. Then, as state secretary of economy (1968-1971), he had worked closely with Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, who headed the ministry of economy and finance. The young technocrat from ENA then rose to fame; Chirac was caricatured as the archetypal brilliant ENA graduate in an Asterix graphic novel. Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... Technocracy (techno for technology and cracy for power) is an organizational system in which decision makers and political leaders are selected on the basis of technological knowledge —often because of some conflict or competition where technological escalation is a constant feature. ... Obelix and Co. ... For other uses, see Asterix (disambiguation). ...


After some months in the ministry of relations with Parliament, Chirac's first high-level post came in 1972 when he became minister of agriculture and rural development under his mentor Georges Pompidou, who had been elected president in 1969. Chirac quickly earned a reputation as a champion of French farmers' interests. As minister of agriculture, Chirac first attracted international attention when he assailed U.S., West German, and European Commission agricultural policies that conflicted with French interests. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ...


In 1974, Chirac was appointed Minister of the Interior. From March 1974, he was entrusted by President Pompidou with preparations for the presidential election then scheduled for 1976. However, these elections were brought forward because of Pompidou's sudden death on 2 April. The entrance to the Ministry in Place Beauvau is guarded by one gendarme (to the left) and one policewoman (to the right). ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Chirac wanted to rally Gaullists behind Prime minister Pierre Messmer, yet this was to be all in vain. Jacques Chaban-Delmas announced his candidacy, in spite of the disapproval of the "Pompidolians". Chirac and others published the call of the 43 in favor of Giscard d'Estaing, the leader of the non-Gaullist part of the parliamentary majority. Giscard d'Estaing was elected as Pompidou's successor after France's most competitive election campaign in years. In return, the new president chose Chirac to lead the cabinet. On May 29, 1974 Jacques Chirac (left) replaced Pierre Messmer (right) as prime minister on the steps of the Hôtel Matignon. ... Jacques Chaban-Delmas, French politician Jacques Chaban-Delmas (March 7, 1915–November 10, 2000) was a French Gaullist politician. ...


Prime Minister, 1974–76

When Giscard became president, he nominated Chirac as prime minister on 27 May 1974 in order to reconcile the "Giscardian" and "non-Giscardian" factions of the parliamentary majority. At the relatively young age of 41, Chirac stood out as the very model of the jeunes loups ("young wolves") of French political life. But he was faced with the hostility of the "Barons of Gaullism" who considered him a traitor for his role during the previous presidential campaign. In December 1974, he took the lead of the Gaullist party Union of Democrats for the Republic (UDR) against the will of its more senior personalities. Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... In France the Gaullist Party is usually used to refer to the largest party professing to be Gaullist. ...


As prime minister, Chirac quickly set about persuading the Gaullists that, despite the social reforms proposed by President Giscard, the basic tenets of Gaullism, such as national and European independence, would be retained.


Chirac was advised by Pierre Juillet and Marie-France Garaud, two former advisers of Pompidou. These two organized the campaign against Chaban-Delmas in 1974. They advocated a clash with Giscard d'Estaing because they thought his policy bewildered the conservative electorate. Citing Giscard's unwillingness to give him authority, Chirac resigned as Prime Minister in 1976. He proceeded to build up his political base among France's several conservative parties, with a goal of reconstituting the Gaullist UDR into a neo-Gaullist group, the Rally for the Republic (RPR). In France the Gaullist Party is usually used to refer to the largest party professing to be Gaullist. ...


The Osirak Controversy

In December 1974, Saddam Hussein (then vice-president of Iraq, but de facto dictator) invited Chirac to Baghdad for an official visit. Chirac accepted and visited Iraq in 1975. Saddam Hussein approved a deal granting French oil companies a number of privileges plus a 23 per cent share of Iraqi oil [7]. In a declaration on September 5, 1974, Chirac said about Saddam Hussein: Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...

You are my personal friend. Let me assure you of my esteem, consideration and bond. (Vous êtes mon ami personnel. Vous êtes assuré de mon estime, de ma considération et de mon affection.)[8]

As part of this deal, France sold Iraq the Osirak MTR nuclear reactor, a type designed to test nuclear materials. The reactor after the Israeli raid. ... This article is about the metro system in Hong Kong. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...


The Osirak reactor was later bombed by the Israeli Air Force, provoking considerable anger from French officials and the United Nations Security Council. The facility's intended use as a basis for nuclear weapons was confirmed after the 1991 Gulf War [citation needed]. The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... Combatants United States Saudi Arabia & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded in action, 30 taken prisoner Est. ...


Mayor of Paris (1977−1995)

After his departure from the cabinet, Chirac wanted to take the leadership over the right in order to accede to the presidency. The RPR was conceived like an electoral machine against President Giscard d'Estaing. Paradoxically, Chirac benefited from Giscard's decision to create a function of mayor in Paris, which had been cancelled since the 1871 Commune, the Third Republic (1871-1940) fearing the power given by the municipal control of the capital. In 1977, Chirac stood as candidate against Michel d'Ornano, a close friend of the president, and he won. As mayor of Paris, Chirac's political influence grew. He held this strategic position until 1995. Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... The French Third Republic, (in French, Troisième Republique, sometimes written as IIIème Republique) ( 1870/ 75- 1940/ 46), was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Fourth Republic. ...


Chirac supporters point out that, as mayor, he provided for programs to help the elderly, people with disabilities, and single mothers, while providing incentives for businesses to stay in Paris. His opponents contend that he installed clientelist policies, and favored office buildings at the expense of housing, driving rents high and worsening the situation of workers.


In addition, Chirac has been named in several cases of alleged corruption and abuse that occurred during his office term as mayor, some of which have already led to felony convictions against other politicians and aides. However, a controversial judicial decision from 1999 grants him virtual immunity, as current president of France. He has refused to testify on these matters, arguing that this would be incompatible with his presidential functions. Interrogations concerning the running of Paris's city hall, the number of whose municipal employees jumped by 25% from 1977 to 1995 (with 2000 of them, out of a total of approximatively 35000, coming from the Corrèze region where Chirac held his deputy seat), as well as the lack of transparency concerning accounts of public sales (marchés publics) or of the communal debt, have been pushed away by the legal impossibility to question him as current president. The conditions of the privatisation of the Parisian hydraulic network, acquired very cheaply by the Générale and the Lyonnaise des Eaux, then directed by Jérôme Monod, a close friend of Chirac, have also been criticized. Furthermore, the satirical newspaper Le Canard enchaîné revealed the incredibly high amount of "food expenses" paid by the Parisian municipality (€15 million a year according to the Canard), expenses which were managed by Roger Romani (who would have destroyed all archives of the period 1978–1993 during night expeditions in 1999-2000). Thousands of people were invited each year to the Paris town-hall receptions, while many political, media and artistic personalities were graciously hosted in the private flats owned by Paris (See Corruption scandals in the Paris region for further information.)[9] Corrèze is a département in the center of France, named after the Corrèze River. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... Le Canard enchaîné is a satirical newspaper published weekly in France, founded in 1915, featuring investigative journalism and leaks from sources inside the French government, the French political world and the French business world, as well as a large number of jokes and humorous cartoons. ... In the 1980s and 1990s there were in the Paris region (ÃŽle-de-France) multiple instances of alleged and proved political corruption cases, as well as cases of abuse of public money and resources. ...


When he leaves office, his official immunity ends and he then can be investigated on the pending corruption allegations [3]

Chirac during the press conference of the closing down of the Renault factory in Vilvoorde (Belgium) in 1997 [2].

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Renault S.A. is a French vehicle manufacturer producing cars, vans, buses, tractors, and trucks. ... Vilvoorde (French: Vilvorde) is a municipality in the province of Flemish Brabant, in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ...

Struggle for the right-wing leadership

In 1978, he attacked the pro-European policy of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (VGE), and made a nationalist turn with the December 1978 Call of Cochin, initiated by his counsellors Marie-France Garaud and Pierre Juillet, which had first been called by Pompidou. Hospitalized in Cochin hospital after a crash, he then declared that "as always about the drooping of France, the pro-foreign party acts with its peaceable and reassuring voice". Furthermore, he appointed Ivan Blot, an intellectual who would join later, for some time, the National Front, as director of his campaigns for the 1979 European election.[10] After the poor results of the election, Chirac broke with Garaud and Juillet. Nevertheless, the already-established rivalry with Giscard d'Estaing became even more intense. Although it has been often interpreted by historians as the struggle between two rivals French right-wing family, the Bonapartist one, represented by Chirac, and the Orleanist one, represented by VGE, both figures in fact were member of the Liberal, Orleanist tradition, according to historian Alain-Gérard Slama.[10] But the eviction of the Gaullist Barons and of President VGE convinced Chirac to assume a strong neo-Gaullist stance. Pro-European is a subjective term applied to a person who supports the European Union (EU) and/or further European integration, specifically in the context of political argument over the current and future status of the EU and its policies. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The Call of Cochin (Appel de Cochin) is a famous pamphlet published on December 6, 1978 by Jacques Chirac, former Prime Minister of France, president of the Rally for the Republic party, and mayor of Paris. ... The National Front (FN, French: ) is a French Far right, nationalist [1] political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... The 1979 European Parliamentary Elections were held across all 9 current European Community member-states. ... // In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


Chirac made his first run for president against Giscard d'Estaing in the 1981 election, thus splitting the centre-right vote. He was eliminated in the first round (18%) then, he reluctantly supported Giscard in the second round. Indeed, he refused to give instructions to the RPR voters but said that he supported the incumbent president "in a private capacity," which was almost like a de facto support of the Socialist Party's (PS) candidate, François Mitterrand, who was elected by a broad majority. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The emblem of the French Socialist Party The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste or PS), founded in 1969, is the main opposition party in France. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) was President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ...


Giscard has always blamed Chirac for his defeat. He was told by Mitterrand, before his death, that the latter had dined with Chirac before the election. Chirac told the Socialist candidate that he wanted to "get rid of Giscard". In his memoirs, Giscard wrote that between the two rounds, he phoned the RPR headquarters. He passed himself off as a right-wing voter by changing his voice. The RPR employee advised him "certainly do not vote Giscard!". After 1981, the relationship between the two men became somewhat tense, with Giscard, even though he was in the same government coalition as Chirac, taking opportunities to criticize Chirac's actions.


After the May 1981 presidential election, the right also lost the same year the legislative election. However, Giscard being knocked out, Chirac appeared as the leader of the right-wing opposition. Due to his protest against the economic policy of the Socialist government, he progressively aligned himself with the prevailing liberal opinions, even if these did not correspond with the Gaullist doctrine. While the far-right National Front grew, taking in particular advantage of a proportional representation electoral law, he signed an electoral platform with the Giscardian (and more or less Christian Democrat) party Union for French Democracy (UDF). French legislative election took place on June 14 and 21, 1981 to elect the 7th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... The name National Front, is used by a number of political parties and coalitions. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... The Union for French Democracy, also known by its French acronym UDF (Union pour la Démocratie Française), is a French centrist political party. ...


First "Cohabitation" (1986-1988) and "desert crossing"

When the RPR/UDF right-wing coalition won a slight majority in the National Assembly in the 1986 election, Mitterrand (PS) appointed Chirac prime minister. This inedit power-sharing arrangement, known as cohabitation, gave Chirac the lead in domestic affairs. However, it is generally conceded that Mitterrand used the areas granted to the President of the Republic, or "reserved domains" of the Presidency - defence and foreign affairs - to belittle his Prime Minister. The French legislative election took place on March 16, 1986 to elect the 8th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ...


Chirac's Second Ministry

(March 20, 1986May 12, 1988) is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • Jacques Chirac - Prime Minister
  • Jean-Bernard Raimond - Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • André Giraud - Minister of Defence
  • Charles Pasqua - Minister of the Interior
  • Édouard Balladur - Minister of Economy, Finance, and Privatization
  • Alain Madelin - Minister of Industry, Tourism, Posts, and Telecommunications
  • Philippe Séguin - Minister of Employment and Social Affairs
  • Albin Chalandon - Minister of Justice
  • René Monory - Minister of National Education
  • François Léotard - Minister of Culture and Communications
  • François Guillaume - Minister of Agriculture
  • Bernard Pons - Minister of Overseas Departments and Territories
  • Pierre Méhaignerie - Minister of Housing, Equipment, Regional Planning, and Transport
  • André Rossinot - Minister of Relations with Parliament
  • Michel Aurillac - Minister of Cooperation

Chirac's cabinet sold a lot of public companies, renewing with the liberalization initiated under Laurent Fabius's Socialist government (1984-86 - in particular with Fabius' privatization of the audiovisual sector, leading to the creation of Canal +), and abolished the solidarity tax on wealth (ISF), a symbolic tax on very high resources decided by Mitterrand's government. Elsewhere, the plan for university reform (plan Devaquet) caused a crisis in 1986 when a young man named Malik Oussekine was killed by the police, leading to huge demonstrations and the proposal's withdrawal. It has been said during other estudiantine crisis that this event strongly affected Jacques Chirac, hereafter careful about possible police violence during such demonstrations (i.e. maybe explaining part of the decision to "promulgate without applying" the First Employment Contract (CPE) after large students demonstrations against it). Jean-Bernard Raimond (born February 6, 1926) is a conservative French politician who served as Foreign Minister in the government of Jacques Chirac from 1986 to 1988. ... Charles Pasqua (born April 18, French businessman and politician. ... Édouard Balladur (born 2 May 1929) is a French right-wing politician. ... Alain Madelin in 2005 Alain Madelin (born March 26, 1946) is a French politician and a former minister of that country. ... Philippe Séguin Philippe Séguin is a former French politician, and is now first president of Frances Cour des Comptes (Court of Financial Auditors). ... René Monory, born on june 6th 1923, in Loudun, is a french politician. ... François Léotard is a French politician, born March 26, 1942 in Cannes. ... Pierre Méhaignerie (born on may the 4th, 1939, in Balazé, Ille-et-Villaine, is a french politician. ... In general, liberalization refers to a relaxation of previous government restrictions, usually in areas of social or economic policy. ... Laurent Fabius (born 20 August 1946) is a former Socialist Prime Minister of France. ... Canal Plus Group (Canal+) is a French film and television studio and distributor. ... The solidarity tax on wealth is a French annual direct tax on those having assets in excess of 720,000 euros (as of January 1, 2003). ... Demonstration against CPE, March 28, 2006, Paris Jussieu en lutte (Jussieu is fighting), Villepin va précariser. ... The 2006 labor protests in France occurred throughout France during February, March, and April 2006 as a result of opposition to a measure set to deregulate labor. ...


One of his first act concerning foreign policies was to call back to affairs Jacques Foccart (1913-1997), who had been de Gaulle's and his successors' leading counsellor for African matters, called by journalist Stephen Smith the "father of all "networks" on the continent, at the time [in 1986] aged 72."[11] Jacques Foccart, who had also co-founded the Gaullist Service d'Action Civique (SAC, dissolved by Mitterrand in 1982) along with Charles Pasqua, and who was a key component of the "Françafrique" system, was again called to the Elysée Palace when Chirac won the 1995 presidential election. Jacques Foccart (1914–1997) was French President Charles de Gaulles and then Georges Pompidous spindoctor for African policy, who founded in 1959 the Gaullist organization Service dAction Civique (SAC) with Charles Pasqua, which specialized in shady operations. ... Several persons have been called Steven Smith or Stephen Smith, which both may be familiarised to Steve Smith: Professor Steve Smith (academic) British academic. ... Created in 1959 by Jacques Foccart, French President de Gaulles spindoctor for African matters, and Charles Pasqua, part of the Gaullist movement, the SAC (Service dAction Civique) had as first aim to counter the terrorist actions of the OAS during the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62). ... Françafrique is a term first used by president of the Côte dIvoire Félix Houphouët-Boigny, and borrowed to him by François-Xavier Verschave in a critic of Frances neocolonialism in Africa. ...


Furthermore, confronted to anti-colonialist movements in New Caledonia, Prime minister Chirac ordered a military intervention against the separatists in the Ouvéa cave, leading to several tragic deaths. hey, frank the tank rocks ur mom. ...


He allegedly refused any alliance with the National Front, the far-right party of Jean-Marie Le Pen [citation needed]. The name National Front, is used by a number of political parties and coalitions. ... Jean-Marie Le Pen Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party, and a candidate for the French presidency. ...


1988 presidential elections and afterwards

Chirac sought the presidency and ran against Mitterrand for a second time in the 1988 election. He obtained 20% of the vote in the first round, but lost the second with only 46%. He resigned from the cabinet and the right lost the next legislative election. Second Round First Round See also President of France France Politics of France Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in France | 1988 elections ... French legislative election took place on June 5 and 12, 1988 to elect the 9th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ...


For the first time, his leadership over the RPR was challenged. Charles Pasqua and Philippe Séguin criticized his abandonment of Gaullist doctrines. On the right, a new generation of politicians, the "renovation men", accused Chirac and Giscard of being responsible for the electoral defeats. Charles Pasqua (born April 18, French businessman and politician. ... Philippe Séguin Philippe Séguin is a former French politician, and is now first president of Frances Cour des Comptes (Court of Financial Auditors). ...


While he still was mayor of Paris (since 1977), Chirac went to Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) where he supported President Houphouët-Boigny (1960-1993), although the latter was being called a "thief" by the local population. Chirac then declared that multipartism was a "kind of luxury."[11] Freeway along the Ébrié Lagoon near the Plateau, Abidjans business district and centre of the city. ... Félix Houphouët-Boigny (fālÄ“ks´ oofwā´-bwä´nye) (October 18, 1905 - December 7, 1993) was the first President of Côte dIvoire (1960 - 1993) and was previously appointed minister in the government of France several times between 1957 and 1961. ...


Nevertheless, the right won the 1993 legislative election. Chirac announced that he did not want to come back as prime minister, suggesting the appointment of Edouard Balladur, who had promised that he would not run for the presidency against Chirac. However, benefiting from positive polls, Balladur decided to be a presidential candidate, with the support of a majority of right-wing politicians. Chirac broke at that time with a number of friends and allies, including Charles Pasqua, Nicolas Sarkozy, etc., who supported Balladur's candidacy. A small group of "fidels" would remain with him, including Alain Juppé, Jean-Louis Debré, etc. Juppe, however, became later a minister of the Fillon government appointed by Sarkozy (when he became president), therefore he later served Sarkozy. French legislative election took place on March 21 and 28, 1993 to elect the 10th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... Categories: Stub | 1929 births | Prime ministers of France | Alumni of Sciences Po ... Nicolas Sarkozy (IPA: —  ), (born Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa on 28 January 1955 in Paris, France) is the current President of France. ... Alain Marie Juppé (born 15 August 1945) is Frances Minister of State, Minister of Ecology and Sustainable Development ; among other positions, he was Prime Minister of France from 1995 to 1997. ... Jean-Louis Debré, President of Constitutional Council of France Jean-Louis Debré (born September 30, 1944 in Toulouse) is a conservative French politician. ...


First term as president (1995-2002)

Jacques Chirac with Bill Clinton outside Élysée Palace.
Jacques Chirac with Bill Clinton outside Élysée Palace.

During the 1995 presidential campaign Chirac criticized the "sole thought" (pensée unique) represented by his challenger on the right and promised to reduce the "social fracture," placing himself more to the center and thus forcing Balladur to radicalize himself. Ultimately, he obtained more votes than Balladur in the first round (20.8%), and then defeated the Socialist candidate Lionel Jospin in the second round (52.6%). Image File history File links Clintonchirac. ... Image File history File links Clintonchirac. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The entrance to the Élysée Palace. ... Second Round First Round See also: President of France, France, Politics of France Categories: Elections in France | 1995 elections ... The expression pensée unique (French for single thought) describes the claimed supremacy of neoliberalism as an ideology. ... Lionel Robert Jospin (born July 12, 1937 in Meudon, a suburb of Paris) is a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997-2002. ...


Chirac was elected on a platform of tax cuts and job programs, but his policies did little to ease the labour strikes during his first months in office. On the domestic front, neo-liberal economic austerity measures introduced by Chirac and his conservative prime minister Alain Juppé, including budgetary cutbacks, proved highly unpopular. At about the same time, it became apparent that Juppé and others had obtained preferential conditions for public housing, as well as other perks. At the year's end Chirac faced major workers' strikes which turned itself, in November-December 1995, in a general strike, one of the largest since May 1968. The demonstrations were largely pitted against Juppé's plan on the reform of pensions, and led to the dismissal of the latter. Alain Marie Juppé (born 15 August 1945) is Frances Minister of State, Minister of Ecology and Sustainable Development ; among other positions, he was Prime Minister of France from 1995 to 1997. ... 1995 saw a series of general strikes in Frances public sector, which received great popular support and paralyzed the countrys transportation infrastructure. ...


Shortly after taking office, Chirac – undaunted by international protests by environmental groups – insisted upon the resumption of nuclear tests at Mururoa Atoll in French Polynesia in 1995, a few months before illegally signing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Reacting to criticism, Chirac said, "You only have to look back at 1935...There were people then who were against France arming itself, and look what happened." On February 1, 1996, Chirac announced that France had ended "once and for all" its nuclear testing, intending to accede to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. There were 210 French nuclear tests from 1960 until 1996. ... Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina...


Elected as President of the Republic, he refused to discuss the existence of French military bases in Africa, despite requests by the Ministry of Defense and the Quai d'Orsay (Ministry of Foreign Affairs).[11] French Army thus remained in Côte d'Ivoire as well as in Omar Bongo's Gabon. Quai dOrsay is a Parisian quay situated on the Ile de la Cité. Its name is commonly associated with the French Ministry of External Affairs, whose building is situated on the quay. ... El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba (born Albert-Bernard Bongo on 30 December 1935) became President of Gabon in 1967. ...


Trying to firm up his party's government coalition, in 1997 Chirac dissolved parliament for early legislative elections in a gamble designed to bolster support for his conservative economic program. But instead, it created an uproar, and his power was weakened by the subsequent backlash. The Socialist Party (PS), joined by other parties on the left, soundly defeated Chirac's conservative allies, forcing Chirac into a new period of cohabitation with Jospin as prime minister (1997-2002), which lasted five years. Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ...


Cohabitation significantly weakened the power of Chirac's presidency. The French president, by a constitutional convention, only controls foreign and military policy— and even then, allocation of funding is under the control of Parliament and under the significant influence of the prime minister. Short of dissolving parliament and calling for new elections, the president was left with little power to influence public policy regarding crime, the economy, and public services. Chirac seized the occasion to periodically criticize Jospin's government. A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ...


Nevertheless, his position was weakened by scandals about the financing of RPR by Paris municipality. In 2001, the left, represented by Bertrand Delanoë (PS), won over the majority in the town council of the capital. Jean Tiberi himself, friend of Chirac and his successor at the Paris townhall, was forced to resign after having been put under investigations in June 1999 on charges of trafic d'influences in the HLMs of Paris affairs (related to the illegal financing of the RPR). Tiberi was finally expelled from the RPR, Chirac's party, on October 12, 2000, declaring to the Figaro magazine on November 18, 2000: "Jacques Chirac is not my friend anymore.[12]" After the publication of the Méry video-tape by Le Monde on September 22, 2000, in which Jean-Claude Méry, in charge of the RPR's financing, directly accused Chirac of organizing the network, and of having been physically present on October 5, 1986, when Méry gave in cash 5 millions Francs, which came from companies who had benefited from state deals, to Michel Roussin, personal secretary (directeur de cabinet) of Chirac,[13][14] Chirac refused to follow up his summons by judge Eric Halphen, and the highest echelons of the French justice declared that he could not been inculpated while in functions. In the 1980s and 1990s there were in the Paris region (ÃŽle-de-France) multiple instances of alleged and proved political corruption cases, as well as cases of abuse of public money and resources. ... Bertrand Delanoë Bertrand Delanoë (born May 30, 1950) ( ) is a French politician, and has been the mayor of Paris since 2001. ... Jean Tiberi (January 30, 1935) is a French politician who was mayor of Paris from May 22, 1995 to March 18, 2003. ... The Rally for the Republic, also known by its French acronym RPR (Rassemblement pour la République), was a French political party. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Le Figaro (English: ) is one of the leading French morning daily newspapers. ... Le Monde is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Michel Roussin (May 3, 1939, Rabat, Morocco) was the chief of staff of Alexandre de Marenches, who directed the SDECE French secret service until the May 1981 election of François Mitterrand as president of the Republic. ... Éric Halphen, June 2006 Éric Halphen is a French judge best known as the investigating magistrate in the Parisian low-cost housing scandals of the 1990s. ...


During his two terms, he has been accused of wastefulness:


- He has increased the Elysee Palace's total budget by 105% (currently 90 million euros, whereas 20 years ago it was the equivalent of 43.7 million euros).


- He has doubled the number of presidential cars - nowadays there are 61 cars and 7 scooters in the Palace's garage.


- He has hired 145 extra employees - the total number of the people he employed simultaneously was 963.


- He has spent 1 million euros per year on drinks purchased for guests visiting the Palace.


Defense policy

As the Supreme Commander of the French armed forces, he has reduced the French military budget, as did his predecessor. It now accounts for 3% of GDP [15]. In 1998 the aircraft carrier Clemenceau was prematurely decommissioned after 37 years of service, and another aircraft carrier was decommissioned 2 years later after 37 years of service, leaving the French Navy with no aircraft carrier until 2001, when Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier was commissioned [16]. He has also reduced expenditures on nuclear weapons [17] and the French nuclear arsenal, which now numbers 350 warheads, while the Russian nuclear arsenal numbers 16000 warheads [18]. He has also published a plan which assumes reducing the number of fighters the French military has by 30 [19]. Georges Clemenceau (September 28, 1841 – November 24, 1929) was a French doctor, journalist and statesman. ... The Charles de Gaulle (R91) is the tenth aircraft carrier in service with the French Marine Nationale, and the first French nuclear surface vessel. ...


Second term as president (2002-2007)

At the age of 69, Chirac faced his fourth presidential campaign in 2002. He was the first choice of fewer than one in five voters in the first round of voting of the presidential elections in April 2002. It had been expected that he would face incumbent prime minister Lionel Jospin (PS) in the second round of elections; instead, Chirac faced controversial far right politician Jean-Marie Le Pen of the law-and-order, anti-immigrant National Front (FN), and so won re-election by a landslide (82%); all parties outside the National Front (except for Lutte ouvrière) had called for opposing Le Pen, even if it meant voting for Chirac. Slogans such as "vote for the crook, not for the fascist" or "vote with a clothespin on your nose" appeared, while huge demonstrations marked the period between the two electoral rounds in all of France. President Chirac and United States President George W. Bush talk over issues during the 27th G8 summit, 21 July 2001. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Zapateronividhia1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Zapateronividhia1. ...   (IPA: []) (born August 4, 1960 in Valladolid) is the Prime Minister of Spain. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... // Second Round First Round General Summary This election came as a shock to many commentators, almost all of whom had expected the second ballot to be between Jacques Chirac and Lionel Jospin. ... Lionel Robert Jospin (born July 12, 1937 in Meudon, a suburb of Paris) is a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997-2002. ... Jean-Marie Le Pen Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party, and a candidate for the French presidency. ... The National Front (FN, French: ) is a French Far right, nationalist [1] political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... Workers Struggle (Lutte Ouvrière) is the usual name under which the Communist Union (Trotskyist) (Union Communiste (Trotskyste)), a French Trotskyist political party, is known (technically, it is the name of the weekly paper edited by the party). ...


Unpopularity

Chirac became increasingly unpopular during his second term. According to a July 2005 poll,[citation needed] 32% judged Jacques Chirac favorably and 63% unfavorably. In 2006, The Economist wrote that Chirac "is the most unpopular occupant of the Elysée Palace in the fifth republic's history."[20] The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ...


Early term

As the left-wing Socialist Party was in thorough disarray following Jospin's defeat, Chirac reorganized politics on the right, establishing a new party — initially called the Union of the Presidential Majority, then the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP). The RPR had broken down - a number of members had formed Eurosceptic breakaways. While the Giscardian liberals of the Union of French Democracy (UDF) had moved sharply to the right.[citation needed] The UMP won the parliamentary elections that followed the presidential poll with ease. The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... Euroscepticism is scepticism about, or disagreement with, the purposes of the European Union, sometimes coupled with a desire to preserve national sovereignty. ... The Union for French Democracy, also known by its French acronym UDF (Union pour la Démocratie Française), is a French centrist political party. ... These are the results of the French legislative election of 2002 Category: ...


During an official visit to Madagascar on 21 July 2005, president Chirac described the repression of the 1947 Malagasy uprising, which left between 80,000 and 90,000 dead, as "unacceptable." The Malagasy Uprising (or Revolt of Madagascar) was an attempted revolution against the French by nationalists on the island of Madagascar between 1947 and 1948. ...


Despite past opposition to state intervention the Chirac government approved a 2.8 billion euro aid package to troubled manufacturing giant Alstom.[4] In October 2004, President Chirac signed a trade agreement with PRC President Hu Jintao where Alstom was given one billion euro in contracts and promises of furture investment in China.[21] This is a Chinese name; the family name is Hu Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born December 21, 1942) is currently the Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the...


Assassination attempt

While Jacques Chirac was reviewing troops in a motorcade such as this one on Bastille Day 2002, he was shot at by a bystander.
While Jacques Chirac was reviewing troops in a motorcade such as this one on Bastille Day 2002, he was shot at by a bystander.

On July 14, 2002, during Bastille Day celebrations, Chirac survived an assassination attempt by a lone gunman with a rifle hidden in a guitar case. The would-be assassin fired a shot toward the presidential motorcade, before being overpowered by bystanders.[22] The gunman, Maxime Brunerie, underwent psychiatric testing; the violent far-right group with which he was associated, Unité Radicale was then administratively dissolved. Download high resolution version (824x884, 109 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (824x884, 109 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Champs-Élysées decorated with flags for the 14 July. ... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... Motorcade for the British Queen Elizabeth II in Koblenz 1964 A motorcade is a procession of cars carrying VIPs, especially political figures. ... Maxime Brunerie is a man who tried to murder French President Jacques Chirac in 14th July 2002, but failed. ... Unité Radicale was a French radical far-right political group. ...


2005 referendum on the TCE

Jacques Chirac giving a speech encouraging support of the European Constitution.
Further information: Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe

On May 29, 2005, a referendum was held in France to decide whether the country should ratify the proposed treaty for a Constitution of the European Union (TCE). The result was a victory for the No campaign, with 55% of voters rejecting the treaty on a turnout of 69 per cent, dealing a devastating blow to Chirac and the UMP party, as well as to part of the center-left which had supported the TCE. Jacques Chirac giving speech to the French People to vote Yes on the EU referendum This work is copyrighted. ... Jacques Chirac giving speech to the French People to vote Yes on the EU referendum This work is copyrighted. ... On 29 May 2005 a referendum was held in France to decide whether the country should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union. ... The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TECE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an international treaty intended to create a new constitution for the European Union. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The Treaty establishing a constitution for Europe is a proposed constitutional treaty for the European Union. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ...


Foreign policy

Jacques Chirac with George W. Bush.
Jacques Chirac with George W. Bush.

Along with Gerhard Schröder, Chirac emerged as a leading voice against the Bush administration's conduct towards Iraq. Despite intense US pressure, Chirac threatened to veto, at that given point, a resolution in the UN Security Council that would authorize the use of military force to rid Iraq of alleged weapons of mass destruction, and rallied other governments to his position. "Iraq today does not represent an immediate threat that justifies an immediate war," Chirac said on March 18, 2003. Chirac was then the target of various American and British commentators supporting the decisions of Bush and Tony Blair. Current Prime minister Dominique de Villepin acquired much of his popularity for his speech done against the war at the United Nations (UN). However, following controversies concerning the CIA's black sites and extraordinary rendition program, the press revealed that French special services had cooperated with Washington in the same time that Villepin was countering US foreign policy at the UN headquarters in New York. President George W. Bush and French President Jacque Chirac address the media in the Rose Garden November 6, 2001. ... President George W. Bush and French President Jacque Chirac address the media in the Rose Garden November 6, 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into CIA prison system. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ... President of the United States, George W. Bush (right) at Camp David in March 2003, hosting the British Prime Minister Tony Blair. ...


After Togo's leader Gnassingbé Eyadéma's death on February 5, 2005, who had reigned over the country during 38 years, taking advantage of the 1963 assassination of Sylvanus Olympio, Chirac gave him tribute and supported his son, Faure Gnassingbé, who has since succeeded to his father.[11] Gnassingbé Eyadéma - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Sylvanus Epiphanio Olympio (September 1902 - 13 January 1963) was a Togolese political figure. ... Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé (born June 6, 1966), also known as Faure Eyadéma, has been the President of Togo since May 4, 2005; he was previously president for twenty days from February 5 to February 25, 2005. ...


On January 19, 2006, Chirac said that France was prepared to launch a nuclear strike against any country that sponsors a terrorist attack against French interests. He said his country's nuclear arsenal had been reconfigured to include the ability to make a tactical strike in retaliation for terrorism.[23] January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 1989 computer game, see Nuclear War (computer game). ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered non-state terrorism. ... The Redoutable, the first French nuclear missile submarine // a Pluton missile mobile launcher The Force de frappe (literally Striking Force; meant for dissuasion, i. ...

Chirac and George W. Bush during the 27th G8 summit, July 21, 2001.
Chirac and George W. Bush during the 27th G8 summit, July 21, 2001.

In July 2006, the G8 met to discuss international energy concerns. Despite the rising awareness of global warming issues, the G8 focuses on "energy security" issues. Chirac continues to be the voice within the G8 summit meetings to support international action to curb global warming and climate change concerns. Chirac warns that "humanity is dancing on a volcano" and calls for serious action by the world's leading industrialised nations.[24] Image File history File links President Bush and President Chirac of France talk over issues during the G-8 sessions, July 21, 2001. ... Image File history File links President Bush and President Chirac of France talk over issues during the G-8 sessions, July 21, 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Official group portrait. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Energy security, or security of supply, is a key component of energy policy in many countries. ...


2005 civil unrest and CPE protests

Further information: 2005 civil unrest in France  and 2006 labour protests in France

Following major students protests in spring 2006, which succeeded to civil unrest in autumn 2005 following the death of two young boys in Clichy-sous-Bois, one of the poorest French commune located in Paris' suburbs, Chirac retracted the proposed First Employment Contract (CPE) by "promulgating [it] without applying it," an unheard-of — and, some claim, illegal — move destined to appease the protests while giving the appearance not to retract himself, and therefore to continue his support towards his Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin. A torched car in Strasbourg, 5 November. ... The protest The 2006 Labour Protests in France occurred throughout France during February, March, and April 2006 as a result of opposition to a measure set to deregulate labour. ... The protest The 2006 Labour Protests in France occurred throughout France during February, March, and April 2006 as a result of opposition to a measure set to deregulate labour. ... A torched car in Strasbourg, 5 November. ... For other places with the same name, see Clichy. ... Demonstration against CPE, March 28, 2006, Paris Jussieu en lutte (Jussieu is fighting), Villepin va précariser. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Clearstream affair

Further information: Clearstream

During April and May 2006, Chirac's administration was beset by a crisis as his chosen Prime Minister, Dominique de Villepin, was accused of asking General Rondot, a top level French spy, for a secret investigation into the latter's chief political rival, Nicolas Sarkozy in 2004. This matter has been called the (Second) Clearstream Affair. On May 10, 2006, following a Cabinet meeting, Chirac made a rare television appearance to try to protect Villepin from the scandal and to debunk allegations that Chirac himself had set up a Japanese bank account containing 300 million francs in 1992 as Mayor of Paris.[25] Chirac stated that "The Republic is not a dictatorship of rumors, a dictatorship of calumny."[26] Some political commentators[attribution needed] note that the president's authority and credibility is in serious decline due to this scandal and combined impact of the French voters rejection of the European Union constitution in May 2005 which Chirac had publicly championed. Clearstream Banking S.A. (CB) is the clearing division of Deutsche Börse, based in Luxembourg. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Philippe Rondot (1936 - ) is a French retired general, formerly an important personality of the French intelligence. ... Nicolas Sarkozy (IPA: —  ), (born Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa on 28 January 1955 in Paris, France) is the current President of France. ... Clearstream Banking S.A. (CB) is the clearing division of Deutsche Börse, based in Luxembourg. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Announcement of intention not to seek a third term

In a pre-recorded television broadcast aired on March 11, 2007, Jacques Chirac announced, in a widely-predicted move, that he would not choose to seek a third term as France's President. "Serving France, and serving peace, is what I have committed my whole life to," Chirac said, adding that he would find new ways to serve France after leaving office. He did not explain the reasons for his decision.[27] Chirac did not, during the broadcast, endorse any of the candidates running for election, but did devote several minutes of his talk to a plea against extremist politics that was considered a thinly-disguised invocation to voters not to vote for Jean-Marie Le Pen and a recommendation to Nicolas Sarkozy not to orient his campaign so as to include themes traditionally associated with Mr. Le Pen.[28] is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Jean-Marie Le Pen Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party, and a candidate for the French presidency. ... Nicolas Sarkozy (IPA: —  ), (born Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa on 28 January 1955 in Paris, France) is the current President of France. ...


Life after presidency

After presidency, he has become a lifetime member of the Constitutional Council of France. Whether or not he decides to participate is unclear. He will reside immediately after the next president's investiture in a 180 square meters duplex, located near the Louvre, and lent to him by the family of Rafic Hariri, the former Lebanese premier. During the Didier Schuller affair, the latter accused Hariri of having participated to the illegal funding of the RPR's political campaigns, but the justice closed the case without further investigations.[29] A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rafiq Bahaa Edine Hariri (born November, 1944) is a Lebanese billionaire businessman, and was Prime Minister of Lebanon until his resignation on October 20, 2004. ... The Rally for the Republic, also known by its French acronym RPR (Rassemblement pour la République), was a French political party. ...


As former President he also received lifetime pension and personal security protection.


Impact on French popular culture

Because of Jacques Chirac's long career in visible government position, he has often been parodied or caricatured: In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection) A caricature of film comedian Charlie Chaplin. ...

  • Young Jacques Chirac is the basis of a character in an Astérix book: that of a young, dashing bureaucrat just out of the bureaucracy school, proposing methods to quell Gallic unrest to elderly, old-style Roman politicians.
  • He was featured in Le Bêbête Show as an overexcited, jumpy character.
  • Jacques Chirac is one favorite character of Les Guignols de l'Info, a satiric latex puppet show. He was once portrayed as a rather likeable, though overexcited, character; however, following the corruption allegations, he has been shown as a kind of dilettante and incompetent who pilfers public money and lies through his teeth. His character for a while developed a super hero alter ego, Super Menteur ("Super Liar") in order to get him out of embarrassing situations.
  • Les Wampas, a French punk band, wrote the local hit Chirac en prison ("Chirac in jail").

Obelix and Co. ... A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy, usually within an institution of the government. ... Le Bébête Show was a satirical puppet show on French television. ... PPD (modeled on Patrick Poivre dArvor) is the resident news anchor of the guignols. ... A puppet is any controlled character, whether formed by a shadow, strings, by the use of a glove, by direct mechanical contrivance (for example a cable-controlled figure for film or TV) or electronic guidance (such as a radio or infrared remote controller). ... A superhero is a fictional character who is noted for feats of courage and nobility and who usually has a colorful name and costume and abilities beyond those of normal human beings. ... Les Wampas is a French punk band, formed in 1983. ...

Political offices held

  • Member of the Sainte-Féréole (Corrèze) municipal council 1965-1977
  • National Assembly Deputy for Corrèze (March to May 1967)
  • State Secretary for Social Affairs 1967-1968
  • Deputy for Corrèze (June to August 1968)
  • Member of the Corrèze Conseil Général for the canton of Meymac 1968-1982
  • State Secretary for the Economy and Finance 1968-1971
  • President of the Corrèze Conseil Général 1970-1979
  • Minister attached to the Prime Minister, with responsibility for relations with Parliament 1971-1972
  • Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development 1972–1973
  • Deputy for Corrèze 1973-1974
  • Minister of the Interior 1974
  • Prime Minister 1974-1976
  • General Secretary of the Union of Democrats for the Republic 1974-1975
  • Deputy for Corrèze 1976-1986
  • President of Rally for the Republic 1976-1994
  • Mayor of Paris 1977-1995
  • Member of the European Parliament 1979-1980
  • Prime Minister 1986-1988
  • Deputy for Corrèze 1988-1995

Corrèze is a département in the center of France, named after the Corrèze River. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... Template:France divisions levels, Junkyard Willie The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to British counties. ... The canton is an administrative division of France. ... Meymac is a commune of the Corrèze département, in France. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...

Honours

Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... The Ordre National du Mérite (in English: The National Order of Merit) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. ... The Republic of Benin is a nation of western Africa, formerly known as Dahomey. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... The National Order of Quebec (in French Ordre national du Québec) is an order of merit bestowed by the government of Quebec, Canada. ...

Titles from birth to currently

  • Monsieur le Président de la République française (1995 - 2007)
  • His Excellency The Sovereign Co-Prince of Andorra (1995 - 2007)

See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Jacques Chirac
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Jacques Chirac

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Anh Dao Traxel is the foster daughter of French President Jacques Chirac. ... Le Bruit et lOdeur refers to a speech given in 1991 by the mayor of Paris and later French president Jacques Chirac; it translates to the noise and the smell. In this speech, Chirac contrasts the situation of older generations of immigrants (coming from Spain, Portugal or Poland) to... This is a List of national leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... The Politics of France take place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of France is head of state and the Prime Minister of France head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Second Round First Round See also President of France France Politics of France Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in France | 1988 elections ... Second Round First Round See also: President of France, France, Politics of France Categories: Elections in France | 1995 elections ... The 2002 French presidential election consisted of a first round election on 21 April 2002, and a runoff election between the top two candidates (Jacques Chirac and Jean-Marie Le Pen) on 5 May 2002. ... The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France for a five-year term. ...

References

  1. ^ BBC World Service: "Letter from Paris - John Laurenson on Claude Chirac's crucial but understated electoral role". 21 March 2002.
  2. ^ Daily Telegraph: "Chirac's wife tells of anorexic daughter's death wish", by Colin Randall, July 12, 2004
  3. ^ France 3, 12 November 1993
  4. ^ L'Humanité
  5. ^ http://www.premier-ministre.gouv.fr/acteurs/premier_ministre/histoire_chefs_gouvernement_28/jacques_chirac_55/
  6. ^ Chirac de A à Z, dictionnaire critique et impertinent, Albin Michel, 2226076646
  7. ^ Taheri, Amir, The Chirac Doctrine: France’s Iraq-war plan., National Review Online, November 4, 2002,
  8. ^ Aeschimann, Éric & Boltanski, Christophe (2006). Chirac d'Arabie : Les mirages d'une politique française (in French), Grasset & Fasquelle, pp. 64, ISBN 2246691214.
  9. ^ Jean Guarrigues, professor at the Univ. of Orléans (and author of Les Scandales de la République. De Panama à l'Affaire Elf, Robert Laffon, 2004), "La dérive des affaires" in L'Histoire n°313, October 2006, pp.66-71 (French)
  10. ^ a b Alain-Gérard Slama, "Vous avez dit bonapartiste?" in L'Histoire n°313, October 2006, pp.60-63 (French)
  11. ^ a b c d "Naufrage de la Françafrique — Le président a poursuivi une politique privilégiant les hommes forts au pouvoir.", Stephen Smith in L'Histoire n°313, October 2006 (special issue on Chirac), p.70 (French)
  12. ^ "Rien ne va plus entre Chirac et Tiberi", Le Figaro, November 18, 2000 (French)
  13. ^ "Un témoignage pour l'histoire", Le Monde, September 22, 2000 (French)
  14. ^ La suite du testament de Jean-Claude Méry, Le Monde, September 23, 2000 (French)
  15. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2034rank.html
  16. ^ http://www.netmarine.net/bat/porteavi/cdg/index.htm
  17. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/france/nuke.htm
  18. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/summary.htm
  19. ^ http://www.defense.gouv.fr/air/contents_in_english/french_air_force/the_future/the_future
  20. ^ What France needs. The Economist (2006-10-26). Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ Chirac escapes lone gunman's bullet, BBC, July 15, 2002 (English)
  23. ^ Chirac: Nuclear Response to Terrorism Is Possible, The Washington Post, January 20, 2006 (English)
  24. ^ Chirac is Not in Favor of Dancing on Volcanoes, on "CutC02"'s website, July 17, 2006 (English)
  25. ^ French farce, The Times, May 11, 2006 (English)
  26. ^ Caught in deep water: Chirac swims against a tide of scandal, The Times, May 11, 2006 (English)
  27. ^ France's Chirac says he will not run for re-election Associated Press, March 11, 2007. Retrieved: 2007-03-11
  28. ^ Chirac Leaving Stage Admired and Scorned by John Leicester, Associated Press, March 11, 2007. Retrieved: 2007-03-11.
  29. ^ Chirac trouve un point de chute à Paris chez la famille Hariri, Libération, 27 April 2007 (French)

is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Orléans (Latin, meaning golden) is a city and commune in north-central France, about 130 km (80 miles) southwest of Paris. ... LHistoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specifics university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines). ... LHistoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specifics university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines). ... Françafrique is a term first used by president of the Côte dIvoire Félix Houphouët-Boigny, and borrowed to him by François-Xavier Verschave in a critic of Frances neocolonialism in Africa. ... Several persons have been called Steven Smith or Stephen Smith, which both may be familiarised to Steve Smith: Professor Steve Smith (academic) British academic. ... LHistoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specifics university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines). ... Le Figaro (English: ) is one of the leading French morning daily newspapers. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Le Monde is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Le Monde is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Libération (affectionately known as Libé) is a French daily newspaper founded in Paris in 1973 by Jean-Paul Sartre, Pierre Victor alias Benny Lévy and Serge July in the wake of the protest movements of May 1968. ...

Bibliography

  • Emmanuel Hecht, Thierry Vey, Chirac de A à Z, dictionnaire critique et impertinent, Éditions Albin Michel, ISBN 2-226-07664-6
  • Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Le pouvoir et la vie, tome 3

Éditions Albin Michel is a French publisher. ...

External links

  • Public opinion polls on Jacques Chirac
  • Biography at the Official Website of the Office of the French President
  • (French) TF1
  • (French) l'Express
  • (French) Mairie de Paris
  • (French) Biography and his election (2002)
  • (French) Some Jacques Chirac's quotations
  • Jacques Chirac threatened to launch nuclear attack on Iran, Der Spiegel, January 19, 2006.
  • Jacques Chirac - A life in pictures photo essay
  • Anne Applebaum, Farewell, Jacques Chirac, The Washington Post, May 8, 2007
Preceded by
Michel Cointat
Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development
1972–1974
Succeeded by
Raymond Marcellin
Preceded by
Raymond Marcellin
Minister of the Interior
1974
Succeeded by
Michel Poniatowski
Preceded by
Pierre Messmer
Prime Minister of France
1974–1976
Succeeded by
Raymond Barre
Preceded by
Alexandre Sanguinetti
General Secretary of the Union of Democrats for the Republic
1974–1975
Succeeded by
André Bord
Preceded by
'None. Party created'
President of Rally for the Republic
1976–1994
Succeeded by
Alain Juppé
Preceded by
-
Mayor of Paris
1977–1995
Succeeded by
Jean Tiberi
Preceded by
Laurent Fabius
Prime Minister of France
1986–1988
Succeeded by
Michel Rocard
Preceded by
François Mitterrand
President of the French Republic
1995-2007
Succeeded by
Nicolas Sarkozy
Preceded by
François Mitterrand
Co-Prince of Andorra
1995-2007
with Joan Martí Alanis (1995–2003)
and Joan Enric Vives Sicília (2003–2007)
Succeeded by
Nicolas Sarkozy
Preceded by
Jean Chrétien
Chair of the G8
1996
Succeeded by
Bill Clinton
Preceded by
Jean Chrétien
Chair of the G8
2003
Succeeded by
George W. Bush


Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Current members of the Constitutional Council of France Constitutional Council
President of the Council

Jean-Louis Debré A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jean-Louis Debré, President of Constitutional Council of France Jean-Louis Debré (born September 30, 1944 in Toulouse) is a conservative French politician. ...

Members

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing | Jacques Chirac | Olivier Dutheillet de Lamothe
Dominique Schnapper | Pierre Joxe | Pierre Steinmetz | Jacqueline de Guillenchmidt
Jean-Louis Pezant | Renaud Denoix de Saint Marc | Guy Canivet Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... I know this guy. ... Dominique Schnapper is a member of the Constitutional Council of France since 2001. ... Pierre Joxe is a member of the Constitutional Council of France since 2001. ... Pierre Steinmetz is a member of the Constitutional Council of France since 2004. ... Jacqueline de Guillenchmidt (b. ... Jean-Louis Pezant is a member of the Constitutional Council of France since 2004. ... Renaud Denoix de Saint Marc (born September 24, 1938) is a French lawyer. ... Guy Canivet in full judicial dress. ...


* as of 2007
Persondata
NAME Chirac, Jacques
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Chirac, Jacques René
SHORT DESCRIPTION President of France
DATE OF BIRTH November 29, 1932
PLACE OF BIRTH Paris, France
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Profile: Jacques Chirac (943 words)
Jacques Chirac's re-election as president in 2002, with a huge cross-party majority, crowned a career which saw him twice serve as prime minister.
Jacques Rene Chirac was born in 1932, the son of a bank manager who went on to become managing director of the Dassault aircraft company.
Many in France may remember Jacques Chirac as the man they chose, some of them very reluctantly, to defeat Jean-Marie Le Pen at the 2002 election, when the far-right leader reached the run-off in a shock development, at the expense of the Socialists' Lionel Jospin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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