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Encyclopedia > Jack the Ripper
Jack the Ripper

"A Suspicious Character," from the Illustrated London News for October 13, 1888 carrying the overall caption, "With the Vigilance Committee in the East End".
Background information
Birth name: Unknown
Alias(es): Saucy Jack
Born: Unknown
Died: Unknown
Cause of death: Unknown
Killings
Number of victims: 5 or more?
Country: UK Flag of the United Kingdom
Date apprehended: Not apprehended


Jack the Ripper is an alias given to an unidentified serial killer (or killers)[1] active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area and adjacent districts of London, England in the late 19th century. The name is taken from a letter sent to the Central News Agency by someone claiming to be the murderer. is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A serial killer is defined as a person who murders three or more people, in three or more separate events over a period of time. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Alias. ... Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. ... Whitechapel is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Belle Époque (French for Beautiful Era) was a period in European history that began during the late 19th century and lasted until World War I. Occurring during the time of the French Third Republic and the German Empire, the Belle Époque was considered a golden age as peace prevailed...


The victims were women allegedly earning income as prostitutes. The murders were perpetrated in public or semi-public places at night or towards the early morning. The victim's throat was cut, after which the body was mutilated. Theories suggest the victims were first strangled in order to silence them and to explain the lack of reported blood at the crime scenes. The removal of internal organs from three of the victims led some officials at the time of the murders to propose that the killer possessed anatomical or surgical knowledge.[2] Whore redirects here. ... A crime scene is a location where an illegal act took place, and comprises the area from which most of the physical evidence is retrieved by trained law enforcement personnel, CSIs or in rare circumstances forensic scientists. ...


Newspapers, whose circulation had been growing during this era,[3] bestowed widespread and enduring notoriety on the killer owing to the savagery of the attacks and the failure of the police in their attempts to capture the murderer, sometimes missing him at the crime scenes by mere minutes.[4][5]


Due to the lack of a confirmed identity for the killer, the legends surrounding the murders have become a combination of genuine historical research, folklore and exploitation. Over the years, many authors, historians, and amateur detectives have proposed theories regarding the identity (or identities) of the killer and his victims. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Exploitation means many different things. ... For the 1994 film, see Amateur (film). ... Gumshoe redirects here. ...

Contents

Background

Murder sites - Osborn Street (Emma Elizabeth Smith), George Yard (Martha Tabram), Durward Street (Mary Ann Nichols), Hanbury Street (Annie Chapman), Berner Street (Elizabeth Stride), Mitre Square (Catherine Eddowes), Dorset Street (Mary Jane Kelly).
Murder sites - Osborn Street (Emma Elizabeth Smith), George Yard (Martha Tabram), Durward Street (Mary Ann Nichols), Hanbury Street (Annie Chapman), Berner Street (Elizabeth Stride), Mitre Square (Catherine Eddowes), Dorset Street (Mary Jane Kelly).

During the mid-1800s, England experienced a rapid influx of primarily Irish immigrants, swelling the populations of both the largely poor English countryside and England's major cities. From 1882 onwards, Jewish refugees escaping the pogroms in tsarist Russia and eastern Europe added to the overcrowding and the already worsening work and housing conditions.[4] London, and in particular the East End and the civil parish of Whitechapel, became increasingly overcrowded resulting in the development of a massive economic underclass. This endemic poverty drove many women to prostitution. And in October 1888 the London Metropolitan Police estimated that there were twelve hundred prostitutes "of very low class" resident in Whitechapel and about sixty-two brothels.[6] The economic problems were accompanied by a steady rise in social tensions. Between 1886 and 1889 demonstrations by the hungry and unemployed were a permanent feature of London policing.[4] Emigrants Leave Ireland, engraving by Henry Doyle (1827-1892), from Mary Frances Cusacks Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868 // The Irish diaspora (Irish: Diaspóra na nGael) consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand... A shtetl (Yiddish: , diminutive form of Yiddish shtot שטאָט, town, pronounced very similarly to the South German diminutiveStädtle, little town) was typically a small town with a large Jewish population in pre-Holocaust Central and Eastern Europe. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... The term East End is most commonly used to refer to the East End of London. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Bloody Sunday 1887 Bloody Sunday, London, 13 November 1887, was the name given to a demonstration against coercion in Ireland and to demand the release from prison of MP William OBrien. ...


The majority of murders, and those most often attributed to "Jack the Ripper", all occurred in the latter half of 1888, though the series of brutal killings in Whitechapel persisted at least until 1891. A number of the murders entailed extremely gruesome acts, such as mutilation and evisceration, which were widely reported in the media. Rumours that the murders were connected intensified in September and October, when a series of extremely disturbing letters were received by various media outlets and Scotland Yard, purporting to take responsibility for some or all of the murders. One letter, received by George Lusk of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee, included a preserved human kidney. Due in large part to the extraordinarily brutal character of the murders, and to media treatment of the events, the public increasingly came to believe in a single serial killer and rapist terrorizing the residents of Whitechapel, nicknamed "Jack the Ripper" after the signature on a postcard received by the Central News Agency. Although the investigation was unable to conclusively connect the later killings to the murders of 1888, the legend of Jack the Ripper solidified. Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mutilation or maiming is an act or physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of the (human) body, usually causing death. ... Disembowelment is evisceration, or the removing of vital organs, usually from the abdomen. ... New Scotland Yard, London New Scotland Yard, it blowwsssss often referred to simply as Scotland Yard or The Yard, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible for policing Greater London (although not the City of London itself). ... The Whitechapel Vigilance Committee was a group of people that patroled the streets of London during the infamous Jack the Ripper murders of 1888. ...


Victims

The files kept by the Metropolitan police show that the investigation begun in 1888 eventually came to encompass eleven separate murders stretching from April 3, 1888, until February 13, 1891, known in the police docket as "the Whitechapel Murders." [7] In addition, at least seven other murders and violent attacks have been connected with Jack the Ripper by various authors and historians. Among the eleven murders actively investigated by the police, five are almost universally agreed upon as having been the work of a single serial killer. These are known collectively as the canonical five victims:
is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

  • Annie Chapman (maiden name Eliza Ann Smith, nicknamed "Dark Annie"), born c. September 1841 and killed on Saturday, September 8, 1888. Chapman's body was discovered about 6:00 in the morning lying on the ground near a doorway in the back yard of 29 Hanbury Street, Spitalfields. She was forty-seven years old, in poor health and destitute at the time of her death.
  • Elizabeth Stride (maiden name Elizabeth Gustafsdotter, nicknamed "Long Liz"), born c. November 27, 1843 in Sweden, and killed on Sunday, September 30, 1888. Stride's body was discovered close to 1:00 in the morning, lying on the ground in Dutfield's Yard, off Berner Street (since renamed Henriques Street) in Whitechapel. She was forty-four years old when she died.
  • Catherine Eddowes (used the aliases "Kate Conway" and "Mary Ann Kelly," from the surnames of her two common-law husbands Thomas Conway and John Kelly), born c. April 14, 1842, and killed on Sunday, September 30, 1888, on the same day as the previous victim, Elizabeth Stride. She was forty-six years old when she died. Ripperologists refer to this circumstance as the "double event." Her body was found in Mitre Square, in the City of London. Mutilation of Eddowes' body and the abstraction of her left kidney and part of her womb by her murderer bore the signature of a 'Jack the Ripper' killing.
  • Mary Jane Kelly (called herself "Marie Jeanette Kelly" after a trip to Paris, nicknamed "Ginger"), reportedly born c. 1863 either the city of Limerick or County Limerick, Munster, Ireland and killed on Friday, November 9, 1888. She was about twenty-five years old when she was killed. Kelly's gruesomely mutilated body was discovered shortly after 10:45 a.m. lying on the bed in the single room where she lived at 13 Miller's Court, off Dorset Street, Spitalfields.

Wanted poster - issued by the police during the 'autumn of terror' 1888.
Wanted poster - issued by the police during the 'autumn of terror' 1888.

The authority of this list rests on a number of authors' opinions but, historically, these have mainly been based on the report from Dr.Thomas Bond to Assistant Commissioner Sir Dr. Robert Anderson, and the private notes from 1894, of Sir Melville Macnaghten, Chief Constable of the Metropolitan Police Service Criminal Investigation Department.[4] Macnaghten did not join the force until the year after the murders, and his memorandum, that came to light in 1959, has been found to contain serious errors of fact about possible suspects. There is considerable disagreement as to the value of Bond's and Macnaghten's assessment of the number of victims. Some researchers have even posited that the series may not have been the work of a single murderer, but of an unknown number of killers acting independently. Authors Stewart P. Evans and Donald Rumbelow argue that the 'canonical five' is a "Ripper myth" and that the probable number of victims could range between three (Nichols, Chapman and Eddowes) and six (the previous three plus Stride, Kelly and Tabram) or even more. Bond's and Macnaghten's view of the case was not necessarily shared by the investigating officers (such as Inspector Frederick Abberline).[8] Mary Ann Polly Nichols is widely believed to be the first victim of the notorious unidentified serial killer Jack the Ripper, who killed and mutilated prostitutes in the Whitechapel area of London during the late summer and autumn of 1888. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Durward Street, looking west, in 2006. ... Durward Street, looking west, in 2006. ... Part of the front of the Royal London Hospital The Royal London Hospital, formerly the London Hospital, is a hospital in Whitechapel, London. ... Annie Chapman (September 1841 - September 8, 1888) is widely believed to be the second victim of the notorious unidentified serial killer Jack the Ripper, who killed and mutilated prostitutes in the Whitechapel area of London during the late summer and autumn of 1888. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... South side of Hanbury Street, showing #28 and #30. ... Christ Church, Spitalfields Spitalfields, an area in Tower Hamlets, east London near to Liverpool Street station and Brick Lane which gets its name from a contraction of hospital fields, as there used to be a major hospital in the area. ... Elizabeth Stride (Elisabeth Gustafsdotter) is believed to be the third victim of the notorious unidentified serial killer Jack the Ripper, who killed and mutilated prostitutes in the Whitechapel area of London during the late summer and autumn of 1888. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Henriques Street in 2006, looking south. ... Catharine (Kate) Eddowes (often spelled Catherine) is widely believed to be the fourth victim of the notorious unidentified serial killer Jack the Ripper, who killed and mutilated prostitutes in the Whitechapel area of London during the late summer and autumn of 1888. ... Common-law marriage (or common law marriage), sometimes called informal marriage or marriage by habit and repute is, historically, a form of interpersonal status in which a man and a woman are not legally married. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mitre Square. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the city. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Limerick Code: LK Area: 2,686 km² Population (2006) 183,863 (including Limerick City); 131,303 (without Limerick City) Website: www. ... Statistics Area: 24,607. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The former Dorset Street in 2006, with the murder site at left. ... Doctor means teacher in Latin. ... Tommy Bond as Butch during his second Our Gang tenure. ... Doctor means teacher in Latin. ... There have been several well-known people named Robert Anderson, including: Robert Anderson (businessman) (1803–1896) Scots-Canadian businessman. ... Sir Melville MacNaghten Sir Melville Leslie MacNaghten CBE, CB (June 16, 1853-May 12, 1921) was Assistant Commissioner (Crime) of the London Metropolitan Force from 1903-1913. ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the name currently used by the territorial police force which is responsible for Greater London other than the City of London (the responsibility of the City of London Police). ... Charles Vincent, founder of the Metropolitan Police CID The Criminal Investigation Department (CID) is the branch of all British Police and many other Commonwealth police forces to which plain clothes detectives belong. ... Frederick George Abberline (January 8, 1843 Blandford Forum, Dorset – December 10, 1929) was an inspector for the London Metropolitan Police and was a prominent police figure in the investigation into the Jack the Ripper murders. ...


Except for Stride (whose attack may have been interrupted), mutilations of the canonical five victims became continuously more severe as the series of murders proceeded. Nichols and Stride were not missing any organs, but Chapman's uterus was taken, and Eddowes had her uterus and a kidney carried away and her face mutilated. While only Kelly's heart was missing from her crime scene, many of her internal organs were removed and left in her room.


The 'canonical five' murders were generally perpetrated in the dark of night, on or close to a weekend, in a secluded site to which the public could gain access, and on a pattern of dates either at the end of a month or a week or so after. Yet every case differed from this pattern in some manner. Besides the differences already mentioned, Eddowes was the only victim killed within the City of London, though close to the boundary between the City and the metropolis. Nichols was the only victim to be found on an open street, albeit a dark and deserted one. Many sources state that Chapman was killed after the sun had started to rise, though that was not the opinion of the police or the doctors who examined the body.[9] Kelly's murder ended a six-week period of inactivity for the murderer. (A week elapsed between the Nichols and Chapman murders, and three between Chapman and the "double event.") Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ...


The large number of horrific attacks against women during this era adds some uncertainty as to exactly how many victims were killed by the same man. Most experts point to deep throat slashes, mutilations to the victim's abdomen and genital area, removal of internal organs and progressive facial mutilations as the distinctive features of Jack the Ripper's modus operandi. Modus operandi (often used in the abbreviated form MO) is a Latin phrase, approximately translated as mode of operation. ...


Other victims in the Whitechapel murder file

Six other Whitechapel murders were investigated by the London police at the time, two of which occurred before the 'canonical' five and four after. Some of these have been ascribed, by certain figures involved in the investigation, or by later authors, to have been victims of Jack the Ripper.


These two murders occured before the canonical five:

  • Emma Elizabeth Smith, born c. 1843, was attacked on Osborn Street, Whitechapel April 3, 1888, and a blunt object was inserted into her vagina, rupturing her perineum. She survived the attack and managed to walk back to her lodging house with the injuries. Friends brought her to a hospital where she told police that she was attacked by two or three men, one of whom was a teenager. She fell into a coma and died on April 5, 1888. This was the first "Whitechapel Murder," according to the book Jack the Ripper: Scotland Yard Investigates by Stewart Evans and Donald Rumbelow.[8]
  • Martha Tabram (name sometimes misspelled as Tabran; used the alias Emma Turner; maiden name Martha White), born c. May 10, 1849, and killed on August 7, 1888. She had a total of 39 stab wounds. Of the non-canonical Whitechapel murders, Tabram is named most often as another possible Ripper victim, owing to the evident lack of obvious motive, the geographical and periodic proximity to the canonical attacks, and the remarkable savagery of the attack. The main difficulty with including Tabram is that the killer used a somewhat different modus operandi (stabbing, rather than slashing the throat and then cutting), but it is now accepted that a killer's modus operandi can change, sometimes quite dramatically. Her body was found at George Yard Buildings, George Yard, Whitechapel.[8]

These four murders happened after the canonical five: Jack the Ripper is the pseudonym given to an unidentified serial killer active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area of London, England in the second half of 1888. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... In human anatomy, the perineum, also called the taint, or gooch, is generally defined as the surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Martha Tabram (May 10, 1849 - August 7, 1888) is considered by some to be a possible early victim of the notorious unidentified serial killer known as Jack the Ripper, who killed and mutilated prostitutes in the Whitechapel area of London. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Modus operandi (often used in the abbreviated form MO) is a Latin phrase, approximately translated as mode of operation. ...

  • Rose Mylett (true name probably Catherine Mylett, but was also known as Catherine Millett, Elizabeth "Drunken Lizzie" Davis, "Fair" Alice Downey, or simply "Fair Clara"), born c. 1862 and died on December 20, 1888. She was reportedly strangled "by a cord drawn tightly round the neck," though some investigators believed that she had accidentally suffocated herself on the collar of her dress while in a drunken stupor. Her body was found in Clarke's Yard, High Street, Poplar.
    The discovery of the Pinchin Street torso on September 10, 1889 prompted renewed speculation as to the identity of Jack the Ripper: cover of the September 21, 1889, issue of Puck magazine, by cartoonist Tom Merry.
    The discovery of the Pinchin Street torso on September 10, 1889 prompted renewed speculation as to the identity of Jack the Ripper: cover of the September 21, 1889, issue of Puck magazine, by cartoonist Tom Merry.
  • Alice McKenzie (nicknamed "Clay Pipe" Alice and sometimes used the alias Alice Bryant), a prostitute, born c. 1849 and killed on July 17, 1889. She reportedly died from "severance of the left carotid artery," but several minor bruises and cuts were found on the body. Her body was found in Castle Alley, Whitechapel. Police Commissioner James Monro initially believed this to be a Ripper murder and one of the pathologists examining the body, Dr Bond, agreed, though later writers have been more circumspect. Evans and Rumbelow suggest that the unknown murderer tried to make it look like a Ripper killing to deflect suspicion from himself.[8]
  • "The Pinchin Street Torso" - a headless and legless torso of a woman found under a railway arch in Pinchin Street, Whitechapel on September 10, 1889. The mutilations were similar to the body which was the subject of the "The Whitehall Mystery," though in this case the hands were not severed. It seems probable that the murder had been committed elsewhere and that parts of the dismembered body were dumped at the crime scene.[8]An unconfirmed speculation of the time was that the remains were of Lydia Hart, a prostitute who had recently disappeared. However she was soon located in a local infirmary where she was receiving medical treatment to cure the after effects of a "bit of a spree". "The Whitehall Mystery" and "The Pinchin Street Murder" have often been suggested to be the work of a serial killer, for which the nicknames "Torso Killer" or "Torso Murderer" have been suggested.[citation needed] Whether Jack the Ripper and the "Torso Killer" were the same person or separate serial killers of uncertain connection to each other (but active in the same area) has long been debated.[citation needed] The Pinchin Street murder prompted a revival of interest in the Ripper - manifested in an illustration from "Puck" showing the Ripper, from behind, looking in a mirror at alternate reflections embodying current speculation as to whom he might be - a doctor, a cleric, a woman, a Jew, a bandit or a policeman? [8]
  • Frances Coles (also known as Frances Coleman, Frances Hawkins and nicknamed "Carrotty Nell"), born c. 1865 and killed on February 13, 1891. Minor wounds on the back of the head suggest that she was thrown violently to the ground before her throat was cut. Otherwise there were no mutilations to the body. Her body was found under a railway arch at Swallow Gardens, Whitechapel. A man named James Sadler, seen earlier with her, was arrested by the police and charged with her murder, and was briefly thought to be the Ripper himself. However he was discharged from court due to lack of evidence on 3 March 1891. After this eleventh and last "Whitechapel Murder" the case was closed.[8]

is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Poplar is an area of the East End of London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (541x790, 139 KB)The cover of the September 21, 1889, issue of Puck magazine, featuring cartoonist Tom Merrys depiction of the unidentified Whitechapel murderer Jack the Ripper. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (541x790, 139 KB)The cover of the September 21, 1889, issue of Puck magazine, featuring cartoonist Tom Merrys depiction of the unidentified Whitechapel murderer Jack the Ripper. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The cover of the April 23, 1884 issue. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... James Monro CB (1838–1920) was a lawyer who became the first Assistant Commissioner (Crime) of the London Metropolitan Police and also served as Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis from 1888 to 1890. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jack the Ripper is the pseudonym given to an unidentified serial killer active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area of London, England in the second half of 1888. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Other murders

In addition to the eleven murders officially investigated by the Metropolitan police as part of the Ripper investigation, various Ripper historians have at times suggested a number of other contemporary murders as possibly being connected to the same serial killer. In some cases, the records are not clear if the murders had even occurred, or if the stories were fabricated later as a part of Ripper lore.


"Fairy Fay," a nickname for an unknown murder victim reportedly found on December 26, 1887 with "a stake thrust through her abdomen." It has been suggested[who?] that "Fairy Fay" was a creation of the press based upon confusion of the details of the murder of Emma Elizabeth Smith with a separate non-fatal attack the previous Christmas. The name of "Fairy Fay" does not appear for this alleged victim until many years after the murders, and it seems to have been taken from a verse of a popular song called Polly Wolly Doodle that starts "Fare thee well my fairy fay." There were no recorded murders in Whitechapel at or around Christmas 1886 or 1887, and later newspaper reports that included a Christmas 1887 killing conspicuously did not list the Smith murder. Most authors agree that "Fairy Fay" never existed.[10] is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Polly Wolly Doodle Polly Wolly Doodle was introduced by Daniel Decatur Emmetts Virginia Minstrels in the 1840s and is a popular childrens song today. ... by Sophie Anderson For other uses, see Fairy (disambiguation). ...


Annie Millwood, born c. 1850, reportedly the victim of an attack on February 25, 1888. She was admitted to hospital with "numerous stabs in the legs and lower part of the body." She was discharged from hospital but died from apparently natural causes on March 31, 1888.[10] is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Ada Wilson, reportedly the victim of an attack on March 28, 1888, resulting in two stabs in the neck. She survived the attack. is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Whitehall mystery of October 1888
Whitehall mystery of October 1888

"The Whitehall Mystery," a term coined for the headless torso of a woman found in the basement of the new Metropolitan Police headquarters being built in Whitehall on October 2, 1888. An arm belonging to the body had previously been discovered floating in the Thames near Pimlico, and one of the legs was subsequently discovered buried near where the torso was found. The other limbs and head were never recovered and the body never identified. Jack the Ripper is the pseudonym given to an unidentified serial killer active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area of London, England in the second half of 1888. ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the name currently used by the territorial police force which is responsible for Greater London other than the City of London (the responsibility of the City of London Police). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... Pimlico is a small area of central London in the City of Westminster that is primarily residential and well known for its collection of small hotels. ...


Annie Farmer, born c. 1848, reportedly was the victim of an attack on November 21, 1888. She survived with only a superficial cut on her throat, apparently caused by a blunt knife. Police suspected that the wound was self-inflicted and did not investigate the case further. is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Elizabeth Jackson, a prostitute whose various body parts were collected from the River Thames between May 31 and June 25, 1889. She was reportedly identified by scars she had had prior to her disappearance and apparent murder. Jack the Ripper is the pseudonym given to an unidentified serial killer active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area of London, England in the second half of 1888. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Carrie Brown (nicknamed "Shakespeare",[11] reportedly for quoting William Shakespeare's sonnets), born c. 1835 and killed April 24, 1891, in Manhattan, New York City. She was strangled with clothing and then mutilated with a knife. Her body was found with a large tear through her groin area and superficial cuts on her legs and back. No organs were removed from the scene, though an ovary was found upon the bed. Whether it was purposely removed or unintentionally dislodged during the mutilation is unknown. At the time, the murder was compared to those in Whitechapel though London police eventually ruled out any connection.[9] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets Dedication page from The Sonnets Shakespeares sonnets, or simply The Sonnets, is a collection of poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The term London Police would refer to one of two seperate police forces: City of London Police - The police force for the City of London. ...


Investigation

An illustration of Abberline from an 1888 newspaper
An illustration of Abberline from an 1888 newspaper

The surviving Whitechapel Murders police files allow a quite detailed view of investigative procedure in Victorian times. A large team of policemen were conducting house-to-house inquiries, lists of suspects were drawn up and many were interviewed, forensic material was collected and examined. A close reading of the investigation shows a basic process of identifying suspects, tracing them and deciding whether to examine them more closely or to cross them off the list. This is still the pattern of a major inquiry today.[12] The investigation was initially conducted by Whitechapel (H) Division C.I.D. headed by Detective Inspector Edmund Reid. After the Nichols murder, Detective Inspectors Frederick Abberline, Henry Moore, and Walter Andrews were sent from Central Office at Scotland Yard to assist. After the Eddowes murder, which occurred within the City of London, the City Police under Detective Inspector James McWilliam were also engaged. However overall direction of the murder enquiries was confused and hampered by the fact that the newly appointed head of the CID, Sir Robert Anderson, was on leave in Switzerland between September 7 and October 15, during which time Chapman, Stride and Eddowes were killed. This prompted the Chief Commissioner of the Met, Sir Charles Warren, to appoint Superintendent Donald Swanson to co-ordinate the enquiry from Scotland Yard. Swanson's notes on the case survive and are a valuable record of the investigation[4] Frederick George Abberline (January 8, 1843 Blandford Forum, Dorset – December 10, 1929) was an inspector for the London Metropolitan Police and was a prominent police figure in the investigation into the Jack the Ripper murders. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... CID may refer to: In criminal investigation: Criminal Investigation Department, the branch of all British Police and many other Commonwealth police forces to which plain clothes detectives belong Criminal Investigation Division, a United States federal law enforcement agency In Indian media: C.I.D., a 1956 Indian Hindi film C... Sir Robert Anderson Sir Robert Anderson, KCB (1841 - 1918) was a police official at Scotland Yard in the late 19th century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General Sir Charles Warren, GCMG, KCB, FRS, RE (7 February 1840–21 January 1927) was an officer in the British Royal Engineers, and in later life was Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, the head of the London Metropolitan Police, from 1886 to 1888, during the period of the Jack... New Scotland Yard, London New Scotland Yard, it blowwsssss often referred to simply as Scotland Yard or The Yard, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible for policing Greater London (although not the City of London itself). ...


Due, in part, to dissatisfaction with the police effort a group of volunteer citizens in London's East End called the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee also patrolled the streets of London looking for suspicious characters, petitioned the government to raise a reward for information about the killer, and hired private detectives to question witnesses separate from the police. The committee was led by George Lusk in 1888. Albert Bachert, in 1889, claimed to be in charge of that group or a similar group. The Whitechapel Vigilance Committee was a group of people that patroled the streets of London during the infamous Jack the Ripper murders of 1888. ...


Writing on the Wall

After the "double event" of the early morning of September 30, police searched the area near the crime scenes in an effort to locate a suspect, witnesses or evidence. At about 3:00 a.m., Constable Alfred Long discovered a bloodstained piece of an apron in the stairwell of a tenement on Goulston Street. The cloth was later confirmed as being a part of the apron worn by Catherine Eddowes. There was writing in white chalk on the wall above where the apron was found. Long reported that it read: is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the painter, see John Constable. ... Categories: Stub | House types ... For other uses, see Chalk (disambiguation). ...

"The Juwes are the men That Will not be Blamed for nothing."

Detective Daniel Halse (City of London Police), arriving in Goulston Street a short time later, took down the following version: "The Juwes are not the men that will be blamed for nothing." A 'copy' (according with Long's version) of the message was taken down and attached to a report from chief Commissioner Sir Charles Warren to the Home Office. Police Superintendent Thomas Arnold visited the scene and saw the graffiti. Later, in his report of 6 November to the Home Office, he claimed, that with the strong feeling against the Jews already existing, the message might have become the means of causing a riot: City Police Mounted Section officer The City of London Police is the Home Office police force responsible for the City of London, including the Middle and Inner Temple. ... Copying is the duplication of information, or an artifact, based only on an instance of that information or artifact, and not using the process that originally generated it. ...

"I beg to report that on the morning of 30th Sept. last my attention was called to some writing on the wall of the entrance to some dwellings No. 108 Goulston Street Whitechapel which consisted of the following words: "The Juews are not [the word 'not' being deleted] the men that will not be blamed for nothing", and knowing in consequence of suspicion having fallen upon a Jew named John Pizer alias 'Leather Apron', having committed a murder in Hanbury Street a short time previously, a strong feeling existed against the Jews generally, and as the building upon which the writing was found was situated in the midst of a locality inhabited principally by that sect, I was apprehensive that if the writing were left it would be the means of causing a riot and therefore considered it desirable that it should be removed having in view the fact that it was in such a position that it would have been rubbed by persons passing in & out of the building."[13]

Since the Nichols murder, rumours had been circulating in the East End that the killings were the work of a Jew dubbed "Leather Apron." Religious tensions were already high, and there had already been many near-riots. Arnold ordered a man to be standing by with a sponge to erase the graffiti, while he consulted Metropolitan Police Commissioner Sir Charles Warren. Covering the graffiti in order to allow time for a photographer to arrive was considered, but Arnold and Warren (who personally attended the scene) considered this to be too dangerous, and Warren later stated he "considered it desirable to obliterate the writing at once." General Sir Charles Warren, GCMG, KCB, FRS, RE (7 February 1840–21 January 1927) was an officer in the British Royal Engineers, and in later life was Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, the head of the London Metropolitan Police, from 1886 to 1888, during the period of the Jack...


While the writing was found in Metropolitan Police territory, the apron piece was from a victim killed in the City of London, which has a separate police service. Some officers disagreed with Arnold and Warren's decision, especially those representing the City of London Police, who thought the graffiti constituted part of a crime scene and should at least be photographed before being erased, but the message was wiped from the wall at approximately 5:30 a.m. Most contemporary police concluded that the writing of the graffiti was a semi-literate attack on the area's Jewish population. There is however disagreement as to the importance of the graffiti in the Ripper case. Several possible explanations have been suggested: Metropolitan Police redirects here. ... City Police Mounted Section officer The City of London Police is the Home Office police force responsible for the City of London, including the Middle and Inner Temple. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ...

  • Author Martin Fido notes that the graffiti included double negatives, a common feature of Cockney speech. He suggests that the graffiti might be translated into standard English as "The Jews are men who will not take responsibility for anything" and that the message was written by someone who believed he or she had been wronged by one of the many Jewish merchants or tradesmen in the area.
    Police 'copy' of the writing in Goulston Street, attached to Chief Commissioner Sir Charles Warren's report on 'the circumstances of the Mitre square murder.'.
    Police 'copy' of the writing in Goulston Street, attached to Chief Commissioner Sir Charles Warren's report on 'the circumstances of the Mitre square murder.'.
  • According to Historian Philip Sugden there are at least three permissible interpretations of this particular clue. "All three are feasible, not one capable of proof." The first is that the writing was not the work of the murderer at all. The apron piece was dropped by the writing, either by accident or design. The second would be to "take the murderer at his word" - A Jew incriminating himself and his people. The third interpretation was the one most favoured by Scotland Yard and Old Jewry: The chalk message was a deliberate subterfuge, designed to incriminate the Jews.

"But suppose the killer happened to throw the apron, quite fortuitously, down by the existing piece of graffiti ? In such a case we would be utterly wrong in according to the writing any significance whatsoever. Walter Dew was inclined to endorse this approach to the problem. (...) Constable Halse, on the other hand, saw it and thought it looked recent. And Chief Inspector Henry Moore and Sir Robert Anderson are both on record as having explicitly stated their belief that the message was written by the murderer"[14] Martin Fido (born October 18, 1939, Penzance, Cornwall, England) is a university teacher, true crime writer and broadcaster. ... A double negative occurs when two forms of negation are used in the same sentence. ... St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney is often used to refer to working-class people of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Copying is the duplication of information, or an artifact, based only on an instance of that information or artifact, and not using the process that originally generated it. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Sir Robert Anderson Sir Robert Anderson, KCB (1841 - 1918) was a police official at Scotland Yard in the late 19th century. ...

  • A contemporaneous explanation of the writing in Goulston Street was offered by Robert Donston Stephenson (20 April 1841–9 October 1916), a journalist and writer known to be interested in the occult and black magic. In an article (signed 'One Who Thinks He Knows') in the Pall Mall Gazette December 1st 1888, Stephenson concluded from the overall sentence construction, the double negative, the double designation "the juwes are the men", and the highly unusual "misspelling", that the Ripper most probably was of French-speaking origin.

"Why did the murderer spell the word Jews 'Juwes'? Was it that he was an uneducated Englishman who did not know how to spell the word; was he in reality an ignorant Jew, reckless of consequences and glorying in his deeds; or was he a foreigner, well accustomed to the English language, but who in the tremendous hurry of the moment unconsciously wrote the fatal word in his native tongue? (...) Juwes is a much too difficult word for an uneducated man to evolve on the spur of the moment, as any philologist will allow. Any ignorant Jew capable of spelling the rest of the sentence as correctly as he did, would know, certainly, how to spell the name of his own people. Therefore, only the last proposition remains, which we shall now show, in the most conclusive manner, to be the truth."[15] This is a list of proposed suspects in the Jack the Ripper murders that took place in London, England during 1888. ... French (le français, la langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...

  • Author Stephen Knight suggested that 'Juwes' referred not to "Jews", but to Jubela, Jubelo and Jubelum, the three killers of Hiram Abiff, a semi-legendary figure in Freemasonry, and furthermore, that the message was written by the killer (or killers) as part of a Masonic plot. There is, however, no evidence that anyone prior to Knight had ever referred to those three figures by the term 'Juwes'.[16]

Stephen Knight (September 26, 1951 at Hainault, Essex - 25 July 1985) was a British author. ... Hiram Abiff is an allegorical figure mentioned in Masonic ritual, who is figuratively the master of the construction of King Solomons Temple. ... Freemasons redirects here. ...

An Early Instance of "Profiling"

After the acquittal of Daniel M'Naghten in 1843, and the establishment of the M'Naghten rules, physicians became increasingly involved in determining whether defendants in murder cases were suffering from 'mental illness'. And the growing importance of the medical sciences during the same period also led to an increasing involvement by pathologists in the investigative process. After the murder of Catherine Eddowes, Assistant Commissioner Sir (Dr.) Robert Anderson requested police surgeon Dr. Thomas Bond to give his opinion, as significant uncertainty had arisen about the amount of surgical skill and knowledge possessed by the murderer (or murderers). Dr. Bond's report to Sir Robert Anderson is the earliest known copy of an offender profile. According to investigative psychologist David Canter, Dr. Bond's proposals would probably be accepted as thoughtful and intelligent by police forces today.[17] Bond based his assessment on his own examination of the most extensively mutilated victim and the post mortem notes from the four previous murders. This article is about the MNaghten case. ... The MNaghten Rules are used to establish insanity as an excuse to potential criminal liability, but the definitional criteria establish insanity in the legal and not the psychological sense. ... Catharine (Kate) Eddowes (often spelled Catherine) is widely believed to be the fourth victim of the notorious unidentified serial killer Jack the Ripper, who killed and mutilated prostitutes in the Whitechapel area of London during the late summer and autumn of 1888. ... Doctor means teacher in Latin. ... Offender profiling is a behavioral and investigative tool that helps investigators to profile an unknown subject (unsub) or offender(s). ... Offender profiling is a behavioral and investigative tool that helps investigators to profile an unknown subject (unsub) or offender(s). ... David Canter is a psychologist who pioneered offender profiling in Britain. ... An autopsy (also known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy or obduction) is a medical procedure that consists of a thorough examination performed on a corpse after death, to evaluate disease or injury that may be present and to determine the cause and manner of a persons death. ...

Official police photograph of the murder scene in Miller's Court No.13.
Official police photograph of the murder scene in Miller's Court No.13.

"All five murders no doubt were committed by the same hand. In the first four the throats appear to have been cut from left to right. In the last case, owing to the extensive mutilation it is impossible to say in what direction the fatal cut was made, but arterial blood was found on the wall in splashes close to where the woman's head must have been lying. All the circumstances surrounding the murders lead me to form the opinion that the women must have been lying down when murdered and in every case the throat was first cut."[18]. Image File history File links MaryJaneKelly_Ripper_100. ... Image File history File links MaryJaneKelly_Ripper_100. ...


Dr. Bond was strongly opposed to the idea that the murderer would possess any kind of scientific or anatomical knowledge, or even the technical knowledge of a butcher or horse slaughterer. In Bond's opinion he must have been a man of solitary habits, subject to "periodical attacks of homicidal and erotic mania"; the character of the mutilations possibly indicating 'satyriasis'. Dr. Bond also stated that "the homicidal impulse may have developed from a revengeful or brooding condition of the mind, or that Religious mania may have been the original disease". This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... Hypersexuality describes human sexual behavior at levels high enough to be considered clinically significant. ...


Letters to the police

Over the course of the Ripper murders, the police and newspapers received many thousands of letters regarding the case. Some were from well-intentioned persons offering advice for catching the killer. The vast majority of these were deemed useless and subsequently ignored.[19] Reading the newspaper: Brookgreen Gardens in Pawleys Island, South Carolina. ...


Perhaps more interesting were hundreds of letters which claimed to have been written by the killer himself. The vast majority of such letters are considered hoaxes. Many experts contend that none of them are genuine, but of the ones cited as perhaps genuine, either by period or modern authorities, three in particular are prominent: A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ...

  • The "Dear Boss" letter, dated September 25, postmarked and received September 27, 1888, by the Central News Agency, was forwarded to Scotland Yard on September 29. Initially it was considered a hoax, but when Eddowes was found three days after the letter's postmark with one ear partially cut off, the letter's promise to "clip the ladys [sic] ears off" gained attention. Police published the letter on October 1, hoping someone would recognise the handwriting, but nothing came of this effort. The name "Jack the Ripper" was first used in this letter and gained worldwide notoriety after its publication. Most of the letters that followed copied the tone of this one. After the murders, police officials contended the letter had been a hoax by a local journalist.[8]
    George Lusk, President of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee.
    George Lusk, President of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee.

The "Saucy Jacky" postcard, postmarked and received October 1, 1888, by the Central News Agency, had handwriting similar to the "Dear Boss" letter. It mentions that two victims — Stride and Eddowes — were killed very close to one another: "double event this time." It has been argued that the letter was mailed before the murders were publicised, making it unlikely that a crank would have such knowledge of the crime, though it was postmarked more than 24 hours after the killings took place, long after details were known by journalists and residents of the area. Police officials later claimed to have identified a specific journalist as the author of both this message and the earlier "Dear Boss" letter. The Dear Boss letter was a message dated September 25 allegedly written by the notorious Victorian serial killer known as Jack the Ripper. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An example of a postmark A postmark is a postal marking made on a letter, package, postcard or the like indicating the (more or less precise) date and time that the item was delivered into the care of the postal service. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... New Scotland Yard, London New Scotland Yard, it blowwsssss often referred to simply as Scotland Yard or The Yard, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible for policing Greater London (although not the City of London itself). ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (465x624, 127 KB) THe man who received the From Hell letter, one of numerous letters claiming to be from the 1888 Whitechapel murderer, dubbed Jack the Ripper by the press. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (465x624, 127 KB) THe man who received the From Hell letter, one of numerous letters claiming to be from the 1888 Whitechapel murderer, dubbed Jack the Ripper by the press. ... The Whitechapel Vigilance Committee was a group of people that patroled the streets of London during the infamous Jack the Ripper murders of 1888. ... Download high resolution version (678x972, 97 KB)The From Hell Letter postmarked 15 October 1888. ... Download high resolution version (678x972, 97 KB)The From Hell Letter postmarked 15 October 1888. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Crank is a pejorative term for a person who holds some belief which the vast majority of his contemporaries would consider false, clings to this belief in the face of all counterarguments or evidence presented to him. ...


The "From Hell" letter, also known as the "Lusk letter," postmarked October 15 and received by George Lusk of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee on October 16, 1888. Lusk opened a small box to discover half a human kidney, later said by a doctor to have been preserved in "spirits of wine" (ethanol). One of Eddowes' kidneys had been removed by the killer. The writer claimed that he had "fried and ate" the missing kidney half. There is some disagreement over the kidney: some contend it had belonged to Eddowes, while others argue it was "a macabre practical joke, and no more."[20] The From Hell letter is the name given to a letter mailed in 1888 by a man who claimed to be the killer known as Jack the Ripper. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Whitechapel Vigilance Committee was a group of people that patroled the streets of London during the infamous Jack the Ripper murders of 1888. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... An office cubicle with all the contents covered in aluminum foil. ...


Some sources list another letter, dated September 17, 1888, as the first message to use the Jack the Ripper name. Most experts believe this was a modern fake inserted into police records in the 20th century, long after the killings took place. They note that the letter has neither an official police stamp verifying the date it was received nor the initials of the investigator who would have examined it if it were ever considered as potential evidence. It is also not mentioned in any surviving police document of the time. is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Ongoing DNA tests on the still existing letters have yet to yield conclusive results. [21]


Modern perspectives

Investigative techniques and awareness have progressed greatly since 1888. Many valuable forensic science techniques taken for granted today were unknown to the Victorian-era Metropolitan Police. The value of interpreting motives of serial killers, the concept of criminal profiling, fingerprinting, and other such knowledge and intelligence that have developed were poorly understood if not altogether unknown. Whilst the investigation was not nearly as sophisticated as police work is today, the detectives' inquiry included interviewing witnesses and residents of the area, following up tips from the public, and other standard police procedures.[22] Common modern forensic investigation methods such as fingerprinting, DNA analysis and blood typing had not yet been developed.[23] Forensics redirects here. ... Metropolitan Police redirects here. ... Offender profiling is a behavioral and investigative tool that helps investigators to profile an unsub (unknown subject) or offenders. ... This article is about human fingerprints. ...


Media

Punch cartoon by John Tenniel (22 September 1888) criticising the police's alleged incompetence.
Punch cartoon by John Tenniel (22 September 1888) criticising the police's alleged incompetence.

The Ripper murders mark an important watershed in modern British life. Whilst not the first serial killer, Jack the Ripper's case was the first to create a worldwide media frenzy. Reforms to the Stamp Act in 1855 had enabled the publication of inexpensive newspapers with wider circulation. These mushroomed later in the Victorian era to include mass-circulation newspapers as cheap as a halfpenny, along with popular magazines such as the Illustrated Police News, making the Ripper the beneficiary of previously unparalleled publicity. This, combined with the fact that no one was ever convicted of the murders, created a legend that cast a shadow over later serial killers. Download high resolution version (743x1035, 115 KB)Cartoon criticising the police for their inability to find the Whitechapel murderer. ... Download high resolution version (743x1035, 115 KB)Cartoon criticising the police for their inability to find the Whitechapel murderer. ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... 1889 Self-portrait Caterpillar using a hookah. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A stamp act is a law enacted by a government that requires a tax to be paid on the transfer of certain documents. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ...


Some believe that the killer's nickname was invented by newspapermen to make for a more interesting story that could sell more papers. This became standard media practice with examples such as the Boston Strangler, the Green River Killer, the Axeman of New Orleans, the Beltway Sniper, and the Hillside Strangler, besides the derivative Yorkshire Ripper almost a hundred years later and the unnamed perpetrator of the "Thames Nude Murders" of the 1960s, whom the press dubbed Jack the Stripper. The Boston Strangler is the pseudonym given to Albert DeSalvo (September 3, 1930 - November 26, 1973), a serial killer active in Boston, Massachusetts (United States) in the early 1960s. ... Gary Leon Ridgway (born February 18, 1949), known as the Green River Killer, is one of the most prolific serial killers in American history. ... The Axeman of New Orleans was a serial killer active in New Orleans, Louisiana (and surrounding communities, including Gretna, Louisiana), from May 1918 to October 1919. ... Locations of the 15 sniper attacks numbered chronologically. ... The Hillside Strangler is the media epithet for two men, Kenneth Bianchi and Angelo Buono, cousins who were convicted of kidnapping, raping, torturing, and killing girls and women ranging in age from twelve to twenty-eight years old during a four-month period from late 1977 to early 1978 in... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Jack the Stripper was the nickname given to an unknown serial killer responsible for what came to be known as the London Nude Murders (also known as the Hammersmith Murders or Hammersmith Nudes case), from 1964-1965. ...


The poor of the East End had long been ignored by affluent society, but the nature of the murders and of the victims forcibly drew attention to their living conditions. This attention enabled social reformers of the time to finally gain the support of the "respectable classes." A letter from George Bernard Shaw to the Star newspaper commented sarcastically on these sudden concerns of the press:[24] George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ...

Whilst we Social Democrats were wasting our time on education, agitation and organization, some independent genius has taken the matter in hand, and by simply murdering and disembowelling four women, converted the proprietary press to an inept sort of communism.

Suspects

theories about the identity and profession of Jack the Ripper have been advanced. None have been entirely persuasive. Many suspects have been proposed as the unidentified serial killer or killers, given the alias Jack the Ripper, responsible for the murders that took place in London, England, during 1888 (and perhaps other years, depending upon which victims were killed by the same hand). ...


Jack the Ripper in popular culture

Further information: Jack the Ripper fiction

Jack the Ripper has been featured in a number of works of fiction and in popular culture, either as the central character or in a more peripheral role. Jack the Ripper has been featured in a number of works of fiction, either as the central character or in a more peripheral role. ...


At the time of the murders, a theatrical version of Robert Louis Stevenson's book Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde was being performed. The subject matter of horrific murder in the London streets drew much attention, even leading the star of the show to be accused by some members of the public of being the Ripper himself, although this theory was never taken seriously by the police.[25] Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850–December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet and travel writer, and a representative of neo-romanticism in English literature. ... For other uses, see Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (disambiguation). ... Mansfield was well known as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ...


The 1976 Judas Priest album, Sad Wings of Destiny features a song about Jack the Ripper entitled "The Ripper." For other uses, see Judas priest (curse). ... Sad Wings of Destiny is the second album by the British heavy metal group Judas Priest, released in 1976. ...


In 2001, Jack the Ripper was the subject of the Hughes' Brothers movie From Hell, starring Johnny Depp, Ian Holm, and Heather Graham. It was based upon the graphic novel of the same title by Alan Moore and Eddie Campbell. From Hell is a graphic novel by writer Alan Moore and artist Eddie Campbell speculating upon the identity and motives of Jack the Ripper. ... John Christopher Depp II[1] (born June 9, 1963) is an American actor, best known for his frequent portrayals of offbeat and eccentric characters such as Jack Sparrow in the Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy and the titular character of Tim Burtons Edward Scissorhands. ... Sir Ian Holm Sir Ian Holm CBE (born 12 September 1931), born as Ian Holm Cuthbert, is an English actor. ... For the author, see Heather Graham Pozzessere. ...


In 2006, Jack the Ripper was selected by the BBC History Magazine and its readers as the worst Briton in history.[26] BBC History is a magazine devoted to history enthusiasts of all levels of knowledge and interest. ... A list of the worst Britons in history, according to ten English historians, was compiled by the BBC History Magazine in late 2005. ...


The legend of the Ripper is still promoted in the East End of London with many guided tours of the murder sites.[6] The Ten Bells, a Victorian pub in Commercial Street that had been frequented by Jack the Ripper's victims, was the focus of such tours for many years. To capitalise on this business, the owners changed its name to the "Jack the Ripper" in the 1960s, but following protests by feminists and others, the pub returned to its old name.[27] Commercial Street is road in central London that runs north to south from Shoreditch to Aldgate. ...


To date more than 200 works of non-fiction have been published which deal exclusively with the Jack the Ripper murders,[28] making it one of the most written-about true-crime subjects of the past century. Six periodicals about Jack the Ripper have been introduced since the early 1990s: Ripperana (1992-present), Ripperologist (1994-present, electronic format only since 2005), the Whitechapel Journal (1997–2000), Ripper Notes (1999-present), Ripperoo (2000–2003), and the The Whitechapel Society (2005-present).[29]


See also

Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. ... Jack the Stripper was the nickname given to an unknown serial killer responsible for what came to be known as the London Nude Murders (also known as the Hammersmith Murders or Hammersmith Nudes case), from 1964-1965. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Peter Sutcliffe (born June 2, 1946), infamous as the Yorkshire Ripper, was convicted in 1981 of the murders of thirteen women and attacks on seven more from 1975 to 1980. ... The Blackout Ripper was a serial killer, Royal Air Force officer-in-training Gordon Frederick Cummins. ... The Servant Girl Annihilator is the given name of a notorious serial killer or killers who terrorized Austin, TX in 1884-1885. ... A serial killer is defined as a person who murders three or more people, in three or more separate events over a period of time. ...

References

  1. ^ FBI's Jack the Ripper web page
  2. ^ Stewart P. Evans & Keith Skinner (2000), The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Companion ISBN 0786707682
  3. ^ L. Perry Curtis, Jr. (2001) Jack the Ripper and the London Press ISBN 0300088728
  4. ^ a b c d e Stewart P. Evans & Donald Rumbelow (2006) Jack the Ripper: Scotland Yard Investigates ISBN 0750942282
  5. ^ Philip Sugden (1995) The Complete History of Jack the Ripper ISBN 0786702761
  6. ^ a b Donald Rumbelow (2004) The Complete Jack the Ripper: 12. Penguin
  7. ^ The Metropolitan Police history of Jack the Ripper
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Stewart Evans and Donald Rumbelow (2006) Jack the Ripper: Scotland Yard Investigates
  9. ^ a b Wolf Vanderlinden, "'Considerable Doubt' and the Death of Annie Chapman", Ripper Notes #22, ISBN 0975912933
  10. ^ a b Paul Begg (2004) Jack the Ripper: The Facts 21-25 ISBN 1861056877
  11. ^ Her nickname is often, mistakenly given as Old Shakespeare, but recent research has shown that it was simply Shakespeare when she was alive, and the Old part got tacked on years later in a news report that was not using "old" as part of her nickname but as a general descriptor. Later sources mentioning Old are in error. See [1]
  12. ^ David Canter: Criminal Shadows: Inside the Mind of the Serial Killer, p.12-13. ISBN 0 00 255215 9
  13. ^ Stewart P. Evans & Keith Skinner: The Ultimate Jack The Ripper Sourcebook, p. 213
  14. ^ Philip Sugden, The Complete History of Jack The Ripper, p. 254-55
  15. ^ Pall Mall Gazette, December 1st 1888.
  16. ^ Stephen Knight (1976) Jack the Ripper: The Final Solution
  17. ^ David Canter: Criminal Shadows: Inside the Mind of the Serial Killer, p. 5-6. ISBN 0 00 255215 9
  18. ^ Stewart P. Evans & Keith Skinner: The Ultimate Jack The Ripper Sourcebook, p. 399-402
  19. ^ Stewart Evans and Keith Skinner (2001) Jack the Ripper: Letters from Hell
  20. ^ DiGrazia, Christopher-Michael (March, 2000). "Another Look at the Lusk Kidney". Ripper Notes. Retrieved on 2007-10-19. 
  21. ^ "Was it Jill the Ripper?" at News.com.au
  22. ^ Robin Odell (2006) Ripperology, ISBN 0873388615
  23. ^ Alan Moss & Keith Skinner, The Scotland Yard Files (2006), ISBN 1903365880
  24. ^ Stephen P. Ryder, Public Reactions to Jack the Ripper: Letters to the Editor August - December 1888 (2006) ISBN 0975912976
  25. ^ Martin A. Danahay & Alex Chisholm, Jekyll and Hyde Dramatized (2005) ISBN 0786418702
  26. ^ "Jack the Ripper is 'worst Briton'" at BBC News
  27. ^ William Taylor (2000) This Bright Field: a Travel Book in One Place: 83-92
  28. ^ Casebook: Jack the Ripper's list of Ripper-specific non-fiction books
  29. ^ Casebook: Jack the Ripper list of Ripper periodicals

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Additional reading

  • The Complete History of Jack the Ripper by Philip Sugden, (2002) ISBN 0-7867-0276-1
  • The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Sourcebook by Stewart P. Evans and Keith Skinner, (2002) ISBN 0-7867-0768-2
  • Jack the Ripper: Scotland Yard Investigates by Stewart P. Evans and Donald Rumbelow, (2006) ISBN 0-7509-4228-2
  • Jack The Ripper & The London Press by L. Perry Curtis, Jr. (2001) ISBN 0-300-08872-8
  • Jack the Ripper: The Facts by Paul Begg, (2004) ISBN 1-86105-687-7
  • The Complete Jack the Ripper by Donald Rumbelow, (Revised edition 2005) ISBN 0-425-11869-X
  • Ripperology by Robin Odell, (2006) ISBN 0-87338-861-5
  • The Jack the Ripper A-Z by Paul Begg, Martin Fido and Keith Skinner, (1996) ISBN 0-7472-5522-9
  • The Mammoth Book of Jack the Ripper (1999) edited by Maxim Jakubowski and Nathan Braund, ISBN 0-7867-0626-0
  • Jack the Ripper: Letters from Hell (2001) by Stewart P. Evans and Keith Skinner. Sutton: Stroud. ISBN 0-7509-2549-3

Martin Fido (born October 18, 1939, Penzance, Cornwall, England) is a university teacher, true crime writer and broadcaster. ... A science fiction and academical writer, born in England by russian and polish parents, but raised in France. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Casebook: Jack the Ripper has an extensive collection of contemporary newspaper reports related to the murders as well as articles by modern authors.
  • The Metropolitan Police history of Jack the Ripper discusses the investigation into the killings.
  • Information on the "Jack the Ripper and the East End" exhibit at London's Museum in Docklands that runs 15 May - 2 November, 2008.
  • The National Archives - Jack the Ripper holds images and transcripts of letters claiming to be from Jack the Ripper.
  • Whitechapel Society 1888 is a social organization dedicated to the Ripper case. It holds bimonthly meetings in London and has its own newsletter.
  • Jack the Ripper History A site that looks at the history of the murders and puts them into the social context of the era in which they occurred.

The Museum in Docklands at night, January 2005 The Museum in Docklands, which is an offshoot of the Museum of London, tells the story of Londons Docklands. ... [[Media:Italic textLondon has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... [[Media:Italic textLondon has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... [[Media:Italic textLondon has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... The City of Westminster is a borough of London, England with city status. ... The County of London was an administrative county and ceremonial county of England from 1889 to 1965. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The history of local government in London, England can be broken down into a number of periods: History of local government in the United Kingdom History of London ^ a b Barlow, I., Metropolitan Government, (1991) ^ Saint, A., Politics and the people of London: the London County Council (1889-1965), (1989... The Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) was the principal instrument of London-wide government from 1855 until the establishment of the London County Council in 1889. ... London County Council emblem is still seen today on buildings, especially housing, from that era London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London from 1889 until 1965, when it was replaced by the Greater London Council. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) is the city-wide governing body for London, England. ... The London Assembly is an elected body that supervises the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... This article is about the elected mayor of Greater London. ... The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler (also spelt Tighler) killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... Michael Faraday giving his card to Father Thames, caricature commenting on a letter of Faradays on the state of the river in the Times in Summer 1855 The Great Stink or The Big Stink was a time in the summer of 1858 during which the smell of untreated sewage... The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park 1851. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Swinging London is a catchall term applied to a variety of dynamic cultural trends in the United Kingdom (centred in London) in the second half of the 1960s. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... There have been two London Olympics (London hosting the Olympic Games), in 1908 and 1948, with a third scheduled for 2012. ... The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IV Olympiad, were held in 1908 in London, England. ... The Games of the XIV Olympiad were held in 1948 at Wembley Stadium in London, England. ... London 2012 redirects here. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, on the north bank of the River Thames. ... The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see London Bridge (disambiguation). ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The Clock Tower, colloquially known as Big Ben (a name that correctly refers to the main bell) Big Ben redirects here. ... The Monument, London to commemorate the Great Fire of London, designed by Sir Christopher Wren The viewing platform The Monument seen from the ground The Monument to the Fire of London, more commonly known as The Monument, is a 61-metre (202-foot) tall stone Roman doric column in the... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... Coat of arms of the City of London Corporation as shown on Blackfriars station. ... Not to be confused with Mayor of London. ... The Guildhall The Guildhall complex in c. ... Livery Companies are trade associations based in the City of London. ... In 1747, the Lord Mayor went to the City of Westminster on a barge via the River Thames. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... 19th Century depiction of the Bow Street Magistrates Court, to which the Bow Street Runners were attached. ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the name currently used by the territorial police force which is responsible for Greater London other than the City of London (the responsibility of the City of London Police). ... The London Ambulance Service (LAS) is the largest ambulance service in the world that does not directly charge its patients for its services. ... The London Fire Brigade (LFB) is the statutory fire and rescue service for London, England. ... The new Abbey Mills Pumping Station The original Abbey Mills pumping station The London sewerage system is part of the water infrastructure serving London. ... The London Underground is a rapid transit system that serves a large part of Greater London and some neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. ...


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