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Encyclopedia > Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Second Baseman
Born: January 31, 1919(1919-01-31)
Cairo, Georgia
Died: October 24, 1972 (aged 53)
Batted: Right Threw: Right
MLB debut
April 15, 1947
for the Brooklyn Dodgers
Final game
October 10, 1956
for the Brooklyn Dodgers
Career statistics
AVG     .311
Hits     1518
HR     137
Teams
Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Baseball Hall of Fame
Elected     1962
Vote     77.5% (first ballot)

Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson (January 31, 1919October 24, 1972) became the first African-American major league baseball player of the modern era in 1947.[1] While the first African American professional baseball player in United States history, his Major League debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers ended approximately eighty years of baseball segregation, also known as the baseball color line. In the United States at this time, many white people believed that blacks and whites should be segregated or kept apart in many phases of life, including sport and daily life. The Baseball Hall of Fame inducted Robinson in 1962 and he was a member of six World Series teams. He earned six consecutive All-Star Game nominations and won several awards during his career. In 1947, Robinson won The Sporting News Rookie of the Year Award and the first Rookie of the Year Award. Two years later, he was awarded the National League MVP Award. In addition to his accomplishments on the field, Jackie Robinson was also a forerunner of the Civil Rights Movement. He was a key figure in the establishment and growth of the Freedom Bank, an African-American owned and controlled entity, in the 1960s. He also wrote a syndicated newspaper column for a number of years, in which he was an outspoken supporter of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X.[2] Jackie Robinson Image found at Library of Congress website, originally from Look magazine. ... The position of the second baseman Second base redirects here. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Cairo is a city in Grady County, Georgia, United States. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Brooklyn Dodgers were a Major League Baseball team that played from 1890-1957. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Brooklyn Dodgers were a Major League Baseball team that played from 1890-1957. ... Batting average is a statistic in both cricket and baseball measuring the performance of cricket batsmen and baseball hitters, respectively. ... In Major League Baseball history, Ty Cobb had a record 4,191 hits (later revised to 4,189) by 1928; Pete Rose would surpass it 57 years later, and finish with 4,256 career hits. ... In baseball, a home run is a base hit in which the batter is able to circle all the bases, ending at home plate and scoring a run, with no errors on the play that result in the batter achieving extra bases. ... Major league affiliations National League (1890–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 2, 4, 19, 20, 24, 32, 39, 42, 53 Name Los Angeles Dodgers (1958–present) Brooklyn Dodgers (1932-1957) Brooklyn Robins (1914-1931) Brooklyn Dodgers (1913) Brooklyn Trolley Dodgers (1911-1912) Brooklyn Superbas (1899... The following are the baseball events of the year 1947 throughout the world. ... September 30 Chicago White Sox pitcher Jim Derrington becomes the youngest pitcher in modern history to start a game. ... See also: 1946 in sports, other events of 1947, 1948 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto racing Wally Parks founds the Southern California Timing Association, to better organize drag racing. ... The Rookie of the Year award is given by a number of North American sports leagues to the top first-time professional athlete of the season. ... See also: 1948 in sports, other events of 1949, 1950 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto racing The first 24 hours of Le Mans is held since the beginning of World War II. Luigi Chinetti and Lord Seldson win the race in a Ferrari 166M. Baseball... In the game of baseball, both amateur and professional, it is tradition to annually recognize the one player in the league who has contributed the most to the success of the players team. ... The Major League Baseball All-Star Game is an annual exhibition baseball game between the best players from the National League and the American League. ... Look up forty-two in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... Baseball Hall of Fame redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Baseball Hall of Fame redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The following are the events of the year 1962 that happened world-wide throughout the sport of baseball. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This article is about the sport. ... The following are the baseball events of the year 1947 throughout the world. ... The baseball color line was the policy, unwritten for nearly its entire duration, which excluded African American baseball players from organized baseball in the United States before 1946. ... Baseball Hall of Fame redirects here. ... The following are the events of the year 1962 that happened world-wide throughout the sport of baseball. ... For other events named World Series, see World Series (disambiguation). ... The Major League Baseball All-Star Game, also popularly known as the Midsummer Classic, is an annual baseball game between players from the National League and the American League, currently selected by fan vote for the starting position players and by the respective managers (from the previous years World... The Sporting News Rookie of the Year Award was established in 1946 by The Sporting News (TSN). ... The Rookie of the Year award is given by a number of North American sports leagues to the top first-time professional athlete of the season. ... For other uses, see National League (disambiguation). ... In the game of baseball, both amateur and professional, it is tradition to annually recognize the one player in the league who has contributed the most to the success of the players team. ... Historically, various popular movements struggling for social justice and democratic rights since the Second World War were known as civil rights movement, most famously the American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, which struggled for equal rights for African-Americans. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ...


In recognition of his accomplishments, Robinson was posthumously awarded a Congressional Gold Medal and the Presidential Medal of Freedom.[2] Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal should not be confused with the Medal of Honor (commonly called the Congressional Medal of Honor), which is also awarded by Congress, but only to military members as the highest military decoration of the United States. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an...


On April 15, 1997, the 50 year anniversary of his debut, Major League Baseball retired the number 42, the number Robinson wore, in recognition of his accomplishments both on and off the field in a ceremony at Shea Stadium.[3] In 1950, he was the subject of a film biography, The Jackie Robinson Story, in which he played himself. He became a political activist in his post-playing days. is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The following are the events of the year 1997 that happened world-wide throughout the sport of baseball. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... Look up forty-two in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... See also: 1949 in film 1950 1951 in film 1950s in film 1940s in film years in film film // Events February 15 - Walt Disney Studios animated film Cinderella debuts. ... The Jackie Robinson Story is a 1950 biographical film starring baseball legend Jackie Robinson as himself. ...


In 1946, Robinson married Rachel Annetta Isum. In 1973, after Jackie died, Rachel founded the Jackie Robinson Foundation. Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rachel Robinson (1922-) was the wife of the famous African-American baseball player, Jackie Robinson, and founder of the non-profit Jackie Robinson Foundation. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The Jackie Robinson Foundation is a non-profit organization which provides scholarships to minority youths for higher education, as well as preserving the legacy of Baseball Hall of Fame member, Jackie Robinson. ...

Contents

Early life

In 1919, Jackie Robinson, the youngest of five children,[4] was born in Cairo, Georgia during a Spanish flu and smallpox epidemic. [5] In 1920, his family who were sharecroppers[6] moved to Pasadena, California[5] after his father abandoned them.[7] Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Cairo is a city in Grady County, Georgia, United States. ... The 1918 flu pandemic, commonly referred to as the Spanish flu, was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ...


Robinson grew up in relative poverty[8] and even joined a local neighborhood gang in his youth. Eventually, his friend Carl Anderson persuaded Robinson to abandon the gang.[9] For other uses, see Gang (disambiguation). ...


Jackie's older brother was an accomplished athlete. Matthew "Mack" Robinson won a silver medal in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, finishing just 0.4 seconds behind Jesse Owens in the 200 meters. Matthew Mack Robinson (July 18, 1912–March 12, 2000) was the older brother of Baseball Hall of Fame member Jackie Robinson. ... James Cleveland Jesse Owens (September 12, 1913 – March 31, 1980) was an African American track and field athlete. ...

Jackie Robinson in the Negro Leagues, 1945
Jackie Robinson in the Negro Leagues, 1945

In 1935, Robinson graduated from Dakota Junior High School and enrolled in John Muir High School ("Muir Tech").[10] There he played on various Muir Tech sport teams, and lettered in four of them. He was a shortstop and catcher on the baseball team, a quarterback on the football team, a guard on the basketball team, and a member of the tennis team and the track and field squad. He won awards in the broad jump.[11] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bud Fowler, the first professional black baseball player with one of his teams, Western of Keokuk, Iowa The Negro Leagues were American professional baseball leagues comprising predominantly African-American teams. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... John Muir High School is a four year comprehensive secondary school located in Pasadena, California. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The position of the catcher Catcher is also a general term for a fielder who catches the ball in cricket. ... This article is about the sport. ... Navy quarterback Aaron Polanco sets up to throw. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... The Shooting guard (SG), also known as the two or off guard,[1] is one of five traditional positions on a basketball team. ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ... Long jumper at the GE Money Grand Prix in Helsinki, July 2005. ...


In 1936, he captured the junior boys singles championship in the annual Pacific Coast Negro Tennis Tournament, starred as quarterback, and earned a place on the annual Pomona baseball tournament all-star team, which included future Baseball Hall of Famers Ted Williams and Bob Lemon. [12] The next year, Jackie played for the high school's basketball team. That year, the Pasadena Star-News newspaper reported on the young Robinson.[13] 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Navy quarterback Aaron Polanco sets up to throw. ... This article is about the sport. ... Baseball Hall of Fame redirects here. ... Theodore Samuel Williams (August 30, 1918 – July 5, 2002), best known as Ted Williams, nicknamed The Kid, the Splendid Splinter, Teddy Ballgame and The Thumper, was an American left fielder in Major League Baseball. ... Robert Granville Lemon (September 22, 1920 - January 11, 2000) was an American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball. ...


After leaving Muir, Jackie attended Pasadena Junior College and played both football and baseball.[14] He played quarterback and safety for the football team, shortstop and leadoff batter for the baseball team, and participated in the broad jump. Pasadena City College (commonly known by the abbreviation PCC) is a community college located on Colorado Boulevard in Pasadena, California, USA. PCC is the third largest community college campus in the United States. ... In American football and Canadian football, the termsafety can refer to: two positions in the most-common defensive backfield setup, the strong safety and the free safety, or a type of score, worth one or two points. ...


While at PJC, he was elected to the "Lancers,” a student run police organization responsible for patrolling various school activities.[15] He dated and made friends. However, on January 25, 1938, he was arrested for questionable reasons and sentenced to two years probation.[16] is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1938, he was elected to the All-Southland Junior College (baseball) Team and selected as the region's Most Valuable Player.[17] On February 4, 1939, he played his last basketball game at Pasadena Junior College. Thereupon Robinson was awarded a gold pin and was named to the school's "Order of the Mast and Dagger.”[18] Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After leaving PJC, Robinson chose to attend the nearby University of California, Los Angeles, where became the school's first athlete to win varsity letters in four sports: baseball, basketball, football and track.[6] Despite many athletic achievements and having nearly completed the requirements for his degree, he withdrew from the university for financial reasons in 1941. He then briefly worked as an athletic director for the National Youth Administration before going to Honolulu that fall to play football for the semi-professional, racially integrated Honolulu Bears. The season was brief, and he returned that December, shortly after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor that drew the United States into World War II.[19] He was drafted the following year. In 1946, Jackie Robinson came to Daytona Beach, FL for spring training with the Montreal Royals, the Brooklyn Dodgers Triple-A farm club. He was banned from playing in Jacksonville and Sanford, but not in Daytona. He debuted on March 17, 1946. His first plate appearance came in an exhibition game against their parent club, the Brooklyn Dodgers. Robinson then became the first African-American player in the Major Leagues. Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... The National Youth Administration (NYA) was a New Deal agency in the United States. ... For the city and county of Honolulu, see City & County of Honolulu. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Military career

From 1942 to 1944, Jackie Robinson served as a second lieutenant in the United States Army. During his training in Texas with what would later become the first black tank unit to see combat, the 761st "Black Panthers" Tank Battalion, Robinson was ordered by a white bus driver to move to the back of the segregated bus, which he refused to do. Robinson was then arrested by MPs and transferred to the 758th Battalion by the base commander, because his white battalion commander rejected the court-martial charges against Robinson. While the commander of the 758th consented to the insubordination charges, Robinson was later acquitted by a white military jury. Shortly thereafter, he received an honorable discharge.[20] As such, Robinson never saw combat action during World War II. Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The 761st Tank Battalion, was a United States Army tank battalion during World War II. The unit was made up of black soldiers, who by Federal law were not permitted to serve alongside white troops. ... Branch insignia of the Military Police Corps The Military Police Corps is the law enforcement of the United States Armed Forces. ... The 758th Tank Battalion was formed in 1941 and served in Italy during World War II. It was the first United States Army armored unit to be comprised of African American soldiers. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order. ... A military discharge is given when a member of the armed forces is released from his or her obligation to serve. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Robinson's actions during his military service not only presaged his breaking of the color line in baseball, but some people may believe that he may also have influenced, however indirectly, President Harry S. Truman’s decision to integrate U.S. Armed forces in 1948.[original research?] For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Dodgers

Cover of a Jackie Robinson comic book, issue #5, 1951
Cover of a Jackie Robinson comic book, issue #5, 1951
Jackie Robinson's number 42 was retired by the LA Dodgers in 1972

In the late 1940s, Branch Rickey was club president and general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers. The Dodgers began to scout Robinson who had joined the Negro League Kansas City Monarchs in 1945 after his discharge from the Army. He played shortstop and had a batting average of .387. Rickey eventually selected him from a list of promising African-American players. Robinson became the first player in fifty-seven years to break the Baseball color line. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 858 pixel, file size: 158 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 858 pixel, file size: 158 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (681 × 681 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/png) Jackie Robinson I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (681 × 681 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/png) Jackie Robinson I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... Wesley Branch Rickey (December 20, 1881 – December 9, 1965) was an innovative Major League Baseball executive best known for two things: breaking baseballs color barrier by signing the African-American player Jackie Robinson, and later drafting the first Hispanic superstar, Roberto Clemente; and creating the framework to the modern... In Major League Baseball, the General Manager of a team typically controls player transactions and bears the primary responsibility on behalf of the ballclub during contract discussions with players. ... The Brooklyn Dodgers were a Major League Baseball team that played from 1890-1957. ... Part of the History of baseball series. ... The Kansas City Monarchs were the longest-running franchise in the history of baseballs Negro Leagues. ... The baseball color line was the policy, unwritten for nearly its entire duration, which excluded African American baseball players from organized baseball in the United States before 1946. ...


Rickey reminded Robinson that he would face tremendous racial animus, and insisted that he not take the bait and react angrily. Robinson was aghast: "Do you want a player afraid to fight back?" Rickey replied that he needed a Negro player "with the guts not to fight back." Robinson agreed to abide by Rickey's terms for his first year.


In 1946, the Dodgers assigned Jackie Robinson to the Montreal Royals. Jackie proceeded to lead the International League in batting average with a .349 average, and fielding percentage with a .985 percentage.[21] That winter he also married Rachel Isum, his former UCLA classmate.[19] Although the season was emotionally arduous for Robinson with the racist abuse he faced during the team's away games, he also deeply appreciated the enthusiastic support by the Montreal fans who followed his performance with intense interest. Because of Jackie's play in 1946, the Dodgers called him up to play for the major league club in 1947. Robinson made his Major League debut on April 15, 1947, playing first base when he went 0 for 3 against the Boston Braves. The following are the baseball events of the year 1946 throughout the world. ... The Montreal Royals were a professional baseball team located in Montreal, Quebec, that existed from 1897-1917 and from 1928-60 as a member of the International League and its progenitor, the original Eastern League. ... Batting average is a statistic in both cricket and baseball measuring the performance of cricket batsmen and baseball hitters, respectively. ... In baseball statistics, fielding percentage, also known as fielding average, is a measure that reflects the percentage of times a defensive player handles a batted ball properly. ... The following are the baseball events of the year 1947 throughout the world. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The following are the baseball events of the year 1947 throughout the world. ... Major league affiliations National League (1876–present) East Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 3, 21, 35, 41, 42, 44 Name Atlanta Braves (1966–present) Milwaukee Braves (1953-1965) Boston Braves (1941-1952) Boston Bees (1936-1940) Boston Braves (1912-1935) Boston Rustlers (1911) Boston Doves (1907-1910) Boston...


Throughout the season, Robinson experienced harassment at the hands of both players and fans. He was verbally abused by both his own teammates and by members of opposing teams. Some Dodger players insinuated they would sit out rather than play alongside Robinson. The brewing mutiny ended when Dodger management took a stand for Robinson. Manager Leo Durocher informed the team, "I don't care if the guy is yellow or black, or if he has stripes like a fucking zebra. I'm the manager of this team, and I say he plays. What's more, I say he can make us all rich. And if any of you can't use the money, I'll see that you are all traded." When other teams, notably the Cardinals, threatened to strike if Robinson played, NL President Ford Frick let it be known that they would be suspended. Leo Ernest Durocher (July 27, 1905 — October 7, 1991), nicknamed Leo the Lip, was an American infielder and manager in Major League Baseball. ... Ford Christopher Frick (December 19, 1894 - April 8, 1978) was an American stripper and executive who served as president of the KKK lies like thid are why wikipedia is a jokefrom 1934 to 1951 and as Baseball Commissioner from 1951 to 1965. ...


On April 22, 1947, during a game between the Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies, Phillies players called Jackie a "nigger" from their dugout, and yelled that he should "go back to the cotton fields."[22] Rickey would later recall that the Phillies' manager, Ben Chapman, "did more than anybody to unite the Dodgers. When he poured out that string of unconscionable abuse, he solidified and united thirty men."[23] Baseball Commissioner Happy Chandler admonished the Phillies and asked Chapman to pose for photographs with Robinson as a conciliatory gesture. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The following are the baseball events of the year 1947 throughout the world. ... Major league affiliations National League (1883–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 14, 20, 32, 36, 42 Name Philadelphia Phillies (1884–present) Philadelphia Quakers (1883-1889) (Also referred to as Blue Jays 1943-1945 despite formal name remaining Phillies) Other nicknames The Phils, The Phightin Phils... // Nigger is a racial slur used to refer to dark-skinned people, especially those of African ancestry. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... New York Yankees manager Joe Torre returning to the dugout (September 2005) In baseball, the head coach of a team is called the manager (or more formally, the field manager); this individual controls matters of team batting order to more closely communicate with baserunners, but most managers delegate this responsibility... William Benjamin Chapman (December 25, 1908, Nashville, Tennessee - July 7, 1993, Hoover, Alabama) was an outfielder, pitcher, manager and coach in American Major League Baseball. ... In 1920, the owners of Major League Baseball, in order to reestablish confidence of fans in the sport following the Black Sox Scandal, established the office of Commissioner of Baseball. ... Albert Benjamin Happy Chandler, Sr. ...


Dodgers shortstop Pee Wee Reese, who would be a teammate of Robinson's for the better part of a decade, was one of the few players who publicly stood up for Robinson during his rookie season. During the team's first road trip, in Cincinnati, Ohio, during pre-game practice, Robinson was being heckled by fans when Reese, the Dodgers team captain, walked over and put his arm around Robinson in a gesture of support that quieted the fans and has now gained near-legendary status. Reese was once quoted saying about Robinson "You can hate a man for many reasons; color is not one of them." In addition, the Jewish baseball star Hank Greenberg, who understood the rookie's difficulties considering he himself faced considerable anti-Semitism earlier in his career, made a point of welcoming Robinson to the major leagues. In the October 1948 issue of SPORT magazine, Robinson said he didn't expect to see baseball's color barrier fall in his lifetime. "I thought it would take another war," he said. Harold Henry Pee Wee Reese (July 23, 1918 - August 14, 1999) was an American professional baseball player who played for the Brooklyn and Los Angeles Dodgers from 1940 to 1958. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Henry Benjamin Hank Greenberg (January 1, 1911, New York, New York – September 4, 1986), nicknamed Hammerin Hank, was an American professional baseball player in the 1930s and 1940s. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The inaugural issue of SPORT magazine, September, 1946, depicting New York Yankees centrefielder Joe DiMaggio together with his son Joe Jr. ...

Statue at Montreal's Olympic Stadium made by sculptor Jules Lasalle
Statue at Montreal's Olympic Stadium made by sculptor Jules Lasalle

For his services, Jackie earned the major-league minimum salary of $5,000, which was standard for many rookies at the time. That year, he played in 151 games, hit .297, led the National League in stolen bases and won the first-ever Rookie of the Year Award. Although Jackie played every game that season at first base, Robinson spent most of his career as a second baseman. Image File history File links Jackie3. ... Image File history File links Jackie3. ... Le Stade Olympique (The Olympic Stadium) is a stadium in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Jules Lasalle (b. ... The all-time stolen base leader, Rickey Henderson, swipes third in 1988. ... In Major League Baseball, the Rookie of the Year Award is given to the best first-year players in the American and National Leagues. ... The position of the second baseman A second baseman often ranges onto the outfield grass to field a ground ball A second baseman is the baseball player guarding second base. ...


Two years later, Robinson won the 1949 Most Valuable Player award for the National League, leading the league in batting average and stolen bases. By this point, he had galvanized fan support to the point that a popular song, Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball?, reached the national Billboard R&B chart. By 1950, he had septupled his salary, being paid the highest amount to that point in Dodgers history: $35,000. His promised silence had also elapsed, and by July 1949, Robinson was testifying on discrimination before the House Unamerican Activities Committee. In 1952, he blasted the Yankees as a racist organization for not having broken the color line five years after his own crosstown debut. In the game of baseball, both amateur and professional, it is tradition to annually recognize the one player in the league who has contributed the most to the success of the players team. ... For other uses, see National League (disambiguation). ... Billboard can refer to: Billboard magazine Billboard (advertising) Billboard antenna In 3D computer graphics, to billboard is to rotate an object so that it faces the viewer. ... The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Robinson was a crucial component of the 1951 "Miracle of Coogan's Bluff" pennant race. On the final day of the season, and with the Giants having already won their game, the Dodgers needed to beat the Phillies just to force a playoff. The game went into extra innings, and in the bottom of the 12th inning, Philadelphia loaded the bases with one out. Robinson made a season-saving defensive play: diving for a soft liner to his right, he injured his elbow but was able to convert the catch into a double play. Robinson then hit a game-winning home run in the 14th inning. The Shot Heard Round the World In baseball, the Shot Heard Round the World is the term given to the walk-off home run hit by New York Giants outfielder Bobby Thomson off Brooklyn Dodgers pitcher Ralph Branca at the Polo Grounds to win the National League pennant at 3...


Despite his regular season heroics, the Dodgers lost the pennant on Bobby Thomson's famous home run. Film footage of the home run trot and celebration shows Robinson, observantly but dourly watching Thomson's feet in case he failed to touch all of the bases. Robert Brown Bobby Thomson (born October 25, 1923 in Glasgow, Scotland), nicknamed The Staten Island Scot, is a Scottish-American former Major League Baseball outfielder and right-handed batter who played for the New York Giants (1946-53, 1957), Milwaukee Braves (1954-57), Chicago Cubs (1958-59), Boston Red Sox...


Robinson would win his only championship ring when the Dodgers beat the New York Yankees in the 1955 World Series. After the 1956 season, Robinson was traded by the Dodgers to the New York Giants for Dick Littlefield and $30,000 cash. Robinson announced his retirement shortly after the trade; when asked, he made it clear that he had planned to retire before the trade was made, citing his own physical health and family commitments as his main reasons. Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 23, 32, 37, 44, 49 Name New York Yankees (1913–present) New York Highlanders (1903-1912) Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902) (Also referred to as... The 1955 World Series matched the Brooklyn Dodgers against the New York Yankees, with the Dodgers winning the Series in 7 games to capture the first championship in franchise history. ... September 30 Chicago White Sox pitcher Jim Derrington becomes the youngest pitcher in modern history to start a game. ... Major league affiliations National League (1883–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers NY, NY, 3, 4, 11, 24, 27, 30, 36, 42, 44 Name San Francisco Giants (1958–present) New York Giants (1885–1957) New York Gothams (1883–1885) Other nicknames Jints, Gigantes, G-Men Ballpark AT... Richard Bernard Littlefield (March 18, 1926 – November 20, 1997) was an American left-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball who played for nine teams between 1950 and 1958. ... USD redirects here. ...


Robinson was a disciplined hitter and a versatile fielder. He had a .311 career batting average and substantially more walks than strikeouts. He was a truly outstanding baserunner. No other player since World War I has stolen home more than Robinson, who did it 19 times in his career.[24] During his career, the Dodgers played in six World Series and Jackie played in six All-Star games. He is a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame and a member of the All-Century Team. Batting average is a statistic in both cricket and baseball measuring the performance of cricket batsmen and baseball hitters, respectively. ... Rashad Eldridge of the Oklahoma Redhawks walks to first base after drawing a base on balls. ... For the typographical mode indicating deleted text, see Strikethrough. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Robinson was married in 1946 to Rachel Isum whom he met while a student at UCLA. They later had three children and all of his family members became important factors in Jackie Robinson's success [6]


Assessing himself, Robinson said "I'm not concerned with your liking or disliking me... all I ask is that you respect me as a human being."[25]


Career batting statistics

Year Team G AB R H 2B 3B HR RBI SB CS BB SO AVG OBP SLG TB SH SF IBB HBP GDP
1947 Brooklyn 151 590 125 175 31 5 12 48 29 74 36 .297 .383 .427 252 28 9 5
1948 Brooklyn 147 574 108 170 38 8 12 85 22 57 37 .296 .367 .453 260 8 7 7
1949 Brooklyn 156 593 122 203 38 12 16 124 37 86 27 .342 .432 .528 313 17 8 22
1950 Brooklyn 144 518 99 170 39 4 14 81 12 80 24 .328 .423 .500 259 10 5 11
1951 Brooklyn 153 548 106 185 33 7 19 88 25 8 79 27 .338 .429 .527 289 6 9 10
1952 Brooklyn 149 510 104 157 17 3 19 75 24 7 106 40 .308 .440 .465 237 6 14 16
1953 Brooklyn 136 484 109 159 34 7 12 95 17 4 74 30 .329 .425 .502 243 9 7 12
1954 Brooklyn 124 386 62 120 22 4 15 59 7 3 63 20 .311 .413 .505 195 5 4 7 13
1955 Brooklyn 105 317 51 81 6 2 8 36 12 3 61 18 .256 .378 .363 115 6 3 5 3 8
1956 Brooklyn 117 357 61 98 15 2 10 43 12 5 60 32 .275 .382 .412 147 9 2 2 3 9
Totals 10 yrs 1382 4877 947 1518 273 54 137 734 197 30 740 291 .311 .409 .474 2310 104 9 7 72 113

Post-baseball life

Jackie Robinson and his son David being interviewed at the "March on Washington"
August 28, 1963
From the National Archives

Robinson retired on January 5, 1957. He had wanted to manage or coach in the major leagues, but received no offers.[citation needed] He became a vice-president for the Chock Full O' Nuts corporation instead, and served on the board of the NAACP until 1967, when he resigned. During the early to late 1950s, Jackie and Louis Ostrer owned Jackie Robinson's, a men's clothing store located on 125th St. in New York City. Jackie Robinson and his son David Being Interviewed at the March on Washington 28 August 1963 From the National Archives File links The following pages link to this file: Jackie Robinson ... Jackie Robinson and his son David Being Interviewed at the March on Washington 28 August 1963 From the National Archives File links The following pages link to this file: Jackie Robinson ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The following are the baseball events of the year 1957 throughout the world. ... New York Yankees manager Joe Torre returning to the dugout (September 2005) In baseball, the head coach of a team is called the manager (or more formally, the field manager); this individual controls matters of team batting order to more closely communicate with baserunners, but most managers delegate this responsibility... In sports, a coach or manager is an individual involved in the direction and instruction of the on-field operations of an athletic team or of individual athletes. ... Chock full o Nuts is a brand of coffee developed and popular in New York City and now owned by Sara Lee. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962, his first year of eligibility, becoming the first African-American so honored. In 1965, Robinson served as an analyst for ABC's Game of the Week telecasts. On June 4, 1972, the Dodgers retired his uniform number 42 alongside Roy Campanella (39) and Sandy Koufax (32). The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, located at 62 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, is a semi-official museum operated by private interests serving as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, the display of baseball-related... The following are the events of the year 1962 that happened world-wide throughout the sport of baseball. ... The following are the baseball events of the year 1965 throughout the world. ... Major League Baseball on ABCs Wide World of Sports. ... The Major League Baseball Game of the Week is the defacto title for over-the-air, nationally televised, coverage of regular season Major League Baseball games. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The following are the events of the year 1972 that happened world-wide throughout the sport of baseball. ... Major league affiliations National League (1890–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 2, 4, 19, 20, 24, 32, 39, 42, 53 Name Los Angeles Dodgers (1958–present) Brooklyn Dodgers (1932-1957) Brooklyn Robins (1914-1931) Brooklyn Dodgers (1913) Brooklyn Trolley Dodgers (1911-1912) Brooklyn Superbas (1899... Roy Campanella (November 19, 1921 – June 26, 1993) was an American catcher in the Negro leagues and Major League Baseball. ... Sanford Koufax (IPA pronunciation: /kofæks/) (born Sanford Braun, on December 30, 1935, in Brooklyn, New York) is an American left-handed former pitcher in Major League Baseball who played his entire career for the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers, from 1955 to 1966. ...


Robinson made his final public appearance on October 14, 1972, before Game 2 of the World Series. He used this chance to express his wish for a black manager to be hired by a Major League Baseball team.[26] is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The following are the events of the year 1972 that happened world-wide throughout the sport of baseball. ... The 1972 World Series sent the Oakland Athletics against the Cincinnati Reds, with the Athletics winning the Series in a matchup of what were to become the two premier MLB dynasties of the 1970s. ...


This wish was granted two years later, following the 1974 season, when the Cleveland Indians gave their managerial post to Frank Robinson, a Hall of Fame bound slugger who was then still an active player, and no relation to Jackie Robinson. At the press conference announcing his hiring, Frank expressed his wish that Jackie had lived to see the moment.[citation needed] The following are the baseball events of the year 1974 throughout the world. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 3, 5, 14, 18, 19, 21, 42, 455 Name Cleveland Indians (1915–present) Cleveland Naps (1905-1914) Cleveland Bronchos (1902-1904) Cleveland Blues (1901) Other nicknames The Tribe, The Wahoos Ballpark Jacobs Field (1994–present... This article is about the baseball player and manager. ...


In 1971, his oldest son, Jackie, Jr., who had beaten back drug problems and was working as a Daytop Village counselor, was killed in an automobile accident. Also, Jackie suffered from diabetes, virtually went blind, and suffered heart problems. Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


Robinson died from heart problems and diabetes complications in Stamford, Connecticut on October 24, 1972 and was interred in the Cypress Hills Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York.[27] The highway that goes through the cemetery (previously known as the Interborough Parkway) was renamed the Jackie Robinson Parkway in 1997.[28] This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Nickname: Location in Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Region Settled 1641 Incorporated (city) 1893 Consolidated 1949 Government  - Type Mayor-Board of representatives  - Mayor Dannel Malloy (Dem) Area  - City 134. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cypress Hills Cemetery, the first nonsectarian cemetery corporation organized in the Brooklyn/Queens area of New York, is located at 833 Jamaica Avenue in Brooklyn, New York. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... This article is about the state. ... The Jackie Robinson Parkway formerly known as the Interborough Parkway, serves as a link between the Kew Gardens (Grand Central Parkway-Van Wyck Expressway) interchange in central Queens and Pennsylvania Avenue in East New York, Brooklyn. ...


Awards and recognition

A statue of Jackie Robinson in Stamford, Connecticut, where a major street has the honorary name Jackie Robinson Way.
A statue of Jackie Robinson in Stamford, Connecticut, where a major street has the honorary name Jackie Robinson Way.
Jackie Robinson's number 42 was retired by the Major League Baseball in 1997
Jackie Robinson's number 42 was retired by the Major League Baseball in 1997
  • The Chicago Public School system has named an elementary school after Jackie Robinson. It is in the Kenwood neighbourhood in Chicago's south.

[30] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 584 KB) I took this photo in December 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 584 KB) I took this photo in December 2005. ... Nickname: Location in Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Region Settled 1641 Incorporated (city) 1893 Consolidated 1949 Government  - Type Mayor-Board of representatives  - Mayor Dannel Malloy (Dem) Area  - City 134. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... Jimmy Fidler (August 24, 1900 - August 9, 1988) was a Hollywood gossip columnist and a radio and television personality. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harry Lillis Bing Crosby (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer and actor whose career lasted from 1926 until his death in 1977. ... Jackie Robinson House was a Brooklyn home of baseball great Jackie Robinson. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... This article is about the year. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... Susan Miller Dorsey High School is a high school located in the South Los Angeles section of Los Angeles, California. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...

  • In 1987, Major League Baseball renamed the Rookie of the Year Award the Jackie Robinson Award in his honor.
  • On April 15, 1997, Jackie Robinson's #42 was retired by Major League Baseball, meaning that no future player on any major league team could wear it. Players wearing #42 at the time, some of whom said they did so as a tribute to Robinson, were allowed to continue wearing it, thereby grandfathering the number's retirement. The last player currently wearing the number is New York Yankees closer Mariano Rivera.
  • In 2000, he ranked number 44 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players, and was elected to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team.
  • At the November 2006 groundbreaking for a new New York Mets ballpark, Citi Field, scheduled to open in 2009, it was announced that the main entrance, modeled on the one in Brooklyn's old Ebbets Field, will be called the Jackie Robinson Rotunda. Additionally, Mets owner Fred Wilpon said that the Mets and Citigroup would work with the Jackie Robinson Foundation to create a Jackie Robinson Museum and Learning Center in lower Manhattan, as well as fund scholarships for "young people who live by and embody Jackie's ideals."[32]

This article is currently under construction // This year in baseball Events January 14 - Catfish Hunter and Billy Williams are elected to the Hall of Fame by the Baseball Writers Association of America. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The following are the events of the year 1997 that happened world-wide throughout the sport of baseball. ... A grandfather clause is an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply to all future situations. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 23, 32, 37, 44, 49 Name New York Yankees (1913–present) New York Highlanders (1903-1912) Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902) (Also referred to as... Mariano Rivera (born November 29, 1969 in Panama City, Panama) is a Panamanian baseball player. ... 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The following are the baseball events of the year 2006 throughout the world. ... Major league affiliations National League (1962–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 14, 37, 41, 42 Name New York Mets (1962–present) Other nicknames The Amazin Mets, The Amazins, The Metropolitans, The Kings of Queens Ballpark Shea Stadium (1964–present) Polo Grounds (1962–1963) Major league... Citi Field will be the new Major League Baseball stadium for the New York Mets that is being built in Willets Point in the New York City borough of Queens as a replacement for Shea Stadium, which was constructed in 1964 adjacent to the site of the 1964 Worlds... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Ebbets Field was a Major League Baseball park located in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York. ... Fred Wilpon, a graduate of the University of Michigan is a baseball executive with the National League New York Mets of which he became a part-owner in 1980. ... Citigroup Inc. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation IPA: ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-born American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... Maria Owings Shriver (pronounced: ) (born November 6, 1955[1] in Chicago, Illinois) is an American journalist and the wife of California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and as such, the current First Lady of California. ... Conceived by First Lady Maria Shriver, the California Hall of Fame was established with The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts to honor legendary individuals and families who embody California’s innovative spirit and have made their mark on history. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts – home of the California Hall of Fame – is housed in the State Archives Building in Sacramento, one block from the State Capitol. ...

60th anniversary tribute

On April 15, 2007, the 60th anniversary of Robinson's major league debut, Major League Baseball invited players to wear the number 42 just for that day to commemorate Robinson. The gesture was the idea of Cincinnati Reds outfielder Ken Griffey, Jr., who first sought Rachel Robinson's permission, and, after receiving it, asked Commissioner Bud Selig for permission. Selig extended the invitation to all major league teams.[33] Ultimately, more than 200 players wore number 42, including the entire rosters of the Los Angeles Dodgers, Houston Astros, Philadelphia Phillies, St. Louis Cardinals, Milwaukee Brewers, and Pittsburgh Pirates.[34] Considering that the Phillies and the Cardinals had probably inflicted the most abuse on Robinson when he came up to the major leagues, it was considered quite a tribute that their entire teams chose to wear his number to honor him. is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Major league affiliations National League (1890–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 5, 8, 10, 13, 18, 20, 24, 42 Name Cincinnati Reds (1958–present) Cincinnati Redlegs (1953-1958) Cincinnati Reds (1882-1953) Cincinnati Red Stockings (1876-1882) Other nicknames The Redlegs, The Big Red Machine... George Kenneth Griffey, Jr. ... Rachel Robinson (1922-) was the wife of the famous African-American baseball player, Jackie Robinson, and founder of the non-profit Jackie Robinson Foundation. ... Allan Huber Bud Selig, Jr. ... Major league affiliations National League (1890–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 2, 4, 19, 20, 24, 32, 39, 42, 53 Name Los Angeles Dodgers (1958–present) Brooklyn Dodgers (1932-1957) Brooklyn Robins (1914-1931) Brooklyn Dodgers (1913) Brooklyn Trolley Dodgers (1911-1912) Brooklyn Superbas (1899... Major league affiliations National League (1962–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 5, 24, 25, 32, 33, 34, 40, 42, 49 Name Houston Astros (1965–present) Houston Colt . ... Major league affiliations National League (1883–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 14, 20, 32, 36, 42 Name Philadelphia Phillies (1884–present) Philadelphia Quakers (1883-1889) (Also referred to as Blue Jays 1943-1945 despite formal name remaining Phillies) Other nicknames The Phils, The Phightin Phils... Major league affiliations National League (1892–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 2, 6, 9, 14, 17, 20, 42, 42, 45, 85 Name St. ... Major league affiliations National League (1998–present) Central Division (1998–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 4, 19, 34, 42, 44 Name Milwaukee Brewers (1970–present) Seattle Pilots (1969) Other nicknames True Blue Brew Crew, The Brew Crew, The Crew, Beermakers Ballpark Miller Park (2001–present) County Stadium (1970–2000) Sick... This article is about the baseball team. ...


Cultural references

  • Jackie Robinson is a major character in Dan Gutman's novel Jackie & Me.

Cover of Jackie & Me Jackie & Me, published in 1999, is the second novel in the Baseball Card Adventures series by Dan Gutman. ...

See also

Below is a list of the first black players in Major League Baseball by team and chronological order. ... Hometown Heroes was a program sponsored by DHL. On September 27, 2006, Major League Baseball announced a list of players, one from each team, voted by MLB fans: † player spent his entire career with one team The Official Hometown Heroes Panel Orestes Destrade (ESPN and XM Satellite Radio broadcaster) Steve... African-Americans are a demographic minority in the United States. ... In the sport of baseball, a home run is the act of hitting the ball in such a manner, whether out of the park or in (see inside the park home run), that allows the batter to safely reach home and score in one play. ... Eric Davis hit for the cycle in 1989 In baseball, a player hits for the cycle when he hits a single, a double, a triple and a home run in the same game, though not necessarily in that order. ... The batting championship is awarded to the Major League Baseball player in each the American League and National League who has the highest batting average in a particular season. ... Major League Baseball recognizes stolen base champions in the American League and National League each season. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Rothe, p544
  2. ^ a b Williams, Michael W.- Editor. An African American Encyclopedia. 1993.
  3. ^ MLB.com
  4. ^ Bigelow, p225
  5. ^ a b Rampersad pp10-11
  6. ^ a b c http://www.jackierobinson.com/about/bio.html
  7. ^ Robinson, p9
  8. ^ Rampersad, p. 23
  9. ^ Rampersad, p35
  10. ^ Rampersad, p36
  11. ^ Rampersad, pp 36-37
  12. ^ Rampersad, p37
  13. ^ Rampersad, pp37-39
  14. ^ Rampersad, pp40-41
  15. ^ Rampersad, p47
  16. ^ Rampersad, pp50-53
  17. ^ Rampersad, p54
  18. ^ Rampersad, pp59-61
  19. ^ a b http://www.galegroup.com/free_resources/bhm/bio/robinson_j.htm
  20. ^ http://www.loc.gov/rr/mss/text/robinsnj.html
  21. ^ TheJournalofSportsHistory.org
  22. ^ Ken Burns' documentary, BASEBALL, Part 6, minute 120
  23. ^ Ken Burns' documentary, BASEBALL, Part 6, minute 122
  24. ^ http://www.baseballlibrary.com/baseballlibrary/ballplayers/R/Robinson_Jackie.stm
  25. ^ http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/history/robinson/index.htm
  26. ^ http://sports.espn.go.com/mlb/jackie/news/story?id=2828584
  27. ^ http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=882
  28. ^ http://www.nycroads.com/roads/jackie-robinson/
  29. ^ http://www.fulton.k12.ga.us/teacher/stratton/robinson2.html
  30. ^ http://www.robinson.cps.k12.il.us/
  31. ^ TIME 100: Jackie Robinson
  32. ^ "METS HONOR ROBINSON AT NEW HOME", New York Daily News, 2006-11-14. Retrieved on 2007-04-07. 
  33. ^ "Griffey, Jr., others to wear No. 42 as part of Jackie Robinson Day Tribute", MLB, 2007-04-05. Retrieved on 2007-04-07. 
  34. ^ "A Measure of Respect for Jackie Robinson Turns Into a Movement", New York Times, 2007-04-13. Retrieved on 2007-04-15. 

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Major League Baseball (MLB) is the highest level of play in professional baseball in North America. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Rampersad, Arnold. Jackie Robinson, a Biography, Alfred A. Knopf (New York), 1997. ISBN 0-679-44495-5
  • Tygiel, Jules. Baseball's Great Experiment, Oxford (USA), New York, ISBN 0195106199
  • Bigelow, Barbara Carlisle, ed. Contemporary Black Biography vol. 6. Gale Research Inc. 1994. ISBN 0-8103-8558-9
  • Moritz, Charles, ed. Current Biography Yearbook 1972, H.W. Wilson Co, New York, 1972. ISBN 0-8242-0493-X
  • Rothe, Anna, ed. Current Biography, Who's News and Why 1947, H.W. Wilson Co, New York, 1948.
  • MLB.com - http://newyork.yankees.mlb.com/NASApp/mlb/nyy/history/retired_numbers.jsp
  • Journal of Sports History - http://thejournalofsportshistory.org/history-of-baseball/jackie-robinson-a-triple-threat.html
  • Robinson, Jackie. I Never Had It Made. G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1972
  • Robinson, Sharon. Promises To Keep: How Jackie Robinson Changed America Scholastic, 2004.
  • Thorn, John. "Our Game" pp1-10 In Total Baseball: The Official Encyclopedia of Major League Baseball 7th ed. John Thorn et al eds. Total Sports Publishing, New York, 1992
  • Williams, Michael W.- Ed. An African American Encyclopedia 1993.
  • Frommer, Harvey. Jackie Robinson Watts Press, 1984.
  • SPORT magazine, October 1948.

Colophon of the publisher Alfred A. Knopf. ... This article is about the state. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... This article is about the state. ... The inaugural issue of SPORT magazine, September, 1946, depicting New York Yankees centrefielder Joe DiMaggio together with his son Joe Jr. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Persondata
NAME Robinson, Jackie
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Robinson, Jack Roosevelt (full name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION American baseball player
DATE OF BIRTH January 31, 1919(1919-01-31)
PLACE OF BIRTH Cairo, Georgia
DATE OF DEATH October 24, 1972
PLACE OF DEATH Stamford, Connecticut

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jackie Robinson - MSN Encarta (997 words)
Jackie Robinson (1919-1972), American athlete who became a civil rights icon when he broke the color barrier in major league baseball in 1947.
Robinson began his professional career in 1945 with the Kansas City Monarchs, one of the leading teams of the Negro Leagues.
Robinson starred in the motion picture The Jackie Robinson Story (1950) and was the author, with Alfred Duckett, of I Never Had It Made (1972).
Jackie Robinson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2230 words)
Robinson's honors at UCLA were impressive: for two years, he was the highest scorer in basketball competition in the Pacific Coast Conference, national champion long jumper, All-American football halfback and varsity baseball shortstop.
Robinson's debut at first base with the Brooklyn Dodgers on April 15, 1947, in which he batted 0 for 3, was one of the most closely watched events in baseball history, and a profound moment in the history of the U.S. civil rights movement.
Jackie Robinson was pronounced dead in Stamford, Connecticut on October 24, 1972 and was interred in the Cypress Hills Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York; the highway that goes through the cemetery (Interborough Parkway) has been renamed the Jackie Robinson Parkway.
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