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Encyclopedia > Jacobitism
Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet

Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. The movement took its name from the Latin form Jacobus of the name of King James II and VII. bonnie prince charlie, painted 1739-1745, showing tartan jacket, star and ribbon of the garter, white cockade on hat This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ...


Jacobitism was a response to the deposition of James II and VII in 1688 when he was replaced by his daughter Mary II jointly with her husband and first cousin William of Orange. The Stuarts lived on the European mainland after that, occasionally attempting to regain the throne with the aid of France or Spain. Within the British Isles, the primary seats of Jacobitism were Ireland and (especially Highland) Scotland. There was also some support in England and Wales, particularly in Northern England. // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ... The British Isles in relation to mainland Europe The British Isles (French: , Irish: [1] or Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa,[2] Manx: Ellanyn Goaldagh, Scottish Gaelic: , Welsh: ), is a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Northern England, The North or North of England is a rather ill-defined term, with no universally accepted definition. ...


Many embraced Jacobitism because they believed parliamentary interference with monarchical succession to be illegitimate, and many Catholics hoped the Stuarts would end discriminatory laws; but people became involved in the military campaigns for all sorts of allegiances and motives. In Scotland the Jacobite cause became entangled in the last throes of the warrior Clan system, and became a lasting romantic memory. Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which...


The emblem of the Jacobites is the White Rose of York; White Rose Day is celebrated on 10 June, the anniversary of the birth of James III and VIII in 1688. The White Rose of York (Rosa alba) is the symbol of the House of York and latterly of Yorkshire. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart (June 10, 1688 – January 1, 1766) was a claimant of the thrones of Scotland and England (September 16, 1701 – January 1, 1766) and is commonly referred to as The Old Pretender. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ...

Contents

Political background

Main articles: Cameronians and Covenanters

From the second half of the 17th century onwards, a time of political and religious turmoil existed in the British Isles. The Commonwealth ended with the Restoration of Charles II. During his reign the Church of England was re-established, and episcopal church government was restored in Scotland. The latter move was particularly contentious, causing many, especially in the south-west of Scotland, to abandon the official church, attending illegal field assemblies in preference. The authorities attempted some accommodation with Presbyterian dissidents, introducing official 'Indulgences' in 1669 and 1672, meeting with some limited success. Towards the end of Charles' reign those with more extreme Presbyterian opinions, known as the Covenanters, who favoured rejecting all compromise with the state, began to move away from religious dissent to outright political sedition. This was particularly true of the followers of the Reverend Richard Cameron, soon to be known as the Cameronians. The government increasingly resorted to force in its attempts to stamp out the Cameronians and the other Society Men, in a period subsequently labeled as the Killing Time. Cameronian was a name given to a section of the Scottish Covenanters who followed the teachings of Richard Cameron, and who were composed prinicpally of those who signed the Sanquhar Declaration in 1680. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The British Isles in relation to mainland Europe The British Isles (French: , Irish: [1] or Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa,[2] Manx: Ellanyn Goaldagh, Scottish Gaelic: , Welsh: ), is a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... Richard Cameron (1648? - 1680) was the founder of the religious group that took his name, the Cameronians, which ultimately formed the nucleus of the Scottish regiment of the same name. ... Cameronian was a name given to a section of the Scottish Covenanters who followed the teachings of Richard Cameron, and who were composed prinicpally of those who signed the Sanquhar Declaration in 1680. ... The Killing Time is the colloquial name given to a period of conflict in Scottish History between 1679 and 1688. ...


Since the late Middle Ages the Kingdoms of England and Scotland had been evolving towards a quasi-oligarchical or collegiate form of government in which the monarch was held to rule with the consensus of the land-owning upper classes. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Oligarchy is a form of government where most political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). ... A college (Latin collegium) can be the name of any group of colleagues; originally it meant a group of people living together under a common set of rules (con-, together + leg-, law). As a consequence members of colleges were originally styled fellow and still are in some places. ... “King” redirects here. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ...


The reigns of the last three Stuart Kings Charles I, Charles II and James II and VII were marked by growing Royal resistance to this developing consensual model of government. In part the Kings were inspired by the development of Royal Absolutism in contemporary Europe (see Louis XIV). In part, however, the apologists of royal authority based their claims on a just assessment of the powers claimed by England and Scotland's medieval monarchs. The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon a full appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of any actions, with the individual being in possession of all of his faculties (not mentally retarded or mentally ill), and his... “King” redirects here. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ...


In 1685 Charles II was succeeded by his Roman Catholic brother, James II and VII. In addition to sharing his family's absolutist views of government, James tried to introduce religious tolerance of Roman Catholics and Protestant Dissenters. In Seventeenth Century Europe being a religious outsider meant being a political and social outsider as well. James tried to encourage the participation in public life of Roman Catholics, Protestant Dissenters, and Quakers such as William Penn the Younger. Such attempts to broaden his basis of support succeeded in antagonizing members of the Anglican establishment. Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The term dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, to disagree), labels one who dissents or disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Look up outsider in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The term dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, to disagree), labels one who dissents or disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... William Penn William Penn (October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718) founded the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony that became the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ...


In Ireland James's viceroy, Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, was the first Catholic viceroy since the Reformation and acted to reduce Protestant ascendancy and to have strong points in Ireland controlled by garrisons loyal to the views of James. Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel (1630 – 14 August 1691), the fifth son of Sir William Talbot, Bart. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


In England and Scotland, James attempted to impose religious toleration, which helped the Catholic minority but alarmed the religious and political establishment. William of Orange, building alliances against France, lobbied the English political élite to have James replaced by William's wife Mary who was James's daughter and next in line to the throne, but they were reluctant to rush a succession expected to happen in due course. Then in 1688 James's second wife had a boy, bringing the prospect of a Catholic dynasty, and the "Immortal Seven" invited William and Mary to depose James. On 4th November 1688 William arrived at Torbay, England and, when he landed the next day, at Brixham, James fled to France: in February 1689 the Glorious Revolution formally changed England's monarch, but many Catholics, Episcopalians and Tory royalists still supported James as the constitutionally legitimate monarch. William III King of England, Scotland and Ireland William III and II (14 November 1650–8 March 1702; also known as William Henry and William of Orange) was Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scotland from 11... The Grand Alliance (known, prior to 1689, as the League of Augsburg) was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... The Immortal Seven were seven notable English citizens who issued the Invitation to William, a document asking William of Orange to depose James II in favour of Williams wife Mary, culminating in the Glorious Revolution. ... Torbay (IPA: ) is an east-facing bay, at the western most end of Lyme Bay in the south-west of England, situated roughly midway between the cities of Exeter and Plymouth. ... Brixham (IPA: ) is a small town in the county of Devon, in the south-west of England. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ...


Scotland was slow to accept William, who summoned a Convention of the Estates which met on 14 March 1689 in Edinburgh and considered a conciliatory letter from William and a haughty one from James. Forces of Cameronians as well as Clan Campbell highlanders led by the Earl of Argyll had come to bolster William's support. On James's side a more modest force of a troop of fifty horsemen gathered by John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee was in town, and he attended the convention at the start but withdrew four days later when support for William became evident. The convention set out its terms and William and Mary were proclaimed at Edinburgh on 11 April 1689, then had their coronation in London in May. March 14 is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Cameronian was a name given to a section of the Scottish Covenanters who followed the teachings of Richard Cameron, and who were composed prinicpally of those who signed the Sanquhar Declaration in 1680. ... Campbell Clan Badge - A Boars head represents the positive qualities of the boar: courage and fierceness in battle. ... Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll (1658 - September 25, 1703) was a Scottish peer. ... John Graham, Viscount Dundee (c. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ...


Religion, politics and adventurers

While Jacobitism was closely linked with Catholicism from the outset, particularly in Ireland, elsewhere in Britain Catholics were a tiny minority by 1689 and the bulk of Jacobite support came from other groups. Catholics formed about 75% of the population of Ireland, but in England only around 1% and in Scotland about 2%. Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ...


Ireland

Irish support for James II was mostly from Catholics, though by taking the French side against the League of Augsburg, he was siding against the Papacy. William was allied to many Catholic states, including the Holy Roman Empire and his elite force the Dutch Blue Guards had the Papal Banner with them. The war in Ireland was predominantly a Catholic uprising and after its defeat in 1691 their only military contribution to Jacobite support came from the Irish Brigade of the French army. The Grand Alliance (known, prior to 1689, as the League of Augsburg) was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The Dutch Blue Guards were an elite infantry unit of the army of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... The Irish Brigade was a brigade in the French army composed of Irish exiles. ...


Jacobitism in Ireland had its roots in Irish support for the Stuart dynasty dating back to the accession of James I to the throne in 1603. Gaelic poets in Ireland lauded James as the first "Irish" king of the Three Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, because of his family's Gaelic ancestry. James and his successors were also viewed as being less hostile to Catholicism than the Tudors. In the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of the 1640s, Irish Catholics organised in Confederate Ireland pledged allegiance to Charles I and Charles II against the English Parliament. As a result, most Catholic landowners had their lands confiscated after Parliament's victory and the Catholic Church suffered harsh repression. James II, the first openly Catholic king of England in over a century, was therefore viewed as a saviour by Irish Catholics. James appointed an Irish Catholic – Tyrconnell – as Lord Deputy of Ireland, re-admitted Catholics into the army and militia and introduced toleration for the Catholic religion. During the Williamite war in Ireland, he also reluctantly agreed to proclaim the autonomy of the Irish Parliament from the English one and the restitution of lands confiscated from Catholics after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The demands of religious toleration, legislative autonomy and land ownership were the three key elements of Irish Jacobitism, which remained influential until the mid eighteenth century. The House of Stuart or Stewart was a Scottish, and then British, Royal House of Breton origin. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group which spread from Ireland to many parts of Britain, specifically Scotland, the Isle of Man, Wales and Cornwall. ... The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ... Kilkenny Castle, where the Confederate General Assembly met. ... Official standard of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (also known as the Viceroy or in the Middle Ages as the Lord Deputy) was the head of Englands (pre-1707) or Britains (post 1707) administration in Ireland. ... For the context of this war see Jacobitism and Glorious Revolution. ... Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - December 1650) Ulick Burke, Earl of Clanricarde (December 1650-April 1653) Oliver Cromwell (1649-May 1650) Henry Ireton (May 1650-November 1651) Charles...


England and Scotland

In lowland Britain the Catholics tended to come from the gentry and formed the most ideologically committed supporters, drawing on almost two centuries of subterfuge as a minority persecuted by the state and rallying enthusiastically to Jacobite armies as well as contributing financial support to the court in exile. Some Scottish Highland clans such as the Clan Macdonald of Clanranald remained Catholic, but they were exceptions. The Scottish Clan Donald (motto: Per Mare Per Terras which means By sea and by land ) is split into several branches including MacDonald of the Isles, MacDonald of Clan Ranald, MacDonald of Sleat, MacDonald of Keppoch, MacDonald of Ardnamurchan and McDonell of Glengarry. ...


Just as much dedicated support in England came from the Nonjuring Anglicans, which started with Church of England clergy who refused on principle to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary while James still lived, and developed into an Episcopalian schism of the church with small congregations in all the English cities. In many respects, Jacobites perceived themselves as the heirs of the Royalists or Cavaliers of the English Civil War era, who had fought for James II's father Charles I and for the Established Church against the Parliamentarians - who stood for the primacy of Parliament and for religious dissent. Jacobite supporters displayed pictures of both Cavalier and Jacobite heroes in their homes. A non-juror is a person who refuses to swear a particular oath. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Prince Rupert of the Rhine Cavaliers was the name used by Parliamentarians for the Royalist supporters of King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642–1651). ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to supporters of the Parliamentarian cause in the English Civil War. ...


Scottish Episcopalians provided over half of the Jacobite forces in Britain, and although Dundee's rising in 1689 came mostly from the western Highlands, in later risings Episcopalians came roughly equally from the north-east Scottish Lowlands north of the River Tay and from the Highland clans. They too were described as Nonjurors. As Protestants they could take part in Scottish politics, but were in a minority and were repeatedly discriminated against in legislation favouring the established Church of Scotland. The clergy could even be imprisoned, as occurred in the Stonehaven Tolbooth after three clergymen held services at the chapel at Muchalls Castle. However many Episcopalians were quiet about any Jacobite sympathies and were able to accommodate themselves to the new regime. About half of the Episcopalians supporting the Jacobite cause came from the Lowlands, but this was obscured in the risings by their tendency to wear Highland dress as a kind of Jacobite uniform. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due south and east... The River Tay looking eastwards from Perth The River Tay, in terms of flow (193 kilometres or 120 miles), is the longest river in Scotland. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... Stonehaven Tolbooth The Stonehaven Tolbooth is a late sixteenth century stone building originally used as a prison and a courthouse in the town of Stonehaven, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. ... Muchalls Castle, Kincardineshire Muchalls Castle stands overlooking the North Sea in the countryside of historic Kincardineshire, Scotland. ...


The Scottish Highlands

To the Scottish Highland clans the conflict was more about inter-clan politics than about religion, and a significant factor was resistance to the territorial ambitions of the (Presbyterian) Campbells of Argyll. There was a precedent for post 1689 Jacobitism during the period of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, when clans from the western Highlands had fought for James's father Charles I against the Campbells and the Covenanters. Another factor in Highland Jacobitism was James II's sympathetic treatment of the Highland clans. Whereas previous monarchs since the late 16th century had been antagonistic to the Gaelic Highland way of life, James had worked sympathetically with the clan chieftains in the Commission for Pacifying the Highlands. Some Highland chieftains therefore viewed Jacobitism as a means of resisting hostile government intrusion into their territories. The significance of their support for the Stuarts was that the Highlands was the only part of Britain which still maintained private armies, in the form of clan levies. During the Jacobite Risings, they provided the bulk of Jacobite manpower. Campbell Clan Badge - A Boars head represents the positive qualities of the boar: courage and fierceness in battle. ... Argyll, archaically Argyle (Airthir-Ghaidheal in Gaelic, translated as [the] East Gael, or [the] East Irish), sometimes called Argyllshire, is a traditional county of Scotland. ... The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in the British Isles occurring between 1688 and 1746. ...


Opportunists and Adventurers

Another source of Jacobite support came from those dissatisfied with political developments. Some Whigs, most obviously the Earl of Mar, reacted to political disappointments by joining the Jacobites, but while others were courted from 1692 onwards and indicated support, mostly this was just reinsurance in case the Jacobites came out on top. The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... John Erskine, 22nd (or 6th) Earl of Mar (1675 - May, 1732), Scottish Jacobite, was the eldest son of Charles, the 5th earl (1650-1689), from whom he inherited estates that were heavily loaded with debt. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ...


The Tories were a more likely source of support given their commitment to church and king, but many were reluctant to trust the Church of England to a Catholic king. At times such as 17151722 when the Hanoverians appeared to be dismantling Anglican dominance and 1743–1745 when Whig dealings denied the Tories parliamentary victory they would coalesce and turn to the Jacobites, but they were reluctant when it came to serious action. Nevertheless this gave hopes that large numbers of Tories would support a Jacobite rising with a serious prospect of winning, particularly when helped by foreign intervention. The rise and fall of the earlier Tory alliance with the Jacobites forms a major part of the background for Sir Walter Scott's Bride of Lammermoor. For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... For the first Premier of Saskatchewan see Thomas Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott (August 14, 1771 - September 21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe. ... The Bride of Lammermoor is an historical novel by Sir Walter Scott, set in Scotland in the reign of Queen Anne. ...


Other Jacobite recruits could be described as adventurers — desperate men who saw the cause as a solution to their (usually financial) problems. Although small in number and varying from unemployed weavers looking for excitement to impoverished gentry like William Boyd, 4th Earl of Kilmarnock who served Charles as a colonel and became a general after the Battle of Falkirk, they contributed significantly to the daring that brought the Jacobites a prospect of success in their campaigns. However, other such mercenaries often became spies and informers. During the Second Jacobite Rising, the Battle of Falkirk was the last noteworthy Jacobite success. ...


Jacobite community, ideology and policy

From its religious roots, Jacobite ideology was passed on through committed families of the nobility and gentry who would have pictures of the exiled royal family and of Cavalier and Jacobite martyrs, and take part in like minded networks. Even today, some Highland clans and regiments pass their drink over a glass of water during the Loyal Toast — to the King Over the Water. More widely, commoners developed communities in areas where they could fraternise in Jacobite alehouses, inns and taverns, singing seditious songs, collecting for the cause and on occasion being recruited for risings. At government attempts to close such places they simply transferred to another venue. In these neighbourhoods Jacobite wares such as inscribed glassware, brooches with hidden symbols and tartan waistcoats were popular. The criminal activity of smuggling became associated with Jacobitism throughout Britain, partly because of the advantage of dealing through exiled Jacobites in France.

Further developments are mentioned under "Jacobitism in England" below.

Official policy of the court in exile initially reflected the uncompromising intransigence that got James into trouble in the first place. With the powerful support of the French they saw no need to accommodate the concerns of his Protestant subjects, and effectively issued a summons for them to return to their duty. In 1703 Louis pressed James into a more accommodating stance in the hopes of detaching England from the Grand Alliance, essentially promising to maintain the status quo. This policy soon changed, and increasingly Jacobitism ostensibly identified itself with causes of the alienated and dispossessed. Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ...


Military campaigns and Jacobitism

This section focuses on the political context. For military aspects of these campaigns see the Williamite war in Ireland and Jacobite Risings. For the context of this war see Jacobitism and Glorious Revolution. ... The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in the British Isles occurring between 1688 and 1746. ...


Jacobite war in Ireland

James II and VII had his viceroy Tyrconnell take action to secure Ireland for the Catholic cause, culminating in the Siege of Derry which began on 7 December 1688. By then the deposed James had fled to France, and with support from Louis XIV, who was already at war with William of Orange, James landed in Ireland on 12 March 1689. Having taken Dublin and joined the Siege of Londonderry, to maintain the support of Catholic nationalists he reluctantly agreed to the Irish Parliament's demand for an Act declaring that the Parliament of England had no right to pass laws for Ireland. By August 1689 Williamite forces relieved the siege and cleared most of Ulster of Jacobites. For context see the Williamite war in Ireland and Jacobitism. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Nine Years War redirects here. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ...


The following July, William's army was victorious in a skirmish at the Battle of the Boyne. The Jacobite army retreated, little damaged, but James fled to France, acquiring the nickname Séamus an chaca (James the beshitten) and leaving the Irish to fight on until in October 1691 they surrendered and the Irish army was made to leave Ireland to become the Irish Brigade of the French army. Jacobitism lingered on for another century in the ideology of nationalist secret societies, but did not play an overt role again in Ireland. Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James VII and II William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6...


Dundee's rising

David Morier's painting "Culloden" shows the highlanders still wearing the plaids which they normally set aside before battle, where they would fire a volley then run full tilt at the enemy with broadsword and targe in the Highland charge wearing only their shirts

On 16 April 1689, almost a month after he left the Convention in Edinburgh and five days after it had proclaimed William and Mary, John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, raised James's standard on the hilltop of Dundee Law with fewer than 50 men in support. At that time he was known as Bluidy Clavers for his part in dealing with Covenanters, but nowadays he is sometimes remembered as Bonnie Dundee from the words of a sentimental popular song written by the Romantic novelist, Walter Scott, in 1830. At first he had difficulty in raising many supporters, but after the Williamite commander had proved ineffective and 200 Irish troops had landed at Kintyre he gained support from Catholic and Episcopalian Highland Clans, though not from the Episcopal Bishops of the Scots nobility. Battle of Culloden, by David Morier. ... Combatants British Army Jacobite Forces Commanders William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender Strength ca. ... Formal Highland regalia, kilt and Prince Charlie jacket for Black tie. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... James VI of Scotland (James I of England) was opposed by the Covenanters in his attempt to bring the Anglican Church into Scotland The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century. ... Bonnie Dundee, better known as John Graham, Viscount Dundee, who died fighting for the Jacobite cause at the Battle of Killiecrankie is immortalised in this song by Sir Walter Scott. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... Kintyre shown within Argyll Kintyre is a peninsula in western Scotland in the south-west of Argyll. ...


Victory for the Jacobite Highlanders at the Battle of Killiecrankie on 27 July 1689 was marred when Dundee was killed in the fighting. A series of government expeditions to subdue the Highlands eventually led to Jacobite defeat in May 1690 and lingering hopes faded with news of the Battle of the Boyne. A year later the Jacobites were forced to agree to a truce while the Clan chieftains sent requests to the exiled James VII and II for permission to submit to William, and in January 1692 the Jacobite Clans formally surrendered to the government. Combatants Jacobite Royalists (Highlanders & Irish) Orange Royalists (Covenanters, Lowlanders) Commanders Viscount Dundee† Hugh Mackay Strength 2400 foot 3500 foot Casualties 800, inc. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James VII and II William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ...


William's main interest was in the War of the Grand Alliance in the Low Countries against the French and he paid little attention to Scotland, trying to bribe or coerce the clan leaders. His demands that each chief put in writing the submission authorised by James resulted in the Massacre of Glencoe on 13 February 1692. Glencoe The Massacre of Glencoe occurred in Glen Coe, Scotland, early in the morning of 13 February 1692, during the era of the Glorious Revolution and Jacobitism. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ...


James III's attempted invasion

In 1701 James II and VII died. He was succeeded in his claims by his son, James Francis Edward Stuart. He was recognised as King James III of England and King James VIII of Scotland by the courts of France, Spain, and Modena, and by the pope; to his detractors he was eventually to be known as the Old Pretender, while his supporters referred to him as the King Across the Water. Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart (June 10, 1688 – January 1, 1766) was a claimant of the thrones of Scotland and England (September 16, 1701 – January 1, 1766) and is commonly referred to as The Old Pretender. ...


After a brief peace, the War of the Spanish Succession renewed French support for the Jacobites and in 1708 James Francis set out with French troops, but the French fleet was chased away by the Royal Navy and retreated round the north of Scotland back to France. Combatants Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain,[1] Dutch Republic, Portugal, Others France, Spain, Bavaria, Others Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Earl of Galway, Count Overkirk, Marquês das Minas Duc de Villars, Duc de Vendôme, Duc de Boufflers, Duc de Villeroi, Duke... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


Hanoverians

In March 1702 William died and the throne passed to Mary's sister Anne, the last of James II and VII's children to sit upon the thrones of England and Scotland. Scotland's economy was faltering and the English parliament used trade sanctions to force the Scottish parliament towards union. One Scottish politician who thrived in these unpopular negotiations was the Earl of Mar who, despite his Episcopalian background, ably supported the Scottish Revolution interest and after being a signatory to the Act of Union of 1707 was rewarded by Queen Anne and rose in the new British parliament to a key role in running Scottish affairs, a position formalised in 1713 when the post of Secretary of State for Scotland was revived for him. In that year he was part of the ministry that negotiated the Treaty of Utrecht which ended hostilities between France and Britain, in a deal unpopular with Hanoverians and Whigs. Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) followed Englands only joint monarchy to become Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 after the passing of both William and Mary. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief minister in the government of the United Kingdom with responsibilites for Scotland, at the head of the Scotland Office (formerly The Scottish Office). ... The Treaties of Utrecht (April 11, 1713) were signed in Utrecht, a city of the United Provinces. ...


Widespread discontent gave the Jacobites increasing hopes that James Francis Edward Stuart would gain power when the popular Anne died leaving no immediate successor. However, the Act of Settlement 1701 required the monarch to be Protestant while James Francis was a devout Catholic. The crown therefore passed to Anne's second cousin the Elector of Hanover, great grandson of James I of England and VI of Scotland, who thus became George I. The Whigs acted quickly to bring in this uncharismatic German, forestalling possible arguments. This unattractive foreign figure who spoke poor English revived populist loyalism, still slow to transfer affection to the new regime while the old dynasty lived. His arrival in 1714 was greeted by a winter of riots in England. George favoured the Whigs, and in the spring of 1715 the Tories lost the General Election to the Whigs who then impeached Tory leaders for their part in the peace negotiations with France. Tory fears for themselves and for the High Church of England led to conspiracy for armed rebellion, but when the time came their leaders were paralysed with fear and indecision and an alerted government ordered the arrest of the major players. At the day for the rising in the south-west a large number of Tory gentry turned up for "a race meeting" at Bath, but on receiving a letter from their leader (who was in hiding) saying that all was lost, they went home. James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart (June 10, 1688 – January 1, 1766) was a claimant of the thrones of Scotland and England (September 16, 1701 – January 1, 1766) and is commonly referred to as The Old Pretender. ... The Electress Sophia The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was the first Hanoverian King of Great Britain and King of Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... Bath is a city in Somerset, England most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ...


The 'Fifteen'

In Scotland years of famine and hardship provided fertile ground for what is often referred to as the First Jacobite Rising (or Rebellion). Mar had found himself identified with the previous government which thwarted his attempts to continue in office in the incoming Hanoverian government of King George I, and fearing impeachment he turned his loyalty to James, justifying his nickname Bobbin' John. The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) were a German royal dynasty which succeeded the House of Stuart as monarchs of Great Britain in 1714. ...


James Francis corresponded with Mar from France, as part of widespread Jacobite plotting, and in the summer of 1715 he called on Mar to raise the Clans without further delay. Mar, realising that the government had found out about his part in the conspiracy, rushed from London to Braemar and summoned clan leaders to "a grand hunting-match" on 27 August 1715 where he announced his change of allegiance. On September 6 he proclaimed James as "their lawful sovereign" and raised the old Scottish standard, whereupon (ominously) the gold ball fell off the top of the flagpole. Mar's proclamation called on men to fight "for the relief of our native country from oppression and a foreign yoke too heavy for us or our posterity to bear". Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Braemar (Scottish Gaelic, Baile a Chaisteil Bhràigh Mhàrr) is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, around 58 miles west of Aberdeen in the Highlands. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ...


While Mar succeeded in raising an alliance of clans and northern Lowlanders, he turned out to be an indifferent and indecisive general. Planned risings in Wales and Devon were forestalled by government arrests. A rising in the north of England joined forces with a rising in the south of Scotland and with a contingent from Mar marched into England, but did not meet the expected welcome and surrendered after a brief siege at the Battle of Preston (1715). Mar's forces in Scotland were unable to defeat government forces. A ship from France belatedly brought James Francis to Peterhead, but he was too consumed by melancholy and fits of fever to inspire his followers. After briefly setting up court at Scone, Perthshire then retreating to the coast, he withdrew to France with Mar on 4 February 1716, leaving a message advising his Highland followers to shift for themselves. This article is about the country. ... “Devonshire” redirects here. ... The Battle of Preston (9 November–14 November 1715), also referred to as the Preston Fight, was fought during the Jacobite Rising of 1715 (often referred to as the First Jacobite Rising, or Rebellion by supporters of the Hanoverian government). ... There is also a suburb of Adelaide named Peterhead, South Australia Peterhead called Ceann Phadraig in Gaelic is a town in Scotland with a population of approximately 18,000. ... Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ...


Jacobitism in England

The unpopularity of George and the Whigs continued. Over the next five years, and to a reduced extent afterwards, a significant section of the English crowd asserted loyalism in Jacobite forms, including songs, symbolic oak leaves and white roses worn on anniversaries, attacks on Whigs and hanging or burning effigies of George with cuckold's horns. They derided his marital problems and mistresses (who got nicknames like the Goose and the Elephant) with songs (preserved in Jacobite Reliques) like Cam Ye O'er Frae France which includes the words "Saw ye Geordie's grace, riding on a goosie?". In the minds of many, the "King over the Water" (whom the Jacobites' opponents called the Old Pretender) became a mythical Arthurian figure, a good king who would one day return and put things right. There was also a developing myth of Jacobite martyrs, praising the brave defiance of Jacobites at the scaffold and treasuring relics in an almost religious way. This inspired their supporters, but for most people these hangings merely showed that the Jacobites were on the losing side. Hoggs Jacobite Reliques is a collection of Jacobite protest songs compiled by James Hogg on commission from the Highland Society of London in 1817. ... A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ...


Spanish supported Jacobite invasion

The failure of the '15 convinced the Jacobites that to overthrow the Hanoverians they needed the support of a major European power, and in an age when the Hapsburg empire was collapsing and armies becoming professionalised this gave a lever to any country in dispute with Britain. With France still at peace, the Jacobites found a new ally in Spain's Minister to the King, Cardinal Giulio Alberoni, but an invasion force which set sail in 1719 failed to reach England and the party of Jacobites and Spanish soldiers which reached Scotland met only lukewarm support and the Spanish soldiers were forced to surrender at the Battle of Glen Shiel. Cardinal Alberoni Giulio Alberoni (May 21, 1664 OS - June 26 NS, 1752), Italian cardinal and statesman in the service of Philip V of Spain, was born near Piacenza, probably at the village of Fiorenzuola dArda in the Duchy of Parma. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... Combatants Britain Jacobite Scotland Spain Commanders Joseph Wightman Lord George Murray Strength 850 infantry 120 dragoons 4 mortar batteries 1000 troops Casualties 21 dead 100 wounded 100 dead, many more wounded The Battle of Glen Shiel was a battle in Glen Shiel, in the West Highlands of Scotland on 10...


The Atterbury plot

Francis Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester and a passionate High Tory, conspired with Mar who had been appointed "Secretary of State" by James Francis in France, for a rising to coincide with the general election in 1722 aiming to exploit public anger over the South Sea Bubble. English Tories out in their constituencies were to summon their kinsmen, friends and tenants to secure their localities and march on London, while volunteers from the Irish Brigade were to land in the south to join them. While the French were sympathetic, an official request for assistance from the Jacobite court in exile meant that they could no longer turn a blind eye so they informed the English ambassador and posted the Irish Brigade out of temptation's way. Mar was bullied into betraying the conspiracy, which collapsed with arrests, denunciations and flights abroad. Francis Atterbury (March 6, 1663 - February 22, 1732), was an English man of letters, politician and bishop. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Hogarthian image of the South Sea Bubble by Edward Matthew Ward, Tate Gallery More well known than The South Sea Company is perhaps the South Sea Bubble (1711 - September 1720) which is the name given to the economic bubble that occurred through overheated speculation in the company shares during 1720. ... The phrase turn a blind eye is attributed to Admiral Horatio Nelson. ...


Aftermath of the 'Fifteen in Scotland

In the aftermath of the 'Fifteen, the Disarming Act and the Clan Act made ineffectual attempts to subdue the Scottish Highlands, and efforts at "rooting out of the Irish language" (Gaelic) were renewed. Government garrisons were built or extended and linked to the south by the Wade roads constructed for Major-General George Wade. Jacobitism lingered on amid resentment of economic hardship and the Whig government, and Catholic missionaries increased their influence with some clans, but, generally Jacobitism became more of a secretive game with the glasses of claret being waved over water before the Loyal Toast so that it became a toast to "the King (over the water)". The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... The Rt. ...


In 1725 Wade raised the independent companies of the Black Watch as a militia to keep peace in the unruly Highlands, but in 1743 they were moved to fight the French in Flanders. Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) is a large historical region overlapping Belgium, France and the Netherlands. ...


The Cornbury plot

Robert Walpole's Excise Scheme of 1733 caused a crisis with public disorders, and Lord Cornbury, heir to the Earl of Clarendon, convinced the French ambassador in London and the French Secretary of State in Paris that the Hanoverian regime was crumbling and proposed a French invasion matched with Jacobite risings. The French cabinet considered the scheme then rejected it, their officials were demoted and Cornbury abandoned politics. The Right Honourable Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745), usually known as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as having been the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Henry Hyde (1672-10 December 1753) was the 2nd Earl of Rochester and the 4th Earl of Clarendon of the 1661 creation. ...


1744 French invasion attempt

Anglo-French relations gradually worsened and the Jacobites tried proposing further schemes, starting in 1737 with John Gordon of Glenbucket suggesting a Highland rising backed by French invasion and continued with lobbying by Lord Semphill as "official" Jacobite agent at the French court. During 1743 the War of the Austrian Succession drew Britain and France into open, though unofficial, hostilities against each other. Through Semphill, English Jacobites made a formal request to France for armed intervention. The French king's Master of Horse toured southern England meeting Tories and discussing their proposals, and in November 1743 Louis XV of France authorised a large-scale invasion of southern England in February 1744. Charles Edward Stuart (later known as Bonnie Prince Charlie or the Young Pretender) who was in exile in Rome with his father (James Francis) was invited to accompany the expedition and rushed to France, but a storm destroyed the attempt. The British lodged strong diplomatic objections to the presence of Charles, and France declared war but abandoned ideas of Jacobite risings and gave Charles no more encouragement. Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Combatants Prussia Spain France Electorate of Bavaria Kingdom of Naples Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic Electorate of Saxony Sardinia Russian Empire Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles Emmanuel III Empress Maria... Louis XV of France (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Silvester Maria Stuart (December 31, 1720 – January 31, 1788), was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and was commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. ...


The 'Forty-Five'

Early in 1744 a small number of Scottish Highland clan chieftains had sent Charles a message that they would rise if he arrived with as few as 3,000 French troops, and even against later cautions from his advisers he was determined not to turn back. He secretively borrowed funds, pawned his mother's jewellery and made preparations with a consortium of privateers. He set out for Scotland on 22 June 1745 with two ships, but the larger ship with 700 volunteers from the Irish Brigade and supplies of armaments was forced back. Charles landed with his seven men of Moidart on the island of Eriskay in the Outer Hebrides on 23 July 1745, and though Scottish clans initially showed little enthusiasm Charles went on to lead the Second Jacobite Rising in his father's name, taking Perth and Edinburgh almost unopposed. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Moidart is a district in Lochaber, Highland, Scotland to the west of Fort William; the area is very remote and Loch Shiel cuts off the south-west boundary of the district. ... Eriskay, looking towards Easabhal on South Uist. ... Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles) redirects here. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Perth (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a royal burgh in central Scotland. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The small Hanoverian army in Scotland under Sir John Cope chased round the Highlands, and eventually encountered Charles near Edinburgh where they were routed by a surprise attack at the Battle of Prestonpans, as celebrated in the Jacobite song "Hey, Johnny Cope, are you waking yet?". There was alarm in England, and in London a patriotic song was performed including the defiant verse: Sir John Cope (1690 - 1760) was a British general. ... Combatants British Army Jacobites Commanders John Cope Charles Edward Stuart Strength ca. ...

Lord grant that Marshal Wade
Shall by thy mighty aid
Victory bring
May he sedition hush,
And like a torrent rush
Rebellious Scots to crush
God save the King.

This song was widely adopted and was to become the National Anthem (usually sung without that verse). Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ...


After Charles held court at Holyrood Palace for five weeks he overcame Lord George Murray's caution by declaring that he had Tory assurances of an English rising and the Jacobite army set for England. Under Murray's command they successfully manoeuvred past government armies to reach Derby on 4 December, only 125 miles (200 km) from a panicking London, with a resentful Charles barely on speaking terms with his general. By then Charles was advised of progress on the French invasion fleet which was then assembling at Dunkirk, but at his Council of War his previous lies about assurances were exposed. They returned to join their growing force in Scotland, with a petulant Charles refusing to take any part in running the campaign until he insisted on fighting an orthodox defensive action at the Battle of Culloden on 16 April 1746 and they were finally defeated. Holyrood Palace The Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly known as Holyrood Palace, originally founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scotland since the 15th century. ... Lord George Murray Lord George Murray (4 October 1694-11 October 1760) was a Scottish Jacobite general, most noted for his 1745 campaign under Bonnie Prince Charlie into England. ... This article is about the city of Derby in England. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Location within France For the battleship, see Dunkerque Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... Combatants British Army Jacobite Forces Commanders William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender Strength ca. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ...


Charles fled to France blaming everything on the treachery of his officers and making a dramatic if humiliating escape disguised as Flora Macdonald's "lady's maid". Cumberland's forces crushed the rebellion and effectively ended Jacobitism as a serious political force in Britain. Flora MacDonald (1722 – March 5, 1790), Jacobite heroine, was the daughter of Ranald MacDonald of Milton in the island of South Uist in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, and his wife Marion, the daughter of Angus MacDonald. ... Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland (April 15, 1721–October 31, 1765), a younger son of King George II of Great Britain and Queen Caroline, was a noted military leader. ...


Decline of Jacobitism

Jacobitism entered permanent decline after the "Forty-Five" rebellion. The French made every effort to rescue Jacobite chieftains as well as Charles, and gave him a hero's welcome back to France, but soon tired of his badgering them to provide a renewed assault on the Hanoverians. After French victories knocked the Netherlands out of the war, the British offered reasonable peace terms and made the expulsion of Charles from France a precondition of negotiations. Charles ignored the French court's order to depart, continued to demand military action and support for his extravagant lifestyle and flaunted his presence around Paris as peace negotiations for the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle got under way. After British complaints the French government lost patience with Charles and in December 1748 he was seized on his way to the Opéra and briefly jailed before being expelled. There were two Treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle. ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of...


The Elibank plot

From 1749 to 1751 Charles laid the groundwork for a rising in England including a visit to London in 1750 when he conferred with the Jacobite leaders and considered an assault on the Tower of London as well as converting to Anglicanism. The English were clear that they would not move without foreign assistance, and Charles turned to Frederick II of Prussia. While Frederick was indifferent to the Jacobite cause he made diplomatic use of the opportunity, and appointed the Earl Marischal as his ambassador to Paris, in a position to keep him informed and veto any plans. Andrew Murray of Elibank, the liaison between Charles and the plotters, finally realised there was no hope of foreign assistance and ended the conspiracy, but by then Charles had sent two exiled Scots as agents to prepare the clans. They were betrayed by Aleistair Ruadh MacDonell of Glengarry, a spy in Charles' entourage, and while one was arrested the other barely escaped. Typically Charles responded to the failure by denouncing his comrades, drunkenness and beating his mistress. Finally, in a dispute with Marischal and the English conspirators in 1754 a drunken Charles apparently threatened to publish their names for having "betrayed" him, finally forcing his supporters to abandon the Jacobite cause. The English Jacobites stopped sending funds and by 1760 Charles had returned to Catholicism and to relying on the Papacy to support his lifestyle. In 1766, when Old Pretender James (VIII/III) Edward Stuart died, the Holy See refused to recognise "Bonnie" Prince Charles as the lawful sovereign of Great Britain, thus losing the most powerful support, the French one being long gone. In 1788, the Scottish Catholics swore allegiance to the Hanover Dynasty, and resolved two years later to pray for King George by name. Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... In Scotland, the office of Great Marischal of Scotland, which was granted to the Keith family as Knight Marischal and later on changed to Lord Marischal and later on again to Earl Marischal of Scotland, died out when a member of the family of Keith forfeited it by being part... Clan MacDonnell of Glengarry Crest: Creag an Fhitich (The Ravens Rock) Clan MacDonell of Glengarry is a Scottish clan and a branch of the Clan Donald or Macdonald, taking its name from Glen Garry where the river Garry runs eastwards through Loch Garry to join the Great Glen about... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Crushing of the clans

In an effort to prevent further trouble in the Scottish Highlands, the government outlawed many cultural practices in order to destroy the warrior clan system. The Act of Proscription incorporating the Disarming Act and the Dress Act required all swords to be surrendered to the government and prohibited wearing of tartans or kilts. The Tenures Abolition Act ended the feudal bond of military service and the Heritable Jurisdictions Act removed the virtually sovereign power the chiefs had over their clan. The extent of enforcement of the prohibitions was variable and sometimes related to a clan's support of the government during the rebellion. Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which... On August 1, 1746 the Act of Proscription (19 Geo. ... After Jacobite Rising of 1715 ended it was evident that the most effective supporters of the Jacobites were Scottish clans in the Scottish Highlands and the Disarming Act attempted to remove this threat. ... The Dress Act was part of the Act of Proscription which came into force on August 1, 1746 and made wearing the Highland Dress including tartan or a kilt illegal in Scotland as well as reiterating the Disarming Act. ... A tartan is type of pattern, originating in woven cloth, but now used in many materials. ... Formal Highland regalia, kilt and Prince Charlie jacket for Black tie. ... The Heritable Jurisdictions (Scotland) Act, 1746 (20 Geo 2 c 43) abolished the traditional rights of jurisdiction afforded to a Scottish clan chief. ... Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which...


Government troops were stationed in the Highlands and built more roads and barracks better to control the region, with a new fortress at Fort George to the east of Inverness which still serves as a base for Highland Regiments of the British Army. Highland clans found a way back to legitimacy by providing regiments to the British Army. Mountain road with hairpin turns in the French Alps For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... A barracks housing conscripts of Norrbottens regemente in Boden, Sweden. ... There is also a later Fort George in Canada. ... Inverness (Scottish Gaelic: ) is the only city in the Highland council area and the Highlands of Scotland (and is considered the unofficial capital). ...


Henry IX

When Charles died in 1788 the Stuart claim to the throne passed to his younger brother Henry, who had become a Cardinal, and who now styled himself King Henry IX of England. After falling into financial difficulty during the French Revolution, he was granted a stipend by George III. However, he never actually surrendered his claims to the throne, though all former supporters of Jacobitism had stopped funding. Following the death of Henry in 1807, the Jacobite claims passed to those excluded by the Act of Settlement: initially to the House of Savoy (1807-1840), then to the Modenese branch of the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine (1840-1919), and finally to the House of Bavaria (1919-present). Franz, Duke of Bavaria is the current Jacobite heir. Neither he nor any of his predecessors since 1807 have pursued their claim, although his father was known to wear the Stuart tartan on occasion. Henry, Charles and James are memorialised in the Monument to the Royal Stuarts in the Vatican. 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Henry Benedict Cardinal Stuart (March 11, 1725 – July 13, 1807) was the fourth and last Jacobite to publicly claim the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Electress Sophia The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria: // Dukes of Bavaria, 548-1623 Agilolfing Dynasty (see also Bavarii) ca. ... His Royal Highness the Duke of Bavaria Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern (born July 14, 1933), styled as His Royal Highness The Duke of Bavaria, is head of the Wittelsbach family, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... A tartan is type of pattern, originating in woven cloth, but now used in many materials. ... Monument to the royal Stuarts, Rome The Monument to the Royal Stuarts is a memorial in St. ...


Outcome

What began with the English parliament asserting a new authority and William looking to expand alliances against France quickly developed into a major distraction, with William being forced to focus attention on Ireland and Scotland, and parliament having to fund the armies needed to overcome the Jacobites. This distraction helped keep Britain from intervening on the continent and contributed to twenty years of peace in Europe, while continuing unrest forced the British state to develop repressive strategies with networks of spies and informers as well as increasing its standing army. While Jacobitism increasingly appealed to the disaffected, it inherently bowed to higher authority and thus reinforced the social order. It left the British state strengthened to deal with the more revolutionary movements that developed later in the 18th century. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Romantic revival

"Jacobites" by John Pettie: romantic view of Jacobitism

Jacobitism became a remnant of hidden relics. It was remembered in folk songs (such as the still-famous Skye Boat Song), and became the subject of romantic poetry and literature, notably the work of Robert Burns and Walter Scott. Image File history File links Pettie_-_Jacobites,_1745. ... Image File history File links Pettie_-_Jacobites,_1745. ... John Pettie (17 March 1839 - 21 February 1893) was a Scottish painter. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Skye Boat Song lyrics The Skye Boat Song has gained the reputation of a traditional Scottish song recalling the escape of the young pretender Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) after his defeat at Culloden in 1746: he escaped from Uist... Robert Burns, foremost Scottish poet Robert Burns (January 25, 1759 – July 21, 1796) was a poet and a lyricist. ... For the first Premier of Saskatchewan see Thomas Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott (August 14, 1771 - September 21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe. ...


Walter Scott combined romantic Jacobitism with an appreciation of the practical benefits of the Hanoverian government, and in 1822 he arranged a pageantry of reinvented Scottish traditions for the visit of King George IV to Scotland when George IV visited Edinburgh and dressed as a tubby kilted successor to his distant relative Bonnie Prince Charlie. The tartan pageantry was immensely popular and the kilt became Scotland's National Dress. The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) were a German royal dynasty which succeeded the House of Stuart as monarchs of Great Britain in 1714. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sir David Wilkies flattering portrait of the kilted King George IV, with lighting chosen to tone down the brightness of his kilt and his knees shown bare, without the pink tights he wore at the event. ... George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 29 January 1820 until his death. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Formal Highland regalia, kilt and Prince Charlie jacket for Black tie. ... A tartan is type of pattern, originating in woven cloth, but now used in many materials. ...


Jacobite claimants to the thrones of England, Scotland, (France), and Ireland

Main article: Jacobite succession

Since Henry's death, none of the Jacobite heirs has actually claimed the throne. The current heir would be Franz, Duke of Bavaria (potentially Francis II as his Jacobite regnal title). The Jacobite Stuarts who claimed the thrones of England, Scotland, Ireland and France after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 were: James II and VII (February 6, 1685 – 16 September 1701). ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart (June 10, 1688 – January 1, 1766) was a claimant of the thrones of Scotland and England (September 16, 1701 – January 1, 1766) and is commonly referred to as The Old Pretender. ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Silvester Maria Stuart (December 31, 1720 – January 31, 1788), was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and was commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Henry Benedict Cardinal Stuart (March 11, 1725 – July 13, 1807) was the fourth and last Jacobite to publicly claim the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... July 13 is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... His Royal Highness the Duke of Bavaria Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern (born July 14, 1933), styled as His Royal Highness The Duke of Bavaria, is head of the Wittelsbach family, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria. ...


References

  • Ruvigny & Raineval, Marquis de (Melville Henry Massue) (comp.). The Jacobite Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage & Grants of Honour. Edinburgh: T. C. & E. C. Jack, 1904.
  • The Lion in the North, John Prebble, Penguin Books 1973
  • Maritime Scotland, Brian Lavery, B T Batsford Ltd., 2001, ISBN 0-7134-8520-5
  • Scotland, A Concise History, Fitzroy Maclean, Thames and Hudson 1991, ISBN 0-500-27706-0
  • Bonnie Prince Charlie, Fitzroy Maclean, Canongate Books Ltd. 1989 ISBN 0-86241-568-3
  • The Jacobites, Britain and Europe 1688 — 1788, Daniel Szechi, Manchester University Press 1994 ISBN 0-7190-3774-3
  • The Myths of the Jacobite Clans, Murray G. H. Pittock, Edinburgh University Press 1995 ISBN 0-7486-0715-3
  • Came ye o'er frae France — folk-rock version by Steeleye Span.

Steeleye Span are a British folk-rock band, formed in 1969 and remaining active today. ...

See also

The Lowland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Galltachd) in Scotland were one of the results of the British Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland for hundreds of years. ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ... Look up James in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... After the deposition by the English parliament in February 1689 of King James II and VII from the thrones of England and Ireland (the Scottish Estates followed suit on April 11, 1689), he and his successors continued to create peers and baronets, which they believed was their right. ... British military history is a long and varied topic, extending from the prehistoric and ancient historic period, through the Roman invasions of Julius Cæsar and Claudius and subsequent Roman occupation; warfare in the Mediaeval period, including the invasions of the Saxons and the Vikings in the Early Middle Ages... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of movements that dispute the legitimacy of a reigning monarch. ...

External links

  • The Jacobites
  • The Jacobite Heritage
  • Defenders Of Scotland
  • BBC-Interactive Timeline of British History
  • General History of the Highlands
  • The University of Guelph Library, Archival and Special Collections, has more than 500 Jacobite pamphlets, histories, and literature in its rare books section introduced at http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/resources/archives/Scottish/Jacobite_site_0.htm
  • Ascanius; or, the Young Adventurer

Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Scotland This is a list of articles relating to Scotland. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the Crowns March 24, 1603  - Act of... Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... Steel engraving and enhancement of the obverse side of the Great Seal of David I, portraying David in the European fashion the other wordly maintainer of peace and defender of jutice. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... The history of Scotland in the Late Middle Ages might be said to be dominated by the twin themes of crisis and transition. ... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... Scottish colonization of the Americas consisted of a number of failed or abandoned settlements in North America, a colony at Darien, Panama and a number of wholly or largely Scottish settlements made as part of Great Britain. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ... The Lowland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Galltachd) in Scotland were one of the results of the British Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland for hundreds of years. ... Scotland has an incomparable variety of geology for an area of its size. ... Scotland covers an area of 78,782km² or 30,341mi², giving it a population density of 64 people/km². Around 70% of the countrys population live in the Central Lowlands - a broad, fertile valley stretching in a northeast-southwest orientation between the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and including... Scotland is the most mountainous region of the United Kingdom. ... Freshwater Lochs Loch Arkaig Loch Awe, the third largest loch by surface area, also the longest Loch Dochfour Loch Ericht Loch Katrine, an important water reservoir Loch Leven, site of Loch Leven Castle Loch Lochy Loch Lomond, the largest by surface area Loch Lubnaig, Loch Maree, the fourth largest by... The Fauna of Scotland is generally typical of that of the north west European part of the Palearctic ecozone, although several of the larger mammals were hunted to extinction in historic times. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... List of Scottish companies is an incomplete list of companies incorporated in Scotland, organised by industry sector. ... Headquarters on The Mound, Edinburgh The Bank of Scotland is a commercial bank in Scotland (and to a lesser extent the rest of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland). ... The Royal Bank of Scotland plc (Scottish Gaelic: [1]) is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, which together with NatWest, provides branch banking facilities in the UK. Royal Bank of Scotland has around 700 branches, mainly in Scotland though there are branches in... // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... An independent bottling of Royal Brackla Single Malt Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... The ruins of Melrose Abbey, Scottish Borders Scotland is a well-developed tourist destination, with tourism generally being responsible for sustaining 200,000 jobs mainly in the service sector, with tourist spending averaging at £4bn per year [1]. Tourists from the United Kingdom make up the bulk of visitors to... All Harris Tweed items are hand woven on the islands off the Northern coast of Scotland (outer Hebrides). ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... The Courts of Scotland are the civil, criminal and heraldic courts responsible for the administration of justice in Scotland. ... The Lord President of the Court of Session is head of the judiciary in Scotland and presiding judge of the College of Justice and Court of Session. ... The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service is a government department in Scotland that is responsible for the public prosecution of alleged criminals. ... Her Majestys Advocate, known as the Lord Advocate (Morair Tagraidh in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief legal adviser to the Scottish Executive and the Crown in Scotland for both civil and criminal matters that fall within the devolved powers of the Scottish Parliament. ... Her Majestys Solicitor General for Scotland (Àrd-neach-lagha a Chrùin an Alba) is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Lord Advocate, whose duty is to advise the Crown and the Scottish Executive on Scots Law. ... The procurator fiscal is the local public prosecutor in Scotland. ... List of Scots is an incomplete list of notable people from Scotland. ... John Logie Baird, television pioneer. ... List of Scottish musicians is a list of Scottish musicians, please see Scottish composers for classical writers. ... William Aiton (1731-1793), botanist Alexander Anderson (mathematician), (c. ... List of Scottish writers is an alphabetical list of Scottish writers. ... The Politics of Scotland forms a distinctive part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Scotland one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... Parties represented in the Scottish Parliament (in order of number of representatives): Labour Party - Centre-left, unionist - 50 MSPs Scottish National Party (SNP) - Centre-left, pro-independence- 27 MSPs Conservative and Unionist Party - Centre-right, unionist - 18 MSPs Liberal Democrats - Centre, federalist - 17 MSPs Scottish Green Party - Environmentalist, pro-independence... Scotland has elections to several bodies: the Scottish Parliament, the United Kingdom Parliament, the European Parliament, local councils and community councils. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... The First Minister (First Meinister in Scots; Prìomh Mhinistear in Scots Gaelic) is the leader of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the reconvened Scottish Parliament. ... The Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief minister in the government of the United Kingdom with responsibilites for Scotland, at the head of the Scotland Office (formerly The Scottish Office). ... The Scotland Office (Oifis na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a department of the United Kingdom government, responsible for reserved Scottish affairs. ... The local government of Scotland is organised into 32 unitary authorities covering the mainland and islands of Scotland. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... Scottish independence is an ambition of numerous political parties, pressure groups and individuals within Scotland. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... The 2004 Assembly with Dr Alison Elliot as Moderator The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Churchs governing body. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Scotland describes the organisation of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church in the geographic area of Scotland, distinct from the Catholic Church in England & Wales and the Catholic Church in Ireland. ... The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The arrival of Islam in Scotland is relatively recent. ... Hinduism in Scotland is of relatively recent provenance, with the bulk of Scottish Hindus having settled there in the second half of the 20th century. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Highland English is the variety of Gaelic influenced Scottish English spoken in the Scottish Highlands. ... Addressing the haggis during Burns supper: Fair fa your honest, sonsie face, Great chieftain o the puddin-race! The culture of Scotland is the national culture of Scotland. ... Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which... Scottish cuisine shares much with that of other parts of the British Isles but has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own, thanks to foreign and local influences both ancient and modern. ... This is a list of flags that are used exclusively in Scotland. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland was the official coat of arms of the monarchs of Scotland, and were used as the official coat of arms of the Kingdom of Scotland until the Union of the Crowns in... There is no official national anthem of Scotland[1] Scotland does not possess a confirmed anthem of its own. ... Hogmanay (pronounced — with the main stress on the last syllable - hog-muh-NAY) is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner. ... Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ... Silly Wizard The Tannahill Weavers Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the law that ended Scottish independence. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jacobitism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6779 words)
Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, is) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland (including after 1707,when the de facto government deemed those thrones to have been combined into the throne of Great Britain).
Jacobitism was a response to the deposition of James II and VII in 1688 when he was replaced by his daughter Mary II jointly with her husband and first cousin William of Orange.
A year later the Jacobites were forced to agree to a truce while the Clan chieftains sent requests to the exiled James VII and II for permission to submit to William, and in January 1692 the Jacobite Clans formally surrendered to the government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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