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Encyclopedia > Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
Dutch chemist
Born August 30, 1852
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Died March 1, 1911
Steglitz, Berlin, Germany

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (August 30, 1852 - March 1, 1911) was a Dutch physical and organic chemist and the winner of the inaugural Nobel Prize in chemistry. His reasearch on chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, osmotic pressure and crystallography are credited to be their major works. Jacobus helped to found the discipline of physical chemistry as we know it today, he is also considered to be one of the greatest chemists of all time together with French chemists Antoine Lavoisier, Louis Pasteur and german chemist Friedrich Wöhler. Picture of Van t Hoff This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... Look up chemist on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other places named Rotterdam, see Rotterdam (disambiguation) Rotterdam ( â–¶ (help· info)), located in the province of Zuid Holland, is the second largest municipality in the Netherlands (after Amsterdam), yet depending on the calculation methods the agglomeration in which Rotterdam is situated vies with the Amsterdam agglomeration for first spot in... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Physical Chemistry is the combined science of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics which functions to provide molecular-level interpretations of observed macroscopic phenomena. ... Organic chemistry is the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and synthesis of organic compounds that by definition contain carbon. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ... In physical chemistry, chemical kinetics or reaction kinetics study reaction rates in a chemical reaction. ... Chemical equilibrium is the state in which a chemical reaction proceeds at the same rate as its reverse reaction; the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal, and the concentration of the reactants and products stop changing. ... Osmotic pressure or turgor (also called turgor pressure) is the pressure produced by a solution in a space that is enclosed by a differentially permeable membrane. ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... Physical Chemistry is the combined science of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics which functions to provide molecular-level interpretations of observed macroscopic phenomena. ... A chemist is a scientist who specializes in chemistry. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French microbiologist, chemist and humanist. ... Look up chemist on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wöhler Friedrich Wöhler Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ...

Contents


Early days

He was born in Rotterdam, the son of a medical doctor. From a young age he was interested in science, and lover of nature; he frequently took part in the botanical excursions, his receptiveness for philosophy and his predilection for poetry were already apparent in his early school years, Lord Byron was his idol. Against the wishes of his father he went to study chemistry, first at the Delft Polytechnical Institute, then at the University of Leiden, then to Bonn, Germany (where he studied with Friedrich Kekulé), then Paris (where he studied with C. A. Wurtz), and finally receiving his doctorate at the University of Utrecht in 1874. In 1878 van't Hoff married Johanna Francina Mees. They had two daughters, Johanna Francina (b. 1880) and Aleida Jacoba (b. 1882) and two sons, Jacobus Hendricus (b. 1883) and Govert Jacob (b. 1889). For other places named Rotterdam, see Rotterdam (disambiguation) Rotterdam ( â–¶ (help· info)), located in the province of Zuid Holland, is the second largest municipality in the Netherlands (after Amsterdam), yet depending on the calculation methods the agglomeration in which Rotterdam is situated vies with the Amsterdam agglomeration for first spot in... See also Medical doctor (BE), Physician (AE), and Medical school. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Chemistry (derived from the Arabic word kimia, alchemy, where al is Arabic for the) is the science of matter that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of substances and with the transformations that they undergo. ... Founded in 1842, the Delft University of Technology, in Delft, the Netherlands, is one of the oldest, largest, and most comprehensive technical universities in the Netherlands, with over 13,000 students and 2,100 scientists (including 200 professors). ... Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ... Bonn is a city in Germany (19th largest), in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the north of the Siebengebirge. ... Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz (September 7, 1829 – July 13, 1896) was a German organic chemist. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Charles Adolphe Wurtz (November 26, 1817 _ May 10, 1884) was a French chemist. ... Utrecht University (Universiteit Utrecht in Dutch) is a university in Utrecht, The Netherlands. ... 1874 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1882 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1883 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1889 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Contributions to chemistry and major works

Before receiving his doctorate, Van 't Hoff had already published the first of his important contributions to organic chemistry. In 1874 he accounted for the phenomenon of optical activity by assuming that the chemical bonds between carbon atoms and their neighbors were directed towards the corners of a regular tetrahedron. This three-dimensional structure perfectly accounted for the isomers found in nature (stereochemistry). He shares credit for this idea with the French chemist Joseph Le Bel, who independently came up with the same idea. Organic chemistry is the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and synthesis of organic compounds that by definition contain carbon. ... 1874 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... When polarized light is passed through a substance containing chiral molecules (or nonchiral molecules arranged asymmetrically), the direction of polarization can be changed. ... A chemical bond is the phenomenon of atoms being held together in molecules, crystals or in solid metal. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... Properties An atom (Greek άτομον from ά: non and τομον: divisible) is a submicroscopic structure found in all ordinary matter. ... For academic journal, see Tetrahedron A tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. ... The different types of isomers. ... Joseph Le Bel (1847–1930) was a stereochemist known for his work on the three-dimensional structure of tetrahedral carbon structures. ...

van't Hoff in the 1900s at the height of his career.
van't Hoff in the 1900s at the height of his career.

In 1884 Hoff published his research on chemical kynetics, naming it Études de Dynamique chimique ("Studies in Chemical Dynamics"), in which he described a new method for determining the order of a reaction using graphics, and applied the laws of thermodynamics to chemical equilibriums. He also introduced the modern concept of chemical affinity. In 1886 he showed a similarity between the behaviour of dilute solutions and gases. Until 1895 he worked on Svante Arrhenius theory of the dissociation of electrolytes. On 1896 he became professor to the Prussian Academy of Science at Berlin. His studies of the salt deposits at Stassfurt, contributed to Prussia's chemical industry. In 1887 he and German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald founded an influential scientific magazine named Zeitschrift für physikalische Chemie ("Journal of Physical Chemistry"). Image File history File links Vanthoff3. ... Image File history File links Vanthoff3. ... // Events and Trends Technology Lawrence Hargrave makes the first stable wing design for a heavier-than-air aircraft Orville and Wilbur Wright make the first documented flight in a powered heavier-than-air aircraft Mass production of automobile Wide popularity of home phonograph Panama Canal is built by the United... 1884 is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar). ... Order in the context of a chemical reaction is a concept of reaction kinetics, a subdiscipline of physical chemistry. ... Graphics are visual presentations on some surface such as a wall, canvas, computer screen, paper or stone to inform, illustrate or entertain. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamis meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of temperature, pressure, and volume changes on physical systems at the macroscopic scale. ... 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... 1895 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Svante August Arrhenius Svante August Arrhenius (February 19, 1859 – October 2, 1927) was a Swedish chemist and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry. ... An electrolyte is a substance which dissociates free ions when dissolved (or molten), to produce an electrically conductive medium. ... 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1887 is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ... Wilhelm Ostwald Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (commonly just Wilhelm Ostwald) (September 2, 1853 - April 4, 1932) was a German chemist. ...


Winner of the inaugural Nobel Prize in chemistry

Van 't Hoff became a lecturer in chemistry and physics at the Veterinary College in Utrecht. Hoff became into professor of chemistry, mineralogy, and geology at the University of Amsterdam for almost 18 years and eventually he moved to the chairmanship of the chemistry department. In 1896 van't Hoff moved to Germany where he finished his career at the University of Berlin in 1911. In 1901 he received the first Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work with solutions. This can generally be summarized by stating that very dilute solutions follow mathematical laws that closely resemble the laws describing the behavior of gases. This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... Utrecht is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... Chemistry (derived from the Arabic word kimia, alchemy, where al is Arabic for the) is the science of matter that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of substances and with the transformations that they undergo. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ... From Athenaeum Illustre to University In January 1632 two internationally acclaimed scientists, Caspar Barlaeus and Gerardus Vossius, held their inaugural speech in the Athenaeum Illustre - the illustrious school - which had its seat in the 14th-century Agnietenkapel. ... 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der Künste Berlin) This is... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (the solutes) dissolved in another substance (the solvent). ... A gas is one of the four main phases of matter (after solid and liquid, and followed by plasma), that subsequently appear as a solid material is subjected to increasingly higher temperatures. ...


Final days, awards and legacy

In 1885 he was appointed member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences. Other distinctions included the honorary doctorates of Harvard and Yale 1901, Victoria University, Manchester 1903, Heidelberg 1908; the Davy Medal of the Royal Society 1893 (along with Le Bel), Helmholtz Medal of the Prussian Academy of Sciences 1911; he was also appointed Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur 1894, Senator der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (1911). Van't Hoff was also honorary member of the British Chemical Society in London, the Royal Academy of Sciences, in Gottingen 1892, American Chemical Society 1898, and the Académie des Sciences, in Paris 1905. 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1893 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph Le Bel (1847–1930) was a stereochemist known for his work on the three-dimensional structure of tetrahedral carbon structures. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Map of Germany showing Göttingen 1 External links Coat of Arms University of Göttingen Top: The old Auditorium Maximum (1862-65) Bottom: New library building Göttingen is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


He was indeed a prominent scientist of its time, off the numerous distinctions he himself mentioned the award of the first Nobel Prize in Chemistry to him as the culmination-point of his career.


Jacobus passed away at the age of 58, on March 1, 1911, at Steglitz near Berlin. March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


See also

In physical chemistry, the Vant Hoft factor i is the number of moles of solute actually in a solution in water, per mole of solid solute added. ...

References

  • Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff. Recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions. URL accessed on September 18, 2005.

  Results from FactBites:
 
J. H. van 't Hoff (263 words)
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (August 30, 1852 - March 1, 1911) was a Dutch physical and organic chemist, the winner of the first Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Before receiving his doctorate, however, Van 't Hoff already published the first of his important contributions to organic chemistry.
Van 't Hoff became a lecturer in chemistry and physics at the Veterinary College in Utrecht.
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff at AllExperts (692 words)
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (August 30, 1852 - March 1, 1911) was a Dutch physical and organic chemist and the winner of the inaugural Nobel Prize in chemistry.
Jacobus helped to found the discipline of physical chemistry as we know it today, he is also considered to be one of the greatest chemists of all time together with French chemists Antoine Lavoisier, Louis Pasteur and german chemist Friedrich Wöhler.
Jacobus died at the age of 58, on March 1, 1911, at Steglitz near Berlin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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