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Encyclopedia > Jacques Champion de Chambonnières

Jacques Champion de Chambonnières a.k.a. "Chambonnières" was a French harpsichordist of the Baroque era (ca. 1601 – ca. end of April 1672 in Paris). The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... A harpsichord is the general term for a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument nowadays called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals, the muselar virginals and the spinet. ... Baroque music is Western classical music from the Baroque era, after the Renaissance music era and before the Classical music era proper. ... For other uses, see number 1601. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...

He is considered as the founder, or even the father of the French harpsichord school which flourished during the 17th and 18th centuries, as well as one of its most prominent members.

His life

His family was one of musicians. His grandfather, Thomas Campion a.k.a. Mithou (ca. 1525–ca.1580) was harpsichordist to the King of France (Organiste et épinette du roy) ; he married the daughter of a Scottish lutenist, Jacques (James) Edinthon and had a son, Jacques Campion (ca. 1555 – 1642) who inherited his title according to the system of survivance (automatic transmission of a charge to an heir). Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zurich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ...

Chambonnières received the survivance from his father as early as 1611, actually sharing the charge with him from 1638. He was, at that time, an unsurpassed virtuoso of the harpsichord as was mentionned by the contemporary scholars Christiaan Huygens and Marin Mersenne, and his talent was highly praised. He gave concerts under subscription in his home, with the collaboration of musicians he hired by himself, which were the first evidence of private concerts not given under royal or aristocratic control in France. He wanted to be considered as a nobleman who practiced music as a dilettante, enjoying an extravagant lifestyle, and owning a horse driven coach. This was the cause of financial difficulties. He married twice, the first time (before 1631) to Marie Le Clerc then, as a widower, to Marguerite Ferret on December 16th, 1652. But they separated in 1657, due to Chambonnières's need for luxury, which was hardly compatible with his income. Events November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens (pronounced in English ( IPA): ; in Dutch: ) ( April 14, 1629– July 8, 1695), was a Dutch mathematician and physicist; born in The Hague as the son of Constantijn Huygens. ... For the primes named after Marin Mersenne, see Mersenne prime. ... Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Jamaica. ...

He discovered the talent of Louis Couperin during a private party in his manor near Chaumes-en-Brie, and made him come to Paris where he was to have a brilliant and short career. Chambonnières was also the teacher of Jean-Henry d'Anglebert and Jacques Hardel. Louis Couperin was a French musician of the Baroque period. ...

He also was a good dancer, and performed in the Ballet Royal de la Nuit of 1653. In 1655-1656, he lost his influence among the musicians of Louis XIV, perhaps because he refused to play continuo in Lully's orchestra. He fell into disgrace and sold his title to his pupil Jean-Henry d'Anglebert. Louis Couperin had refused to take the place of his revered benefactor. Due to lack of money, Chambonnières decided to edit his pieces, and published two books with royal privilege in 1670. They contain some 70 pieces and are the first printed evidence of harpsichord music published in France. He died in poverty soon after. Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Events New Sweden (Delaware) attacked and captured by Dutch forces. ... Events Masuria is devastated during the Deluge when it was raided by Tartars and Poles End of the war started in 1648 between Poland, Ducal Prussia, Russia and Transylvania. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ... Jean-Baptiste Lully, originally Giovanni Battista Lulli (November 28, 1632–March 22, 1687), was an Italian-born French composer, who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. ... Events January 21 – Highwayman Claude Duval is executed in Tyburn, Middlesex April - Pope Clement X is elected. ...

His style, his work

Chambonnières was not the first French claveciniste, because there was a long tradition on this instrument before him, but he was the first in France who gained celebrity for it, for which his whole musical output is written. His style, inherited and adapted from that of the lutenists (style luthé or style brisé) with arpeggiated chords, notes inégales, is well suited to instruments made by the Ruckers in Antwerp, which became influential in Paris at this very time and had quite different caracteristics from the lightly built Italian and French harpsichords. Chambonnières owned a harpsichord made by Johannes Couchet, the son-in-law of Ioannes Ruckers. This article will be merged with Italian musical terms at some point in the near future. ... In music and music theory a chord (from the middle English cord, short for accord) is three or more notes sounding simultaneously, or near simultaneously over a period of time. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ...

Not only is his whole output for the harpsichord; it is also exclusively dedicated to dance music. His pieces (rather short, mostly in binary form AABB) are not organized in suites, as they would be later by Johann Jakob Froberger, Nicolas Lebègue, Jean-Henry d'Anglebert and their followers. They may express a distinctive poetry and sensitiveness, announcing the style of François Couperin. François Couperin (born Paris November 10, 1668 – September 12, 1733 in Paris) was an esteemed French composer in the Baroque style. ...

Except the two published books, his output has been preserved in several manuscripts, most of them in the famous Bauyn MS in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. More than a half are Courantes, but he also wrote Allemandes, Sarabandes, some Gigues and other rare or older pieces such as Gaillarde, Pavane, Canaris, Menuet, and Chaconne. No prelude (either measured or unmeasured) is presumably his work. Some pieces have an expressive title, a characteristic in common with the lutenists of his time. The use of expressive or enigmatic titles would be a distinctive attribute of French music until the last book of Duphly ("les Barricades", "l'Entretien des Dieux", "la Drollerie" etc). Courante was a court dance popular in Europe from about 1600 to 1800. ... An allemande (also spelled allemanda, almain, or alman) (from French German) is a type of dance popular in Baroque music, and a standard element of a suite, generally the first or second movement (in which case the first one is a sort of prelude, whatever its name (prelude, toccata, preambulum... In music, the sarabande (It. ... This article is about the folk dance jig, for other meanings, see Jig (disambiguation). ... The galliard (Gaillarde, in French) was a form of Renaissance Dance and music popular all over Europe in the 16th century. ... The pavane is a processional dance common in Europe during the 16th century, whether named from an origin in Padua (padovano) or from the stately sweep of a ladys train likened to a peacocks tail. ... For the 20th century German Admiral, see Wilhelm Canaris. ... This is an article about the operating system. ... In music a chaconne is a musical form. ...



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